# [50+] SPSS Interview Questions and Answers [ TO GET HIRED ]

Last updated on 10th Nov 2021, Blog, Interview Questions

These SPSS Interview Questions have been designed specially to get you acquainted with the nature of questions you may encounter during your interview for the subject of SPSS . As per my experience good interviewers hardly plan to ask any particular question during your interview, normally questions start with some basic concept of the subject and later they continue based on further discussion and what you answer.we are going to cover top 100 SPSS Interview questions along with their detailed answers. We will be covering SPSS scenario based interview questions, SPSS interview questions for freshers as well as SPSS interview questions and answers for experienced.

**1) What is SPSS?**

**Ans:**

Ans: SPSS is a computer application that gives a measurable investigation of information.

The numerous highlights of SPSS are open by means of pull-down menus or can be modified with a proprietary syntax language.

SPSS datasets dependably have a 2-dimensional table structure where the columns normally speak to cases, (for example, people or family units) and the sections or factors speak to estimations, (for example, age, sex, or family unit wage).

SPSS can peruse and compose information from ASCII text files, different measurement bundles, spreadsheets, and databases.

**2) What is the data view and variable view?**

**Ans:**

- In Data View, segments speak to factors, and columns speak to cases (perceptions).

- In Variable View, each line is a variable, and every section is a characteristic that is related to that variable.

**3) What statistics analysis is included in SPSS?**

**Ans:**

- Distinct insights: Cross tabulation, Frequencies, Descriptives, Explore, Descriptive Ratio Statistics
- Bivariate insights: Means, t-test, ANOVA, Correlation (bivariate, halfway, separations), Nonparametric tests
- The expectation for numerical results: Linear relapse
- The expectation for recognizing gatherings: Factor examination, bunch investigation (two-advance, K-implies, various levelled), Discriminant

**4) How to calculate the effect of an educational intervention on drug prescription?**

**Ans:**

We can include the medication remedy status (yes or no) when instructive mediation. We can figure the proportion of the chances utilizing calculated relapse in SPSS.

**5) String Variables to Date Variables without ALTER TYPE**

**Ans:**

Note that ALTER TYPE must be utilized for a set number of date designs. Some more intriguing arrangements may require a more adaptable methodology. Second, those on SPSS forms 15 and underneath don’t have ALTER TYPE since it was presented in variant 16.

For the two situations, we’ll typically separate the year, month, and day by utilizing SUBSTR regularly joined with INDEX and RINDEX. We’ll at that point convert these into an SPSS data variable by utilizing the DATE.DMY work. At last, we’ll show the number of seconds it holds as a more intelligible date by utilizing FORMATS.

**6. How to Convert String into Date Variables?**

**Ans:**

To Convert String Variables to Date Variables the most preferable way is ALTER TYPE.

For those who are not familiar with ALTER TYPE, there are some alternative ways.

Let us see the syntax below, here we create a mini dataset that holds 8 string variables. The below syntax shows the 8 most common date formats. And Next, every string variable is converted to a date variable with the help of ALTER TYPE.

String Variables to Date Variables Syntax:

The Date Format in ALTER TYPE says to SPSS which component is the Day, Which component is the month, which component is the year.

**7) How to paste SPSS syntax?**

**Ans:**

Presently we should assume I’d jump at the chance to increase some knowledge into the rates of male and female respondents. I could initially explore to Analyze Descriptive measurement Frequencies as demonstrated as follows.

I’ll now move gender into the variable box and perhaps request a bar chart as well.

Now clicking Ok may seem the obvious thing to do. A much better idea, however, is to click the Paste button. Upon doing so, a new SPSS window opens which is known as the Syntax Editor. It’s recognized by the orange icon in its left top corner.

The Syntax Editor contains a FREQUENCIES order which holds the directions we just gave SPSS in the Frequencies exchange. Be that as it may, we don’t see the recurrence dispersion and bar graph we requested. This is on account of despite everything we have to run the order we just made.

**8) What is the SPSS REPLACE Function? **

**Ans:**

SPSS REPLACE replaces a substring in a string with a different (possibly empty) substring.

