Must-Know [LATEST] SaltStack Interview Questions and Answers
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Must-Know [LATEST] SaltStack Interview Questions and Answers

Last updated on 17th Nov 2021, Blog, Interview Questions

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SaltStack Interview Questions And Answers latest for experienced professionals from ACTE. These SaltStack interview questions were asked in various interviews conducted by top multinational companies across the globe. We hope that these interview questions on SaltStack will help you in cracking your job interview. All the best and happy learning. If you’re looking for SaltStack Interview Questions for Experienced or Freshers, you are at the right place. There are a lot of opportunities from many reputed companies in the world. According to research, Saltstack has a market share of about 1.6%. So, You still have the opportunity to move ahead in your career in SaltStack. Mindmajix offers Advanced SaltStack Interview Questions that help you in cracking your interview & acquiring a dream career as a SaltStack Engineer.


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    1. Describe saltstack.

    Ans:

    SaltStack is a Zeromq-based high-speed remote execution and configuration system. With developers in mind, Saltstack was also designed to be readily expanded with modules. It can function as a stand-alone remote execution system or as an easy-to-use message forwarding and broker with integrated encryption and authentication. With a versatile targeting mechanism, administrators can run commands on several workstations simultaneously thanks to the remote execution capabilities. The configuration management feature establishes a client-server architecture to align infrastructure components with a specified policy swiftly and safely.

    2. Describe the best method for using Salt to restart a salt minion following the upgrade.

    Ans:

    The optimal course of action for the upgrading This mentions the salt-minion package. Restarting the salt minion’s service is necessary in order to continue with the upgrade. Restarting the service, however, would prevent the Minion from continuing its state-run. Additionally, it would give the Master the results back. The most typical course of action is to use master-less mode to schedule the service’s restart. The Minion will be able to connect to Master and transmit the results back to Master, thanks to this mode. There will be a background restart of the service.

    3. Is Salt Coreless?

    Ans:

    No. We at Salt are fully dedicated to maintaining our APIs as open-source. Because it is created under the Apache 2.0 license, it can be utilized in both proprietary and open projects. To elaborate a little, there is a great deal of disagreement on the precise meaning of “open core.” Since Salt is a stand-alone product that anyone can use without restriction, it is open source.

    It is created collaboratively, accepting community contributions for the project’s benefit.

    4. Which Ports On My Firewall Should I Open?

    Ans:

    TCP ports 4505 and 4506 must be open for connections between Minions and the Master. No inbound ports need to be open for minions to function.

    05. What would you do if you discovered a problem in Salt?

    Ans:

    Two valuable resources are the salt IRC channel and the salt users email list. This is a result of their capacity to both confirm problems and troubleshoot them to find solutions. When a bug is discovered, You would need to report the bug and adhere to the specific requirements in Salt.

    6. Is Managed File Backup Supported by Salt?

    Ans:

    Indeed. A simple-to-use addition to your File is Salt.backup_mode can be adjusted per state or in the minion config (notice that if set in the minion config, this would merely be the default way to use; you still need to specify that the File should be backed up!). Managed states that enable you to back up files via backup_mode.

    7. Which high-speed networking library does SaltStack use, and can a Salt Minion be restarted using States?

    Ans:

    •  SaltStack processes high-speed requirements for all networking levels using the ZeroMQ messaging library.
    •  There is an easy solution to this query. Yes, you can use States to assist you in restarting the Salt Minion.

    8. How is Saltstack operated?

    Ans:

    Saltstack manages configuration with a push-based design. An agent that runs on the nodes facilitates communication, and the server pushes configuration onto the nodes.

    In contrast to Ansible, Saltstack employs a minion client in place of the SSH protocol.

    9. In Saltstack, what is a minion?

    Ans:

    A node that executes the Saltstack agent is called a minion. The agent exchanges commands and configurations with the Saltstack server over communication.

    10. What is the cost of using Saltstack?

    Ans:

    Since Saltstack is open-source, there are no license fees.

    However, based on the size of the infrastructure being managed, resources may be needed for setup and upkeep.

    11. Who Makes Use of Saltstack? Is it possible to upgrade Minion without having to restart it automatically?

    Ans:

    • Big businesses like Google, LinkedIn, and Wikimedia use Saltstack. However, with approximately 8–10% of the market, its market share is quite limited.
    • It is possible to perform the Minion update without having to restart automatically. However, a step-by-step process is needed.

    12. Is Saltstack well-liked?

    Ans:

    By the end of this year or early next year, Saltstack is anticipated to become more well-known and occupy a more significant portion of the market.

    Even with its restricted use, it remains an effective tool for configuration management.

    13. In Saltstack, what distinguishes execution from state modules?

    Ans:

    Modules for execution are utilized. State modules are used to execute modules inside a configuration file, and execution modules are used to convey commands and configuration to salt-enslaved people.

