Amazon Redshift Interview Questions and Answers

Amazon Redshift Interview Questions and Answers

Last updated on 04th Jul 2020BlogInterview Questions

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These Amazon Redshift Interview Questions have been designed specially to get you acquainted with the nature of questions you may encounter during your interview for the subject ofAmazon Redshift . As per my experience good interviewers hardly plan to ask any particular question during your interview, normally questions start with some basic concept of the subject and later they continue based on further discussion and what you answer.we are going to cover top 100Amazon Redshift  Interview questions along with their detailed answers. We will be coveringAmazon Redshift  scenario based interview questions,Amazon Redshift  interview questions for freshers as well asAmazon Redshift  interview questions and answers for experienced. 

1. What is Amazon Redshift ?

Ans:

AWS Redshift is a Cloud-based data warehouse service. Redshift is a petabyte scale, powerful and fully managed relational data warehousing service.

An Amazon Redshift data warehouse is a collection of computing resources called nodes, which are organized into a group called a cluster. Each cluster runs an Amazon Redshift engine and contains one or more databases. Amazon Redshift provides efficient storage and faster database efficiency through specific properties such as massively parallel processing, columnar data storage, and multiple encoding schemes for data compression. Redshift can connect to JDBC client applications with ODBC connections. It is based on the PostgreSQL standard.

2.  Where and When Redshift can be used?

Ans:

Big customers are heading towards service in the data warehouse today. Redshift can be used in different sectors, business use cases seeking a data warehouse cloud service with features such as cost savings, efficient dynamic query engine, security etc.

Clients looking for moving from on premise to cloud model, PaaS model. Traditional setup of servers, data centers for a company was a headache. This requires upfront planning, estimation, prediction of servers, type of servers etc. and eventually takes months to come to a conclusion. Any wrong estimation or decision can lead to over or short of the estimated capacity and financial loss or short of resources. Following are business use cases or industries where Redshift can be used:-

  • Consolidation of accounting data : Redshift can be used to consolidate the data to see the company’s financial position at company level. Redshift math, analytic, date functions along with user in-built functions to derive various formula and complex customized calculations with optimized performance are very valuable features for accounting
  • Build Data Lake for pricing data : Redshift’s columnar storage is best fit for time series data.
  • Supply chain management : To query and analyze huge volume of data feature like parallel processing with powerful node types make Redshift a good option

3. What is a data warehouse and how does AWS Redshift helps?

Ans:

A data warehouse is designed as a warehouse where the data from the systems and other sources generated by the organization are collected and processed.

At high level data warehouse has three-tier architecture:

  • In the bottom tier, we have the tools which cleanse and collect the data.
  • In the middle level, we have tools to transform the data using the Online Analytical Processing Server.
  • At the top level, we have different tools where data analysis and data mining are carried out at the front end.

As data grows continuously in an organization and the company constantly has to update its expensive storage servers. Here AWS Redshift is generated in the cloud-based warehouses offered by Amazon where businesses store their data.

4. What are the benefits of Amazon Redshift ?

Ans:

AWS Redshift has below main benefits compared to other options :

  • AWS Redshift is easy to operate : you can find a choice to build a cluster in the AWS Redshift Console. Only press and leave the rest on the Redshift computer program. Just complete the correct information and start the cluster. The cluster is now ready to be used, for example to control, track and scale Redshift.
  • Cost Effective: Because there is no need to set up, the cost of this warehouse is reduced to 1/10th.
  • Scaling of Warehouse is very easy: You just have to resize the cluster size by increasing the number of compute nodes.
  • High performance: It uses such techniques such as column storage and large simultaneous processing techniques to produce high efficiency and responsiveness times.

6. Does Amazon support region based services on all services? 

Ans:

No, it is not providing region-specific usage on all its services. But most of the services are region-based. 

7. What is EBS in AWS?

Ans:

Elastic block storage (EBS) is a storage system that is used to store persistent data. EBS is designed to provide block-level storage volumes and to use EC2 instances for both transactions and throughput intensive workloads at any scale. 