**9) SPSS Replace – Removing Spaces**

**Ans:**

We have a dataset holding the titles of site pages and we’d get a kick out of the chance to change over these to URLs. For certain things, we don’t care for spaces in URLs. The linguistic structure beneath demonstrates to expel them. Stage 1 makes a minor dataset (simply run and generally overlook it) and stage 3 exhibits how to expel spaces utilizing REPLACE.

**10) How do I use a SAS data file in SPSS?**

**Ans:**

Using SPSS software: In case you are an SPSS customer and you are using SPSS variation 14 or later, you can simply open it as a data record, since SPSS bolsters SAS data archives of different arrangements, for instance, .sas7bdat, .sd7, .sd2, .ssd01, and .xpt. These archives can be perused clearly into SPSS either by methods for using the drawdown menu or by methods for using the sentence structure.

Using the draw-down menus select File – > Open – > Data… and after that for Files of Type select the reason as data record make; by then select the report from the summary and snap Open. That is all to it.

**11) Is it possible to combine multiple .ts files into a single .js file? If yes, then how?**

**Ans:**

- Yes, it is possible. For this, we need to add –outFILE [OutputJSFileName] compiling option.
- $ tsc –outFile comman.js file1.to file2.ts file.ts
- The above command will compile all three “.ts”file and result will be stored into single “comman.js” file. In the case, when we don’t provide an output file name as like in below command.
- $ tsc –outFile file1.to file2.ts file.ts
- Then, the file2.ts and file3.ts will be compiled, and the output will be placed in file1.ts. So now our file1.ts contains JavaScript code.

**12) Is it possible to compile .ts automatically with real-time changes in the file?**

**Ans:**

- Yes, it is possible to compile “.ts” automatically with real-time changes in the .ts file. This can be achieved by using –watch compiler option
- tsc –watch file1.ts
- The above command first compiles file1.ts in file1.js and watches for the file changes. If there is any change detected, it will compile the file again. Here, we need to ensure that the command prompt must not be closed on running with –watch option.

**13) What do you mean by interfaces?**

**Ans:**

An Interface is a structure which acts as a contract in our application. It defines the syntax for classes to follow, it means a class that implements an interface is bound to implement all its members. It cannot be instantiated but can be referenced by the class object that implements it. The TypeScript compiler uses an interface for type-checking (also known as “duck typing” or “structural subtyping”) whether the object has a specific structure or not.

The interface just declares the methods and fields. It cannot be used to build anything. Interfaces need not be converted to JavaScript for execution. They have zero runtime JavaScript impact. Thus, their only purpose is to help in the development stage.

**14) What is the difference between the internal module and the external module?**

**Ans:**

The difference between internal and external module is given below:

Internal modules were used to logically group the classes, interfaces, functions, variables into a single unit and can be exported in another module. | External modules are useful in hiding the internal statements of the module definitions and show only the methods and parameters associated with the declared variable. |

Internal modules were in the earlier version of Typescript. But they are still supported by using namespace in the latest version of TypeScript. | External modules are simply known as a module in the latest version of TypeScript. |

Internal modules are local or exported members of other modules (including the global module and external modules). | External modules are separately loaded bodies of code referenced using external module names. |

Internal modules are declared using ModuleDeclarations that specify their name and body. | An external module is written as a separate source file that contains at least one import or export declaration. |

**15) What are Mixins?**

**Ans:**

- In Javascript, Mixins are a way of building up classes from reusable components by combining simpler partial classes called mixins.
- The idea is simple: instead of a class A extending class B to get its functionality, function B takes class A and returns a new class with this added functionality. Function B is a mixin.

**16) What is the tsconfig.json file?**

**Ans:**

The tsconfig.json file is a file which is in JSON format. In the tsconfig.json file, we can specify various options to tell the compiler how to compile the current project. The presence of a tsconfig.json file in a directory indicates that the directory is the root of a TypeScript project. Below is a sample tsconfig.json file.