    Depending on whether the module is used for execution or state modules, its name changes.

    14. How does Saltstack’s architecture work?

    Ans:

    • State modules and execution modules are the two categories of modules found in the Salt architecture.
    • State modules are used to execute modules inside a configuration file, and execution modules are used to convey commands and configuration to salt-enslaved people.
    • Every Minion has an ID, and the demon in charge of everything is called the Salt Master.
    • Upholding a TCP connection, the Minion returns the configuration report to the Salt Master.

    15. In Saltstack, what are a grain and a pillar?

    Ans:

    Grain is an interface that offers minion-specific data, such as Ohio facts.

    The data is loaded from the pillar folder by a node during the execution of a state file or formula. The pillar is a distinct folder where variables are kept according to nodes.

    16. List any two drawbacks that come with utilizing SaltStack.

    Ans:

    • The following are the two drawbacks or disadvantages of using SaltStack:
    • Python is used and written in Salt. In terms of Python, practically every Linux system has it installed.
    • The GUI of SaltStack could be more feature-rich. As a result, users use the command-line tool to complete their jobs as needed.

    17. What Benefits Does SaltStack Offer?

    Ans:

      Benefit Description
    Scalability

    Highly scalable, capable of efficiently managing configurations across a large number of systems.

    Flexibility Supports various configuration management approaches, including imperative and declarative styles.
    Speed Utilizes ZeroMQ for high-speed communication, enabling rapid execution of commands and configurations.

    18. List the SaltStack fault tolerance features.

    Ans:

    Simple to Set Up Parallel Execution Model with Python API for Flexible and Scalable Configuration Management

    19. What do SS formulae mean?

    Ans:

    Salt states have pre-written formulas. A formula that represents a setting of the system could be declarative or imperative. Formulas can be used to carry out operations like installing and maintaining system packages or managing configurations and service statuses.

    You can find formulae for a wide range of software applications, including Vim, OpenSSH, Apache, Collectd, Zabbix, Docker, Kafka, Consul, Kibana, and many more, in SaltStack’s primary repository for formulas.

    20. What is the File at the top?

    Ans:

    • Top File’s job is to translate the Salt States into Minions. A Master cannot know the states that ought to be applied to a particular situation without it. 
    • Minion. When utilizing this File, you should abide by certain restrictions, such as having at least one environment in the base environment.

    21. Write the Top File’s constituent parts.

    Ans:

    •  Three elements should be specified in a Top File:
    • The setting: The Salt States is located in the state tree directory.
    • The set of targeted minions to whom states will be applied is the target.
    • The State records : These files list the many states that should be used with managed systems

    22. Explain What are Runners?

    Ans:

    • Salt Modules called Runners are housed inside the Master and are in charge of carrying out various duties like reporting connection status and job information.
    • Using external APIs in interaction
    • Engaging with the Minions.
    • A Runner executes on the Salt, which is how they vary from the Salt Execution Modules.

    23. Explain Returners

    Ans:

    • A Minion that has been given a command returns the outcome of that order to the Master. However, Salt Returners should be used if you wish to store this data in an external data store.
    • Salt Returners return data from Salt Minions to an external system, like Redis or MySQL. Salt Minion and Salt Master can be equipped with Salt Returners.

    24. Describe Start events in Reactorts.

    Ans:

    • The Reactor system is in charge of starting a reaction in response to an event that happens in Salt.
    • Salt Reactors monitor event tags via the event bus; if a tag matches a predefined pattern, the system executes a command.

    25. Explain what a salt cloud is.

    Ans:

    • A SaltStack interface called Salt Cloud is used to communicate with cloud service providers like Microsoft Azure. The system administrator can provision virtual computers and systems on several cloud providers using Salt Cloud without ever leaving Salt.
    • Salt Cloud is an automated system that may be set with YAML files, which are a data-serialization standard.
    • Using maps and profile variables, Salt Cloud enables the construction of Cloud Minions. A Master has been assigned to oversee these Minions.

    26. Explain salt SSH

    Ans:

    • Without an agent, Salt can operate on the intended system. SSH is used in the agentless mode to carry out commands. This part makes sure that commands are executed on the systems that are being targeted via SSH.
    • Using Salt SSH is quite simple. To get started, create a simple roster file of the systems you want to connect to, and then execute Salt SSH commands in the same manner as you would regular Salt operations.

    27. Explain the steps involved in developing a unique SaltStack state module.

    Ans:

    A custom SaltStack state module must be created in a few stages.

    You must first provide your module with a directory structure. This ought to comprise a directory at the top for your module, followed by directories for each of the module’s states. Every state directory ought to include the state’s primary entry point, an init—sys file. The state configuration, which includes the function to be called, the name of the state, and any parameters that must be supplied to the function, should be contained in this File.