8. How many AWS services are there in 2020?

Ans:

As of September 2019, the AWS Serverless Application repository is available in the AWS GovCloud (US-East) region. With this service, the availability of services is increased to a total of 18 AWS regions across North America, South America, the EU, and the Asia Pacific. 

9. Which AWS region is the cheapest?

Ans:

The US standard is the cheapest region; it is also the most established AWS region. 

10. What is the maximum size of an S3 bucket?

Ans:

The maximum size of an S3 bucket is 5 terabytes.

11. What are the most popular AWS Services?

Ans:

Following are the most popular AWS Services:

  • Amazon S3
  • AWS Lambda
  • Amazon Glacier
  • Amazon EC2
  • Amazon SNS
  • Amazon CloudFront
  • Amazon EBS
  • Amazon Kinesis
  • Amazon VPC
  • Amazon SQ 

12. Is AWS RDS free?

Ans:

Yes, AWS RDS is a free tier. RDS helps the AWS customers to get started with the management database service in the cloud for free.  

13. Is Amazon S3 a global service?

Ans:

Yes, Amazon S3 is a global service. It provides object storage through the web interface and it uses the Amazon scalable storage infrastructure to run its global e-commerce network.

14. What are the benefits of AWS?

Ans:

AWS provides services to its users at a low cost. Amazon web services are easy to use and the user should not worry about security, servers, and databases. Amazon web services have several benefits which make users rely on them.  

15. What is Amazon Web Services?

Ans:

AWS stands for Amazon Web Services, which is a cloud computing platform. It is designed in such a way that it provides cloud services in the form of small building blocks, and these blocks help create and deploy various types of applications in the cloud. These sequences of small blocks are integrated to deliver the services in a highly scalable manner. 

16. What are the Main Components of AWS?  

Ans:

The Key Components of AWS are:  

  • Simple Email Service: It allows you to send emails with the help of regular SMTP or by using a restful API call   
  • Route 53: It’s a DNS web service.
  • Simple Storage Device S3: It is a widely used storage device service in AWS Identity and Access Management 
  • Elastic compute cloud( EC2): It acts as an on-demand computing resource for hosting applications. EC2 is very helpful in time of uncertain workloads. 
  • Elastic Block Store: It allows you to store constant volumes of data which is integrated with EC2 and enables you to data persist. 
  • Cloud watch: It allows you to watch the critical areas of the AWS with which you can even set a reminder for troubleshooting. 

17. Explain what S3 is all about?

Ans:

S3 is the abbreviation for a simple storage service. It is used for storing and retrieving data at any time and anywhere on the web. S3 makes web-scale computing easier for developers. The payment mode of S3 is available on a pay as you go basis.  

18. What is the relationship between an instance and AMI? 

Ans:

Using a single AMI, you can download as many instances as you can. An instance type is used to define the hardware of the host computer for your situation. Each instance is unique and provides the facilities in computational and storage capabilities. Once you install an instance, it looks similar to a traditional host with which we can interact in the same way we do with a computer.  

19. How do we execute sql files on Redshift?

Ans:

You can be done this job by using a simple Python script running on an EC2 to set up a JDBC connection to Redshift. When it is done, execute the queries in the your.SQL file

20. How to connect a private Redshift cluster?

Ans:

By selecting the option NO, you access for your private IP address within the VPC. Bu doing this, you execute the public IP address. Now, the way of its accessing is through the VPC.

One more method most of the people use to connect to a private database is by using the port forwarding by a Bastion server

21. What is the redshift spectrum?

Ans:

Redshift Spectrum is one of the popular features of Amazon web services. It allows you to do complex analysis of data that is stored in AWS cloud faster. The redshift spectrum is perfect for a data analyst who is performing on SQL queries in the bucket of Amazon S3. For the purpose of analysis, one can easily load data to the cluster of Amazon redshift from Amazon S3. The two major reasons for using the redshift spectrum are, it is budget-friendly as the pricing is dependable on the size of the cluster and the efforts in loading data are a bit less than any other source. If we talk about the spectrum of redshift it is a kind of bridge for providing an interface between redshift and S3 data.