- {
- “compilerOptions”: {
- “declaration”: true,
- “emitDecoratorMetadata”: false,
- “experimentalDecorators”: false,
- “module”: “none”,
- “moduleResolution”: “node”
- “removeComments”: true,
- “sourceMap”: true
- },
- “files”: [
- “main.ts”,
- “other module.ts”

- function check(x, nam
- e) {
- if (x == null) {
- console.log(name + ‘ == null’);
- }
- if (x === null) {
- console.log(name + ‘ === null’);
- }
- if (typeof x === ‘undefined’) {
- console.log(name + ‘ is undefined’);
- }
- }
- check(a, ‘a’);
- check(b, ‘b’);

**17) What is the difference between “interface vs type” statements?**

**Ans:**

An interface declaration always introduces a named object type. | A type alias declaration can introduce a name for any kind of type, including primitive, union, and intersection types. |

An interface can be named in an extends or implements clause. | Type aliases for an object type literal cannot be named in an extends or implements clause. |

Interfaces create a new name that is used everywhere. | Type aliases don’t create a new name. |

An interface can have multiple merged declarations. | Type alias for an object type literal cannot have multiple merged declarations. |

**18) What are Rest parameters?**

**Ans:**

The rest parameter is used to pass zero or more values to a function. It is declared by prefixing the three dot characters (‘…’)before the parameter. It allows the functions to have a variable number of arguments without using the arguments object. It is very useful where we have an undetermined number of parameters.

**19) Explain Relative vs. Non-relative module imports.**

**Ans:**

A non-relative import can be resolved relative to baseUrl, or through path mapping. In other words, we use non-relative paths when importing any of our external dependencies.Example:import * as $ from “jquery”;import { Component } from “@angular/core”; | Relative imports can be used for our own modules that are guaranteed to maintain their relative location at runtime. A relative import is starts with /, ./ or ../.Example:import Entry from “./components/Entry”;import {DefaultHeaders} from “../constants/http”; |

**20) What is an anonymous function?**

**Ans:**

An anonymous function is a function that was declared without any named identifier. These functions are dynamically declared at runtime. Anonymous functions can accept inputs and return outputs, just as standard functions do. An anonymous function is usually not accessible after its initial creation.

**21) What is Declaration Merging?**

**Ans:**

- Declaration merging is the process followed by the compiler to merge two or more separate declarations. The declaration is declared with the same name into a single definition. This merged definition has the features of both of the original declarations.
- The simplest, and perhaps most common, type of declaration merging is interface merging. At the most basic level, the merge mechanically joins the members of both declarations into a single interface with the same name

**22) What is the Lambda/Arrow function?**

**Ans:**

The ES6 version of TypeScript provides shorthand syntax for defining the anonymous function, i.e., for function expressions. These arrow functions are also called Lambda functions. A lambda function is a function without a name. Arrow function omits the function keyword.

**23) Explain why that code is marked as WRONG? Explain why that code is marked as WRONG?**

**Ans:**

Don’t use optional parameters in callbacks unless you really mean it. This code has a very specific meaning: the done callback might be invoked with 1 argument or might be invoked with 2 arguments. The author probably intended to say that the callback might not care about the elapsedTime parameter, but there’s no need to make the parameter optional to accomplish this – it’s always legal to provide a callback that accepts fewer arguments.

**24) Why do we need it?**

**Ans:**

- JavaScript is the only client side language universally supported by all browsers. But JavaScript is not the best designed language. It’s not a class-based object-oriented language, doesn’t support class based inheritance, unreliable dynamic typing and lacks in compile time error checking. And TypeScript addresses all these problems. In other words, TypeScript is an attempt to “fix” JavaScript problems.
- TypeScript is a free and open source programming language developed and maintained by Microsoft. It is a strict superset of JavaScript, and adds optional static typing and class-based object-oriented programming to the language. TypeScript is quite easy to learn and use for developers familiar with C#, Java and all strong typed languages. At the end of day “TypeScript is a language that generates plain JavaScript files.”
- As stated on Typescript’s official website, “TypeScript lets you write JavaScript the way you really want to. TypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that compiles to plain JavaScript. Any browser. Any host. Any OS. Open Source.” Where “typed” means that it considers the types of variables, parameters and functions.

**25) How can you allow classes defined in a module to be accessible outside of the module?**

**Ans:**

Classes defined in a module are available within the module. Outside the module you can’t access them.