    The functions that the state will perform must then be created. The.py File containing these functions needs to be placed in the same directory as the init—sys file. The init. Sys File’s arguments should be accepted by the Python functions, which should be written in that language.

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    28. What methods do you employ to guarantee the security of SaltStack configurations?

    Ans:

    • I employ a number of techniques when setting up SaltStack to guarantee system security.
    • To make sure that only authorized users may access the system, I first employ a secure authentication mechanism. Using two-factor authentication, creating secure passwords, and other 
    • Techniques for authentication. Additionally, I make sure that each user has the fewest privileges required to complete their responsibilities.
    • Secondly, I safeguard sensitive data with encryption. This entails employing secure protocols like TLS/SSL and encrypting data both in transit and at rest.
    • Third, I keep an eye out for any unusual behavior on the system using a range of security tools. This covers the use of vulnerability scanning, log monitoring, and intrusion detection systems.
    • Fourth, I make sure that every setting is current and secure by using a secure configuration management system. This covers the use of automated testing, deployment, and version control systems.
    • Lastly, to make sure that every modification is correctly tested and distributed, I employ a secure deployment procedure. This involves utilizing code and automated testing.

    29. When a SaltStack state fails, how do you debug it?

    Ans:

    • Examining the SaltStack log files is the first step in debugging SaltStack states. These log files, which are located in the /var/log/salt directory, can offer important insights into the reasons behind state failures.
    • Running the state with the –state-verbose-level flag set to debug is the next step. This can help identify the precise problem and provide a more thorough output regarding the state execution.
    • Utilizing the SaltStack state is the third step. To run the state in test mode, apply the command. By doing this, you’ll be able to observe the changes the state would make without really implementing them. When trying out modifications before implementing them in a production setting, this can be helpful.

    30. How does a SaltStack master vary from a SaltStack minion?

    Ans:

    The central server in charge of overseeing the SaltStack minions is called the SaltStack master. It is in charge of giving orders to the minions, waiting for their responses, and overseeing their configuration. In addition to overseeing the whole SaltStack environment, the SaltStack master serves as the primary point of contact for the SaltStack minions.

    One client under the control of the SaltStack master is the SaltStack Minion. It is in charge of carrying out the Master’s instructions, responding to the Master, and maintaining its configuration. The SaltStack minion is in charge of carrying out the orders given by the SaltStack master and serves as their primary point of communication.

    31. How should SaltStack states and formulas be managed?

    Ans:

    • Managing SaltStack formulas and states is best accomplished with a version control system like Git. This lets you monitor modifications to your states and formulas and, in case you need to, roll back to earlier iterations. It also lets you work together with other developers on the same project.
    • It’s crucial to follow a standard naming scheme and organization while developing formulas and states. Finding and managing your formulas and states will be more straightforward as a result.
    • It is imperative to utilize a testing environment to verify that your formulas and states function as intended prior to implementing them in a production setting. To accomplish this, use a virtual computer or an environment hosted in the cloud.
    • Lastly, it’s critical to maintain current formulas and states. This can be achieved by routinely checking for updates and making the necessary applications. It’s also critical to keep an eye on your systems to make sure that no modifications have been made to your formulas or states.

    32. How do you automate the deployment of apps using SaltStack?

    Ans:

    • There are several ways that SaltStack can be used to automate the deployment of apps. Using SaltStack’s state system to specify the ideal state for the application and its surroundings is the most popular method. The application can then be deployed in a repeatable and consistent manner by applying this state to the target systems.
    • The nation can specify which configuration files and packages need to be installed, together with which services should be launched or halted, using the state system. Determining the environment variables that must be adjusted, as well as any other system-level adjustments that must be done, can also be done using it.
    • After the state is specified, it may be applied to the target systems via a web-based GUI or the SaltStack command-line interface. This makes it possible for the application to be reliably and swiftly installed on several platforms.

    33. Explain the steps involved in developing a unique SaltStack execution module.

    Ans:

    • There are various processes involved in creating a custom SaltStack execution module.
    • You must first provide your module with a directory structure. This ought to contain both a directory containing the tests and the module itself. The code for the module is contained in a file called __init__.py, which should be found in the module directory.
    • The module’s code must be written in the second place. A function that will be called upon module execution should be included in this. This function needs to take in parameters and give back a dictionary with the execution’s outcomes in it. You must write the module’s tests. Tests for the arguments the module accepts ought to be part of this as well.

    34. How is system performance managed and tracked using SaltStack?

    Ans:

    A vital tool for controlling and keeping an eye on system performance is SaltStack. It has an extensive feature set that lets you keep an eye on and control system performance in real-time.