22. What problems have you faced while working with Amazon Redshift?

Ans:

  • Majority of the people facing the problem of the queries which are very slow and take a lot of time answering it.
  • Another problem that is seemed is on the dashboard. The dashboard is too slow.
  • Another problem in the Amazon Redshift is “black box”. It is very difficult to observe ‘what’s going on’.

23. What are clusters in Redshift? How do I create and delete a cluster in AWS redshift ?

Ans:

Computing resources in Amazon Redshift data warehouse are called nodes which are further arranged in a group known as a cluster.

This cluster contains at least one database and it works on Amazon Redshift engine.

24. Explain what AWS is?

Ans:

AWS stands for Amazon Web Service; it is a collection of remote computing services also known as a cloud computing platform.  This new realm of cloud computing is also known as IaaS or Infrastructure as a Service.

25. Mention what the key components of AWS are?

Ans:

The key components of AWS are

  • Route 53:A DNS web service
  • Simple E-mail Service:It allows sending e-mail using RESTFUL API call or via regular SMTP
  • Identity and Access Management:It provides enhanced security and identity management for your AWS account
  • Simple Storage Device or (S3):It is a storage device and the most widely used AWS service
  • Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2): It provides on-demand computing resources for hosting applications. It is handy in case of unpredictable workloads
  • Elastic Block Store (EBS):It offers persistent storage volumes that attach to EC2 to allow you to persist data past the lifespan of a single Amazon EC2 instance
  • CloudWatch: To monitor AWS resources, It allows administrators to view and collect key Also, one can set a notification alarm in case of trouble.

26. Explain what S3 is?

Ans:

S3 stands for Simple Storage Service. You can use the S3 interface to store and retrieve any amount of data, at any time and from anywhere on the web.  For S3, the payment model is “pay as you go.”

27. What is AMI?

Ans:

AMI stands for Amazon Machine Image.  It’s a template that provides the information (an operating system, an application server, and applications) required to launch an instance, which is a copy of the AMI running as a virtual server in the cloud.  You can launch instances from as many different AMIs as you need.

28. Mention what the relationship between an instance and AMI is?

Ans:

From a single AMI, you can launch multiple types of instances.  An instance type defines the hardware of the host computer used for your instance. Each instance type provides different computer and memory capabilities.  Once you launch an instance, it looks like a traditional host, and we can interact with it as we would with any computer.

29. What does an AMI include?

Ans:

An AMI includes the following things

  • A template for the root volume for the instance
  • Launch permissions decide which AWS accounts can avail the AMI to launch instances
  • A block device mapping that determines the volumes to attach to the instance when it is launched

30. How can you send a request to Amazon S3?

Ans:

Amazon S3 is a REST service, and you can send a request by using the REST API or the AWS SDK wrapper libraries that wrap the underlying Amazon S3 REST API.

31. Mention what the difference between Amazon S3 and EC2 is?

Ans:

The difference between EC2 and Amazon S3 is that

EC2S3
It is a cloud web service used for hosting your applicationIt is a data storage system where any amount of data can be stored
It is like a huge computer machine which can run either Linux or Windows and can handle application like PHP, Python, Apache or any databasesIt has a REST interface and uses secure HMAC-SHA1 authentication keys

32. How many buckets can you create in AWS by default?

Ans:

By default, you can create up to 100 buckets in each of your AWS accounts.

33. Explain can you vertically scale an Amazon instance? How?

Ans:

Yes, you can vertically scale on Amazon instance. For that

  • Spin up a new larger instance than the one you are currently running
  • Pause that instance and detach the root webs volume from the server and discard
  • Then stop your live instance and detach its root volume
  • Note the unique device ID and attach that root volume to your new server
  • And start it again

34. Explain what T2 instances are?

Ans:

T2 instances are designed to provide moderate baseline performance and the capability to burst to higher performance as required by the workload.

35. In VPC with private and public subnets, database servers should ideally be launched into which subnet?

Ans:

With private and public subnets in VPC, database servers should ideally launch into private subnets.