As per above code, fordCar variable will give us compile time error. To make classes accessible outside the module use export keyword for classes.

**26)What is the SPSS REPLACE Function?**

**Ans:**

SPSS REPLACE function replaces a substring in a string with a different (possibly empty) substring.

**27)What are the data views and variable views in SPSS?**

**Ans:**

Data View: In Data, view we inspect our actual data. Variable View: In Variable, we see additional information about the data where each line is a variable, and all the sections are a characteristic related with that variable.

**28)How to create a scatterplot with a regression line in spss?**

**Ans:**

Another is by using graph command.

**29)How do I use SAS data files in SPSS?**

**Ans:**

If you are using SPSS variation 14 or later, you can open it as a data record.

Select File – > Open – > Data… and after that for Files of Type select the reasonable sas data record make; by then select the report from the summary and snap Open. That is all to it.

With SPSS language structure, use ‘get sas’ to peruse in a SAS data record. get sas data=’C:datastates.sas7bdat’

**Ans:**

**30)How to create a variable that stores the number of reciprocal friends?**

- Step1: Turning the data to long format
- Step2: Merge with the original data matching the variable friend in current data. Rename the variables and save the data by id.
- Step3: Check whether focal and id are a pair of reciprocal friends.
- Step4: Aggregate the long data to a single focal per row and merge back into the original data set.

**31)How can I calculate the time at dropout?**

**Ans:**

While dealing with longitudinal data, there may be cases of participants dropping out. To find out when the dropout occurs, we need to create a variable that indicates when a participant is dropping out.

**32)How do I convert among SAS, Stata, and SPSS files?**

**Ans:**

On this page, conversions of different data formats are discussed. In general, the strategies should work with SAS 9.*, SPSS 14+, and Stata 11. If you have Stata 11 and you need to convert your data to other formats, you need to use the saved command within Stata for saving the data in Stata version 10 format before you convert the data set.

From SAS | -How do I use a SAS data file in SPSS? | -How do I use a SAS data file in Stata? | |

From SPSS | -How do I use an SPSS data file in SAS? | -How do I use an SPSS data file in Stata? | |

From Stata | -How do I use a Stata data file in SAS? | -How do I use a Stata data file in SPSS? |

Another way to convert data files between SAS, Stata, and SPSS is to use programs such as Stat/Transfer or DBMS Copy. For more information on Stat/Transfer. You can transfer the SAS version 9.*, Stata 11, and SPSS 19 files. Stat/Transfer allows you to transfer data files to many other file formats, including Statistica, Systat, S-Plus, R, Excel, Access, Minitab, Matlab, LIMDEP and JMP. You may need to update your copy of Stat/Transfer to be able to transfer data sets created by the latest version of the software. To update Stat/Transfer, click on the “About” tab (in the upper right corner), and click on the “Check for Updates” pull-down menu and select “Right Now”.

**33)How can I read hierarchical data into SPSS?**

**Ans:**

Suppose that your data file has two different kinds of records, family records, and person records. How do you read the data so that the family information is included for each person

Here is an example dataset with two kinds of records: Family records and person records. The data are organized such that the family record comes first and all the person records for that family follow it. The family records are the shorter data lines and the personal records are the longer ones. Here are the codebooks for the family and person records.

| |
---|---|

column 1-5 family id column 7 record type (1 = family) column 9 group | column 1-4 person id column 5 person number column 7 record type (2= person) column 8-9 age column 11 male |

**34)How can I compare two data sets in SPSS? or How do I check that the same data input by two people is consistently entered?**

**Ans:**

There are times when you would like to compare two data sets to see if they are exactly the same. For example, if two people enter the same data (double data entry), you would want to know if any discrepancies exist between the two datasets (the rationale of double data entry), and if so, where those discrepancies are. We start by reading in the two datasets, one entered by person 1 and the second by person 2. The two data sets are identical, except that we created a missing value in the ninth row, the second variable, in the first data set, and we changed the very last entry from 51 to 52 in the second data set.