    You can use the SaltStack command line interface (CLI) to configure and administer your systems in order to leverage SaltStack for system performance monitoring and management. You can specify and control system states, including files, services, and packages, using the CLI. Additionally, system events like package updates, service restarts, and system reboots can be defined and managed using the CLI.

    35. How Would You Treat an Insect You Found in Salt?

    Ans:

    The Salt users’ mailing list and Salt’s IRC channel are both beneficial resources. This is a result of their capacity to both confirm problems and troubleshoot them to find solutions. If you discover a bug in Salt, you must report the bug and adhere to the specific guidelines.

    36. Is Managed File Backup Supported by Salt?

    Ans:

    In response, sure. A simple-to-use addition to your file is salt. Backup_mode can be specified in the minion configuration (notice that if set in the minion configuration, this would be one of the managed states that allows you to back up files). The default approach is that you must still indicate that a backup of the file is required!).

    37. Which port should I open using the Firewall option?

    Ans:

    The answer is that TCP ports 4506 and 4505 are where the Minions and Master are supposed to be connected. Actually, they don’t require any inbound ports to be open.

    38. Why did the Grain’s worth alter on its own?

    Ans:

    The answer is that a few factors contributed to the Grain’s value changing on its own. Usually, it is the outcome of an upstream alteration made to an operating system’s distribution, which replaces or eliminates components that Salt needs to identify grains. When that happens, it’s lucky. It would be suitable to use Salt with a command in order to resolve problems of this nature.

    39. How Can I Use Remote Executions to Restart?

    Ans:

    • In response : Use the command line to restart the Minion:
    • salt -G kernel : Windows cmd.run_bg ‘C:saltsalt-call.bat -local service.”relaunch the salt-minion
    • salt -C cmd.run_bg “salt-call -local service” ‘not
    • G@kernel : Windows’.relaunch the salt-minion

    40. What does the salt stack’s single node installation overview entail?

    Ans:

    Overview of single-node installation : Using the SaltStack Config installer, you install SaltStack Config on a single node (server) under the single-node installation scenario. The ultimate goal is to have a PostgreSQL database, a Redis database, a Salt master, and a SaltStack Config running on the same node. You must Import and extract the scenario’s installation files in order to do a single-node installation. If necessary, install or update Python and Salt. Launch a script for installation that will Install a PostgreSQL database, a Redis database, a master, and RaaS on a single node. For a step-by-step tutorial, refer to Single-node installation. 

    41. What are the benefits and drawbacks of installing a single node?

    Ans:

    The following are the benefits of installing a single node: • Since SaltStack Config and all of its dependencies are located on the same node, installation and maintenance are straightforward. It is not advised to install a single node for production-grade applications. The SaltStack Config system depends on the availability of a single node. These are the drawbacks. Your SaltStack Config ecology also fails if that node fails.

    42. What is the overview of multi-node installation for the salt stack?

    Ans:

    Overview of multi-node installation: Using the files included with the SaltStack Config installer, you install SaltStack Config on several nodes (servers) in the multi-node installation scenario. Eventually, there should be four nodes, each containing a distinct element of the structure of the SaltStack Config: A RaaS node, sometimes referred to as SaltStack Config; A PostgreSQL database node; A Redis database node; A salt master; As an alternative, you can combine two or more of the other services on a different node and operate the Salt master service on one node. Consultation services may be needed for requirements involving custom architecture. You use a VMware orchestration high state in the multi-node installation scenario. The multi-node environment is configured by the high state, which operates on your master. It installs the Redis, RaaS, and PostgreSQL core SaltStack Config architecture on the remaining three nodes.

    43. How does the installation process for many nodes work?

    Ans:

    • If any of the following apply to your network : There are more than 1,000 nodes (minions that.
    • Config SaltStack will handle). Keep in mind that smaller setups can also use this scenario.
    • The multi-node installation is the suggested option if you’re not sure which installation scenario would work best for your system. 

    44. What are the benefits and drawbacks of the multi-node process?

    Ans:

    The multi-node installation scenario has the following benefits :

    • It can grow with your network. SaltStack Config Installation Guide, Release 8.3.0, for pre-installation
    • It’s functioning and is not reliant on a single node being available.
    • Networks that require high availability features, like load balancing and automatic failover, can be supported by this implementation arrangement. The following are the drawbacks
    • Installation is a more involved operation that needs careful preparation and consideration. • Should your network require high availability, you may want consulting and support services.

    45. What is an event bus or open event system?

    Ans:

      Event bus, or open event system : The master and minions communicate with one another using the event system. The event system allows for the following features

      Monitoring and evaluation of events by both the master and minions. The foundation for orchestration and real-time monitoring is laid by the event bus. All minions subscribe to events posted on the event system in order to view jobs and results. Salt employs a two-layered pluggable event system

      ZeroMQ (0MQ) : A versatile transport layer is currently provided by the default socket-level library.