36. Mention what the security best practices for Amazon EC2 are?

Ans:

For secure Amazon EC2 best practices, follow the following steps

  • Use AWS identity and access management to control access to your AWS resources
  • Restrict access by allowing only trusted hosts or networks to access ports on your instance
  • Review the rules in your security groups regularly
  • Only open up permissions that you require
  • Disable password-based login, for example, launched from your AMI

37. Explain how the buffer is used in Amazon web services?

Ans:

The buffer is used to make the system more robust to manage traffic or load by synchronizing different components.  Usually, components receive and process the requests in an unbalanced way. With the help of a buffer, the components will be balanced and will work at the same speed to provide faster services.

38. What are key-pairs in AWS?

Ans:

Key-pairs are secure login information for your virtual machines. To connect to the instances, you can use key-pairs which contain a public-key and private-key.

39. What are the different types of instances?

Ans:

Following are the types of instances:

  • General purpose
  • Computer Optimized
  • Memory Optimized
  • Storage Optimized
  • Accelerated Computing

40. Is the property of broadcast or multicast supported by Amazon VPC?

Ans:

  No, currently Amazon VPI does not provide support for broadcast or multicast.

41. How many Elastic IPs are allowed to be created by AWS?

Ans:

5 VPC Elastic IP addresses are allowed for each AWS account.

42. Explain default storage class in S3

Ans:

The default storage class is a Standard frequently accessed.

43. What are the roles?

Ans:

Roles are used to providing permissions to entities which you can trust within your AWS account. Roles are very similar to users. However,  with roles, you do not require to create any username and password to work with the resources.

44 What are the edge locations?

Ans:

Edge location is the area where the contents will be cached. So, when a user is trying to accessing any content, the content will automatically be searched in the edge location.

45. What is VPC?

Ans:

VPC stands for Virtual Private Cloud. It allows you to customize your networking configuration. It is a network which is logically isolated from another network in the cloud. It allows you to have your IP address range,  internet gateways, subnet and security groups.

46. Explain snowball

Ans:

Snowball is a data transport option. It used source appliances to a large amount of data into and out of AWS. With the help of snowball, you can transfer a massive amount of data from one place to another. It helps you to reduce networking costs.

47. What is a redshift?

Ans:

Redshift is a big data warehouse product. It is fast and powerful, fully managed data warehouse service in the cloud.

48.  What are the advantages of auto-scaling?

Ans:

Following are the advantages of autoscaling

  • Offers fault tolerance
  • Better availability
  • Better cost management

49. Can you establish a Peering connection to a VPC in a different region?

Ans:

No, It’s only possible between VPCs in the same region.

50. What is SQL?

Ans:

Simple Queues Services also known as SQL. It is distributed queuing service which acts as a mediator for two controllers.

51. How many subnets can you have per VPC?

Ans:

You can have 200 subnets per VPC.

52. DNS  and Load Balancer service comes under which type of cloud service?

Ans:

DNS and Load Balancer and DNS services come under IAAS-storage cloud service.

53. What is the role of AWS CloudTrail?

Ans:

CloudTrail is a specially designed tool for logging and tracking API calls. It helps to audit all S3 bucket accesses.

54. When EC2 officially launched?

Ans:

  EC2 officially launched in the year 2006.

55. What is SimpleDB?

Ans:

SimpleDB is a data repository of structure record which encourages data doubts and indexing both S3 and EC2are called SimpleDB.

56. Explain Amazon ElasticCache

Ans:

Amazon Elasticache is a web service which makes it easy to deploy, scale and store data in the cloud.

57. What is AWS Lambda?

Ans:

Lambda is an Amazon compute service which allows you to run code in the  AWS Cloud without managing servers.

58. Name the types of AMI provided by AWS

Ans:

The types of AMI provided by AWS are:

  • Instance store backed
  • EBS backed

59. Name the AWS service exists only to redundantly cache data and images?

Ans:

AWS Edge locations are service which redundantly cache data and images.

60. Explain Geo Restriction in CloudFront

Ans:

A Geo-restriction feature helps you to prevent users of specific geographic locations from accessing content which you’re distributing through a CloudFront web distribution.