    46. What version of Python and Salt are you using?

    Ans:

     SaltStack Config packages python 3.7. It doesn’t make use of the Python that is installed on your computer and doesn’t need it to be current. On the other hand, it is usually advised that you use the most recent version of Python on your system. Although it is highly advised to use the most recent stable versions of Salt on your master, SaltStack Config is compatible with the majority of Salt versions. Salt 3000 or later must be installed on these Windows minions if you intend to use SaltStack SecOps with Windows servers.

    47. Describe SSO.

    Ans:

    • For an identity provider (IdP) that makes use of the SAML or OAuth protocols, single sign-on authentication (SSO).
    • Controlling access to directory services that make use of the LDAP protocol, including domain services for Active Directory. Alternatively, by storing user credentials locally in SaltStack Config on the RaaS node, you could also use the native authentication feature of SaltStack Config.

    48. What is a Raas node?

    Ans:

    Procedures for tuning your RaaS node Two different kinds of processes are created when the RaaS service launches :

    • Tornado processes : Facilitates connections from web browsers and Salt masters.
    • Celery processes : Support personnel: The RaaS service sets the count to half of the CPU core count by default for each type of task. This is usually the best course of action because the RaaS node should be devoted to this function

    49. How does 8.3.0 work?

    Ans:

    SaltStack® Config 8.3.0 expands vulnerability support for Windows operating systems and updates the user interface. Systems. Windows nodes can now be scanned for security flaws, and advisories can be fixed with Microsoft updates and patches.

    50. What does “simple orchestrate runner execution” mean?

    Ans:

    The Orchestrate Runner command’s simple execution is identical to the state.sls function; however, you can use “salt-run” in place of salt to run it.

    It possesses a sample. The SLS file samples. slss is located in /srv/salt/orch.

    51. Assuming you discover a Bug in Salt, how do you proceed?

    Ans:

    Two valuable resources are the salt IRC channel and the salt users email list. This is a result of their capacity to both confirm problems and troubleshoot them to find solutions. 

    If you discover a bug in Salt, you must report the bug and adhere to the specific guidelines.

    52. How do you manage the file backup supported by Salt?

    Ans:

    • A simple-to-use addition to your file is salt. Controlled states that enable file backups using backup_mode.
    • Backup_mode can be defined in the minion configuration (notice that if set in the minion config, this would simply be the default approach to employ; you must still indicate that a backup of the file is required!)

    53. Describe two benefits that SaltStack offers.

    Ans:

    There are several advantageous aspects of adopting this open-source program. However, it should be noted right away (before to going into the specific advantages of utilizing SaltStack) that SaltStack is also known as the remote execution engine. You can now review the point-by-point material below that clarifies the benefits and drawbacks of utilizing SaltStack.

    The two benefits (or advantages) of utilizing SaltStack are listed below:

    •  The program is not only modular but also event-driven, guaranteeing that every IT component can uphold the desired condition while operating under the software’s guidance.
    • With the assistance of SaltStack, a tiered structure can be set up.
    Salt stack overview

    54. Name a few characteristics of salt?

    Ans:

    • Responses : Adaptability: Salt minions can establish connections with several masters concurrently, and any master can issue orders.
    • Scalable : Ten thousand minions can be managed by a single master.
    • Model of Parallel Execution : The Master is able to send commands in parallel to a remote computer.
    • Language Agnostic : Any language can be supported by salt state configuration files, templating engines, or file types.

    55. How is SaltStack considered open-core?

    Ans:

    In response to the previous query, the answer is no. SaltStack cannot be referred to as open-core. It is wholly devoted to being available as open-source software. The Apache 2.0 license has been used during the development of the software. Therefore, it can be utilized in both proprietary and open initiatives.

    56. Why did the Grain’s worth alter on its own?

    Ans:

    The answer is that a few factors contributed to the Grain’s value changing on its own. Usually, it is the outcome of an upstream alteration made to an operating system’s distribution, which replaces or eliminates components that Salt needs to identify grains. When that happens, it’s lucky. This problem could be best solved by using Salt in conjunction with a command. Look at the commands directly beneath.

    57. How is it Possible To Give A File To A Particular Minion And Keep It Private From Other Minions?

    Ans:

    • Although access control is not supported by the Salt fileserver yet, it can still be achieved. The file_tree external pillar, which is accessible as of Salt 2015.5.0, enables the loading of a file’s contents as Pillar data. This external pillar can provide node groups and individual minions with different Pillar values. For specifics on how to configure this, refer to the documentation.
    • After the external pillar is configured, a file can be used to push the data to a minion. Controlled state with the argument for the contents pillar

    58. how will you be able to restart the Salt Minion With the States’ assistance?