61. What is Amazon EMR?

Ans:

EMR is a surviving cluster stage which helps you to interpret the working of data structures before the intimation.  Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark on the Amazon Web Services helps you to investigate a large amount of data. You can prepare data for the analytics goals and marketing intellect workloads using Apache Hive and using other relevant open source designs.

62. What is boot time taken for the instance store backed AMI?

Ans:

The boot time for an Amazon instance store-backend AMI is less than 5 minutes.

63. Do you need an internet gateway to use peering connections?

Ans:

Yes, the Internet gateway is needed to use VPC (virtual private cloud peering) connections.

64. How to connect EBS volume to multiple instances?

Ans:

We can’t be able to connect EBS volume to multiple instances.  Although, you can connect various EBS Volumes to a single instance.

65. List different types of cloud services

Ans:

Various types of cloud services are:

  • Software as a Service (SaaS),
  • Data as a Service (DaaS)
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS)
  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS).

66. State the difference between An Instance  and AMI

Ans:

 AMI is a template consisting of software configuration part. For example Operating systems, applications, application server if you start an instance, a duplicate of the AMI in a row as an attendant in the cloud.

67. What are the different types of Load Balancer in AWS services?

Ans:

Two types of Load balancer are:

  • Application Load Balancer
  • Classic Load Balancer

68. In which situation you will select provisioned IOPS over standard RDS storage?

Ans:

 You should select provisioned IOPS storage over standard RDS storage if you want to perform batch-related workloads.

69. What are the important features of Amazon cloud search?

Ans:

Important features of the Amazon cloud are:

  • Boolean searches
  • Prefix Searches
  • Range searches
  • Entire text search
  • AutoComplete advice

70. What is the use of lifecycle hooks in Autoscaling?

Ans:

Lifecycle hooks are used for autoscaling to put an additional wait time to a scale in or scale out event.

71. What are the advantages of using Amazon Redshift ?

Ans:

  • High performance – It is observed that it is 10 times faster than Hadoop.
  • Cost Effective – The price is extremely affordable if we buy 3-year reservation.
  • Easy operation – It has been very reliable and self-managed. Very easy to maintain and operate.

72. How to alter column data type in Amazon Redshift ?

Ans:

Following the command to alter the column data type in Amazon Redshift-

  • ALTER COLUMN column_name TYPE new_data_type

73. How to show tables in Amazon Redshift ?

Ans:

Below is the command to list tables in a public schema :

  • SELECT DISTINCT tablenameFROM pg_table_defWHERE schemaname = ‘public’ORDER BY tablename;

Below is the command to describe the columns from a table called table_data

  • SELECT *FROM pg_table_defWHERE tablename = ‘table_data’AND schemaname = ‘public’;

74. How to convert epoch to datetime redshift ?

Ans:

We will need to use the sql query to get the timestamp.

select timestamp ‘epoch’ + your_timestamp_column * interval ‘1 second’ AS your_column_alias

from table_name

75. What is the relation between AMI and Instance?

Ans:

Instances can be launched by AMIs. One AMI can launch as many instances as required. An instance type defines the hardware of the host computer for Instance including information about computers and its memory abilities. After launching an instance, it works as a traditional host and could be interacted with as with any other computer.

76. What are the inclusions in AMI?

Ans:

There are three inclusions in Ami which include the following.

  • Template for the root volume for the instance.
  • Block device mapping that helps in determining the volumes after attaching to the instance after launch.
  • Launch permissions that helps in deciding which AWS account can take the AMI for launching Instances.

77. Can we send a request to Amazon S3?

Ans:

Yes, we can send a request to Amazon S3 by using the REST API or the AWS SDK wrapper libraries which wrap the underlying Amazon S3 REST API.

78. Define and explain the three basic types of cloud services and the AWS products that are built based on them?

Ans:

The three basic types of cloud services are:

  • Computing
  • Storage
  • Networking

Here are some of the AWS products that are built based on the three cloud service types:

Computing – These include EC2, Elastic Beanstalk, Lambda, Auto-Scaling, and Lightsat.