    Ans:

    To restart the Salt Minion, follow these easy steps. It can be efficiently carried forward by using States. In order to restart the Salt Minion dependably and conveniently, you must implement a workaround. An example that runs on both UNIX-like and Microsoft Windows operating systems is mentioned below. Take a look at the command below. Getting Salt Minion Back Up

    • Run cmd as {%- else %}
    • – name: “salt.minion/restart salt-call -local service.”
    • {%-if grains-[‘kernel’] === Windows %}
    • “C:salt:salt-call.bat” is the name of the local service. The command “restart: salt-minion.”
    • {%-endif %}
    • Upgrade the Salt Minion with pkg. on_changes
    • – by Real

    59. What is another way to get Salt Minion and States going again?

    Ans:

    Salt Minion can be restarted by using States and that too in an alternative method. The instructions that you must adhere to are listed below. Note that it is more sophisticated to upgrade Salt’s legacy version.

    The other method for resuming Salt Minion

    • {%- if grains[”kernel”] == ‘Windows”%}
    • -name: “Restart-Service -Name salt-minion” in PowerShell {%-other %}
    • -name: |- :exec 0>#close stdout<:exec 1> &-#close stdin &- #exec 2>&- # shut stderrr :nohup salt-caall –local service.
    • Launch the Salt-Minion & {{%–endif%}}

    60. Why aren’t my minions able to access my modules, states, etc?

    Ans:

    • When saltutil.sync_modules or saltutil.sync_all is executed, custom modules are synchronized with Minions. States are also synchronized with custom modules. Apply in the absence of any arguments.
    • In a similar vein, running state.apply, saltutil.sync_states, or saltutil.sync_all syncs custom states with Minions.
    • States are also synchronized with custom states. Apply while operating without any disagreements.
    • Similar behavior may be found in other custom types (renderers, outputters, etc.); for more details, consult the saltutilmodule documentation.

    61. List two drawbacks that come with using salt.

    Ans:

    The following are the two drawbacks or disadvantages of using SaltStack :

    • Salt is written in Python and uses it. In terms of Python, practically every Linux system has it installed.
    • SaltStack lacks a feature-rich graphical user interface. As a result, users use the command-line tool to complete their tasks as necessary.

    62. How do you update without a forced stop?

    Ans:

    At first glance, performing the Minion upgrade in your SLS file is the most accessible state. However, by default, operating systems like Ubuntu, Debian GNU/Linux, and its derivatives begin the service after the package is installed. In order to stop this, we must establish a policy layer that will stop the Minion service from restarting immediately following the upgrade :

    • {%- assuming grains[‘os_family’] == ‘Debian’ %}
    • Turn off the services by using the file. Managed.
    • name: policy-rc.d in /usr/bin
    • user: root
    • mode: 0755 – group: root
    • The contents are “#!/bin/sh.”
    • take the 101
    • # Don’t interfere if it already exists
    • swap out: Untrue
    • prerequisite
    • Package: Enhance Salt Minion
    • {%-endif %}
    • Enhance Salt Minion: package put in:
    • Salt-minion is the name, and the version is 2016.11.3.{% assuming grains[‘os_family’] == ‘Debian’ %}+ds-1{% endif %}
    • order: final
    • Turn on Salt Minion by using the service. It is enabled.
    • call it salt-minion – need:
    • Package: Enhance Salt Minion
    • {%- assuming grains[‘os_family’] == ‘Debian’%}
    • Turn on the services to begin:
    • File. absent:
    • name: policy-rc.d in /usr/bin
    • alterations:
    • Package: Enhance Salt Minion
    • {%-endif %}

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    63. Why Did The Value of a Grain Change On Its Own?

    Ans:

    • Usually, this happens when an OS distribution changes upstream, replacing or removing a component that Salt was utilized to identify the Grain. Thankfully, when this happens,
    • With a command akin to this, you can use Salt to fix it:
    • -G “grain: ChangedValue” salt “{‘grain’: ‘OldValue’}” grains. servants
    • (Substituting the desired Grain and values for ChangedValue, OldValue, and Grain.)
    • To enable Salt to be corrected, you should also create an issue detailing the modification.

    64. Define how to Use States to Resume.

    Ans:

    We can now use the workaround to restart the Minion reliably. The subsequent example is compatible with Windows and UNIX-like operating systems, Restart Salt Minion :

    • #- if grains[‘kernel’] == ‘Windows’ %} cmd.run
    • – name: ‘C:saltsalt-call.bat –local service.relaunch the salt-minion {%-other %}
    • – name: “local service – salt-call.” relaunch the salt-minion {%-endif %}
    • True for big; on changes:
    • -Package: Enhance Salt Minion

    65. What does Saltstack’s Cron mean?

    Ans:

    Cron is a beneficial Linux application in Saltstack. It makes it possible to schedule a script or command to execute on a particular day and time. It also makes it possible to run an application on a regular basis, such as every first day of the month, weekly, or daily. Cron starts when the system starts, and check the /etc/crontab file for configuration details. Each application and its schedule are listed separately in the /etc/crontab, as seen below.

    66. Does Salt allow controlled file backups?

    Ans:

    Indeed. A simple-to-use addition to your file is salt. Managed states that allow you to back up files using backup _mode, backup _mode can be adjusted on a per-state basis or in the minion config (notice that if set in the minion config, this would merely be the default technique to use, you still need to specify that the file should be backed up

    67. What does Saltstack’s event system consist of?

    Ans:

    Salt uses a local ZeroMQ PUB interface as its event system, which shoots salt events. The Salt Event System is used to trigger events that allow external processes or third-party applications to respond to actions taken within Salt. There are two main parts to the event system :

    • Event sockets : The event sockets which publish events.
    • Event library : The salt system can receive events from the event library and transmit events back to it.

    68. Describe Minion Data Cache.

    Ans:

    The Salt Mine data, minion grains, and minion pillar information cached on the Salt Master are all contained in the Minion data cache. Salt saves the data in a msgpack file on the Salt Master by default, using the local fs cache module.

    69. Why did a grain’s worth alter on its own?

    Ans:

    • -G “grain : ChangedValue” salt “{‘grain’: ‘OldValue’}” grains. servants
    • (Substituting the desired Grain and values for ChangedValue, OldValue, and Grain.)
    • To enable Salt to be corrected, you should also create an issue detailing the modification.

    70. What are Saltstack’s limitations?

    Ans:

    • Complex installation method for inexperienced users
    • Web UI has limited features and capabilities.
    • a shoddy, undeveloped GUI
    • It is not the best choice for operating systems other than Linux
    • Compared to Puppet and Chef, the platform is newer and less developed. It has essential support for Windows.
    • The documentation is difficult to review and needs to be effectively managed.

    71. When a SaltStack state fails, how can it be debugged?

    Ans:

    • Examining the SaltStack log files is the first step in debugging SaltStack states. These log files, which are located in the /var/log/salt directory, can offer important insights into the reasons behind state failures.
    • Running the state with the –state-verbose-level flag set to debug is the next step. This can help identify the precise problem and provide a more thorough output regarding the state execution.
    • Utilizing the SaltStack state is the third step. To run the state in test mode, apply the command. By doing this, you’ll be able to observe the changes the state would make without really implementing them. When trying out modifications before implementing them in a production setting, this can be helpful.

    72. How are several environments managed with SaltStack?

    Ans:

    Multiple environments can be managed with SaltStack, an open-source configuration management and remote execution tool. It makes it simple to deploy and manage changes across various settings by enabling you to describe and control your infrastructure as code.

    By setting up distinct settings for every environment, SaltStack may be used to manage numerous environments. To do this, distinct Salt states can be made for every setting. Salt states are files that specify the ideal setup of a system, including which configuration files should be present, which packages should be installed, and which services to run. You may deploy and manage modifications across numerous environments with ease by generating distinct Salt states for each environment.

    73. What separates SaltStack and Ansible from one another?

    Ans:

    A Detailed Comparison of SaltStack vs. Ansible | phoenixNAP KB

    SaltStack supports significant cloud providers, but Ansible enables far more integration. Ansible’s integration with numerous DevOps tools, including Terraform and Jenkins, and containerization solutions, like Docker and Kubernetes, is by far its most significant advantage in this regard.

    74. how to Uses YAML in SaltStack?

    Ans:

    Salt uses YAML, just like Ansible, which makes it simple to use and learn. However, because of its agent-based architecture, even seasoned DevOps workers may find it challenging to use at first because of the steep learning curve.

    75. Why is YAML used, and what does it mean?

    Ans:

    Because YAML is meant to be simple to read and comprehend, it has become a popular programming language. It can be combined with other programming languages as well. Ansible® uses YAML, which is accessible and flexible, to develop automation processes in the form of Ansible Playbooks.

    76. Why does DevOps utilize YAML?

    Ans:

    YAML provides DevOps teams with a number of advantages. First of all, developers can generate and manage configuration files more quickly because of the simple and easy-to-read syntax of YAML. This also facilitates team members’ comprehension of a particular tool’s operation who are unfamiliar with it.

    77. How do Terraform and SaltStack vary from one another?

    Ans:

    What are the distinctions between Terraform and Salt?

    SaltStack, the organization behind Salt, provides a broad range of modules, extensions, and community-contributed formulas to enable better system management and automation. The robust HashiCorp ecosystem, which includes additional tools like Vault, Consul, and Nomad, is advantageous to Terraform.