Storage – These include S3, Glacier, Elastic Block Storage, Elastic File System.

Networking – These include VPC, Amazon CloudFront, Route53

79. How do you upgrade or downgrade a system with near-zero downtime?

Ans:

You can upgrade or downgrade a system with near-zero downtime using the following steps of migration:

  • Open EC2 console
  • Choose Operating System AMI
  • Launch an instance with the new instance type
  • Install all the updates
  • Install applications
  • Test the instance to see if it’s working
  • If working, deploy the new instance and replace the older instance
  • Once it’s deployed, you can upgrade or downgrade the system with near-zero downtime.

Take home this interview Q&As and get much more. Download the complete AWS Interview Guide here:

80. What are the tools and techniques that you can use in AWS to identify if you are paying more than you should be, and how to correct it?

Ans:

You can know that you are paying the correct amount for the resources that you are using by employing the following resources:

  • Check the Top Services Table
    It is a dashboard in the cost management console that shows you the top five most used services. This will let you know how much money you are spending on the resources in question.
  • Cost Explorer
    There are cost explorer services available which will help you to view and analyze your usage costs for the last 13 months. You can also get a cost forecast for the upcoming three months.
  • AWS Budgets
    This allows you to plan a budget for the services. Also, it will enable you to check if the current plan meets your budget and the details of how you use the services.
  • Cost Allocation Tags
    This helps in identifying the resource that has cost more in a particular month. It lets you organize your resources and cost allocation tags to keep track of your AWS costs.

81. Is there any other alternative tool to log into the cloud environment other than console?

Ans:

The that can help you log into the AWS resources are:

  • Putty
  • AWS CLI for Linux
  • AWS CLI for Windows
  • AWS CLI for Windows CMD
  • AWS SDK
  • Eclipse

82. What services can be used to create a centralized logging solution?

Ans:

The essential services that you can use are Amazon CloudWatch Logs, store them in Amazon S3, and then use Amazon Elastic Search to visualize them. You can use Amazon Kinesis Firehose to move the data from Amazon S3 to Amazon ElasticSearch.

83. What are the native AWS Security logging capabilities?

Ans:

  Most of the AWS services have their logging options. Also, some of them have an account level logging, like in AWS CloudTrail, AWS Config, and others. Let’s take a look at two services in specific:

84. How do you set up a system to monitor website metrics in real-time in AWS?

Ans:

Amazon CloudWatch helps you to monitor the application status of various AWS services and custom events. It helps you to monitor:

  • State changes in Amazon EC2
  • Auto-scaling lifecycle events
  • Scheduled events
  • AWS API calls
  • Console sign-in events

85. What are the different types of virtualization in AWS, and what are the differences between them?

Ans:

The three major types of virtualization in AWS are: 

  • Hardware Virtual Machine (HVM)
    It is a fully virtualized hardware, where all the virtual machines act separate from each other. These virtual machines boot by executing a master boot record in the root block device of your image.
  • Paravirtualization (PV)
    Paravirtualization-GRUB is the bootloader that boots the PV AMIs. The PV-GRUB chain loads the kernel specified in the menu.
  • Paravirtualization on HVM
    PV on HVM helps operating systems take advantage of storage and network I/O available through the host.

86. Name some of the AWS services that are not region-specific

Ans:

AWS services that are not region-specific are:

  • IAM
  • Route 53
  • Web Application Firewall 
  • CloudFront

87. What are the differences between NAT Gateways and NAT Instances?

Ans:

While both NAT Gateways and NAT Instances serve the same function, they still have some key differences.