    78. Why is Terraform utilized, and what does it mean?

    Ans:

    DevOps teams mainly use Terraform, an IAC tool, to automate several infrastructure activities. One of the primary uses of Terraform is the provisioning of cloud resources, for example. It is an open-source, cloud-independent provisioning tool developed by HashiCorp using the Go programming language.

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    79. How do you install Vagrant in salt-cloud infrastructure?

    Ans:

    • Vagrant provides easy-to-configure, reproducible, and portable work environments.
    • You can download and install the Vagrant by visiting the following link − https://www.vagrantup.com
    • After the successful installation of Vagrant, you need to configure it. Create a single file named Vagrantfile in a folder and describe the type of machine and its properties.
    • Run Vagrant − To run the Vagrant, issue the following command − vagrant up

    80. Define cloud profile.

    Ans:

    • The virtual machine image and size are specified in a cloud profile. It can be configured in – /etc/salt/cloud.profiles.d/. Let’s make a basic profile called simple. Conf.
    • aws_micro: provider: my-amazon-cloud image: <image_id> size: <machine_id e.g. t1.micro

    81. Describe salt command functions.

    Ans:

    • A cloud profile specifies the image and size of the virtual machine. The configuration file is located in /etc/salt/cloud.profiles.d/. Let’s create a simple.conf profile as an example.
    • aws_micro: supplier: my-amazon-cloud; image: <image_id>; size: <machine_id, e.g., t1.micro>

    82. Which component is the target?

    Ans:

    • One component that lets you filter minions (controlled system) to do the function is called a target. A simple command employing the target component is defined below.
    • Salt ‘*’ test.ping
    • It will yield the following result:
    • minion1: Accurate
    • In this case, every managed system is represented by the target “*.” Here, ping is a function, and the “test” is a module. This is done in order to test the distant system’s ping service.

    83. What is ShellCommand?

    Ans:

    Salt uses the cmd. Run commands to run shell commands on many computers remotely. Run is one of the functions available in the cmd module, which is the primary module. As demonstrated in the code block below, the run function allows any shell command to be executed in the remote system.

    Cmd. run ‘ls -l /etc.’ salt ‘*.’

    84. Define salt stack Interfaces for networks.

    Ans:

    The network interface information about the managed systems, Salt offers a distinct module with network and function interfaces inside the module.

    network. interfaces salt ‘*’

    85. Define Management Tool.

    Ans:

    • Positioned as the primary instrument for orchestrating cloud and IT operations, together with DevOps, is SaltStack − SaltStack Enterprise.
    • There are two varieties of Puppets available: 
    • Puppet Enterprise and Open Source Puppet. Apart from the Open Source Puppet features, Puppet Enterprise offers node management tools in the form of a GUI, an API, and command line tools.
    • The configuration management tool is Chef − CFEngine.

    86. Describe salt stack performance.

    Ans:

    • saltStack :Salt is designed for high performance and scalability. Through the use of ZeroMQ, Salt’s communication mechanism creates a permanent data stream between the Salt master and minions.
    • Puppet : Secure as well as high-performance with no agents necessary.
    • Chef :The most apparent issue with Chef Server is search; it is cumbersome and needs to receive requests from clients simultaneously.

    87. Define A Job ID?

    Ans:

    The cache directory and cached exist in Salt. The proc directory is kept up to date by minions inside of this. You can find it in the path /var/cache/salt/proc.

    Every file is maintained in the proc directory. These files assign a distinct task ID upon execution. This job-id makes it easier to locate and search for the jobs that are currently running on the minion.

    88. Define the Work Schedule in the salt stack.

    Ans:

    • The scheduling system can see any execution function on minions or any runner on the master.
    • It is carried out using the following techniques:
    • The schedule option can be found in the config files of either the master or the minion.
    • Minion pillar data: Saltutil is used to refresh the minion pillar data—the refresh_pillar command.

    89. DEfine Git as a File Server using attack

    Ans:

    Distributed version control software under open source is called Git. It is helpful in monitoring changes made to any file. Salt uses the Git file server to deliver files from Git repositories. Git can be configured using the fileserver_backend list option, and the gitfs_remotes function can be used to configure one or more repositories. 

    90. What is corn?

    Ans:

    The program in the Linux environment is called Cron. It makes it possible to schedule a script or command to execute on a particular day and time. It also makes it possible to run an application on a regular basis, such as every first day of the month, weekly, or daily.Cron starts when the system starts, and check the /etc/crontab file for configuration details. Each application and its schedule are listed separately in the /etc/crontab, as seen below.

    Root echo “This command runs at fifteen minutes past the hour every hour” 15 * * * *

    15 10 * * * root echo “Every day at 10:15 a.m., this command is run.”

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