88. How can you add an existing instance to a new Auto Scaling group?

Ans:

Here’s how you can add an existing instance to a new Auto Scaling group:

  • Open EC2 console
  • Select your instance under Instances
  • Choose Actions -> Instance Settings -> Attach to Auto Scaling Group
  • Select a new Auto Scaling group
  • Attach this group to the Instance
  • Edit the Instance if needed
  • Once done, you can successfully add the instance to a new Auto Scaling group

89. What are the factors to consider while migrating to Amazon Web Services?

Ans:

Here are the factors to consider during AWS migration:

  • Operational Costs – These include the cost of infrastructure, ability to match demand and supply, transparency, and others.
  • Workforce Productivity 
  • Cost avoidance
  • Operational resilience
  • Business agility

90. What is RTO and RPO in AWS?

Ans:

RTO or Recovery Time Objective is the maximum time your business or organization is willing to wait for a recovery to complete in the wake of an outage. On the other hand, RPO or Recovery Point Objective is the maximum amount of data loss your company is willing to accept as measured in time.

91. If you would like to transfer vast amounts of data, which is the best option among Snowball, Snowball Edge, and Snowmobile?

Ans:

AWS Snowball is basically a data transport solution for moving high volumes of data into and out of a specified AWS region. On the other hand, AWS Snowball Edge adds additional computing functions apart from providing a data transport solution. The snowmobile is an exabyte-scale migration service that allows you to transfer data up to 100 PB.: 42

92. How is AWS CloudFormation different from AWS Elastic Beanstalk?

Ans:

Here are some differences between AWS CloudFormation and AWS Elastic Beanstalk:

  • AWS CloudFormation helps you provision and describe all of the infrastructure resources that are present in your cloud environment. On the other hand, AWS Elastic Beanstalk provides an environment that makes it easy to deploy and run applications in the cloud.
  • AWS CloudFormation supports the infrastructure needs of various types of applications, like legacy applications and existing enterprise applications. On the other hand, AWS Elastic Beanstalk is combined with the developer tools to help you manage the lifecycle of your applications.

93. What are the elements of an AWS CloudFormation template?

Ans:

AWS CloudFormation templates are YAML or JSON formatted text files that are comprised of five essential elements, they are:

  • Template parameters
  • Output values
  • Data tables
  • Resources
  • File format version

94. What happens when one of the resources in a stack cannot be created successfully?

Ans:

If the resource in the stack cannot be created, then the CloudFormation automatically rolls back and terminates all the resources that were created in the CloudFormation template. This is a handy feature when you accidentally exceed your limit of Elastic IP addresses or don’t have access to an EC2 AMI.

95. How can you automate EC2 backup using EBS?

Ans:

Use the following steps in order to automate EC2 backup using EBS:

  • Get the list of instances and connect to AWS through API to list the Amazon EBS volumes that are attached locally to the instance.
  • List the snapshots of each volume, and assign a retention period of the snapshot. Later on, create a snapshot of each volume.
  • Make sure to remove the snapshot if it is older than the retention period.

96. What is the difference between EBS and Instance Store?

Ans:

EBS is a kind of permanent storage in which the data can be restored at a later point. When you save data in the EBS, it stays even after the lifetime of the EC2 instance. On the other hand, Instance Store is temporary storage that is physically attached to a host machine. With an Instance Store, you cannot detach one instance and attach it to another. Unlike in EBS, data in an Instance Store is lost if any instance is stopped or terminated.

97) Can you take a backup of EFS like EBS, and if yes, how?

Ans:

Yes, you can use the EFS-to-EFS backup solution to recover from unintended changes or deletion in Amazon EFS. Follow these steps:

  • Sign in to the AWS Management Console
  • Click the launch EFS-to-EFS-restore button
  • Use the region selector in the console navigation bar to select region
  • Verify if you have chosen the right template on the Select Template page
  • Assign a name to your solution stack
  • Review the parameters for the template and modify them if necessary

98) How do you auto-delete old snapshots?

Ans:

Here’s the procedure for auto-deleting old snapshots:

  • As per procedure and best practices, take snapshots of the EBS volumes on Amazon S3.
  • Use AWS Ops Automator to handle all the snapshots automatically.
  • This allows you to create, copy, and delete Amazon EBS snapshots.
  • can enforce automatic password expiration, prevent reuse of old passwords, and request for a password reset upon their next AWS sign in.
  • You can have the AWS users contact an account administrator when the user has allowed the password to expire. 
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