**35)How can I compare two data sets in SPSS? how do I check that the same data input by two people are consistently entered?**

**Ans:**

There are times when you would like to compare two data sets to see if they are exactly the same. For example, if two people enter the same data (double data entry), you would want to know if any discrepancies exist between the two datasets (the rationale of double data entry), and if so, where those discrepancies are. We start by reading in the two datasets, one entered by person 1 and the second by person 2.

**36)How can SPSS help me document my data?**

**Ans:**

The codebook command was introduced in SPSS version 17. It provides information about the variables in a dataset, such as the type, variable labels, value labels, as well as the number of cases in each level of categorical variables and means and standard deviations of continuous variables. This information can be as important as the data themselves, because it helps to give meaning to the data. Also, this information can help you distinguish between two similar datasets.

**37)How can I convert string variables into date variables?**

**Ans:**

Sometimes date data have been entered as string variables, and these variables need to be converted into numeric variables. Date variables are numeric variables in SPSS, and as such, they can be added, subtracted, etc. Specifically, date variables in SPSS are the number of seconds since the beginning of the Gregorian calendar, which was October 14, 1582.

**38)How do I create and modify string (character) variables?**

**Ans:**

There are at least two ways to create a string variable in SPSS. In our first example, we show how to input string variables into a new data set. In the next example, we show how to create a string variable in an existing data set. In the last example, we will show how to remove unwanted characters from a string variable.

**39)How can I see the number of missing values and patterns of missing values in my data file?**

**Ans:**

Sometimes, a data set may have “holes” in them, i.e., missing values. Some statistical procedures such as regression analysis will not work as well, or at all on a data set with missing values. The observations with missing values have to be either deleted or the missing values have to be substituted in order for a statistical procedure to produce meaningful results. Thus we may want to know the number of missing values and the distribution of those missing values so we have a better idea on what to do with the observations with missing values. Let’s look at the following data set.

**40)Compare SAS STATA & SPSS?**

**Ans:**

Each package offers its own unique strengths and weaknesses. As a whole, SAS, Stata, and SPSS form a set of tools that can be used for a wide variety of statistical analysis. With Stat/Transfer it is very easy to convert data files from one package to another in just a matter of seconds or minutes. Therefore, there can be quite an advantage to switching from one analysis package to another depending on the nature of your problem. For example, if you were performing analysis using mixed models you might choose SAS, but if you were doing logistic regression you might choose Stata, and if you were doing analysis of variance you might choose SPSS. If you are frequently performing statistical analysis, we would strongly urge you to consider making each one of these packages part of your toolkit for data analysis.

**41)How to create a variable that contains the number of reciprocal friends?**

**Ans:**

When studying social networks, we might need to create a variable that contains the number of reciprocal friends for each person. We show a step-by-step example on this page using a wide data format. Click here to access the data. Here is how our data set structured

**42)How can I calculate the time at dropout?**

**Ans:**

Version info: Code for this page was tested in IBM SPSS 21. When working with longitudinal data, there is often participant dropout. To examine when dropout occurs and to see if any variables predict dropout, we need to create a variable indicating when each person drops out of the study.

**43)How do I use a SAS data file in SPSS?**

**Ans:**

Using SPSS software: If you are an SPSS user and you are using SPSS version 14 or later, you can simply open it as a data file, since SPSS supports SAS data files of different formats such as .sas7bdat, .sd7, .sd2, .ssd01 and .xpt. These files can be read directly into SPSS either via using the pull-down menu or via using the syntax.

Using the pull-down menus select File -> Open -> Data… and then for Files of Type select the appropriate sas data file type; then select the file from the list and click Open. That is all to it.

With SPSS syntax we can use the get sas command to read in a SAS data file. get sas data=’C:datastates.sas7bdat’.

**44)How do I convert among SAS, Stata and SPSS files?**

**Ans:**

On this page, conversions of different data formats are discussed. In general, the strategies should work with SAS 9.*, SPSS 14+ and Stata

**45)What is SPSS REPLACE Function? **

**Ans:**

SPSS REPLACE replaces a substring in a string with a different (possibly empty) substring.

**46)How Do I Check That The Same Data Input By Two People Are Consistently Entered?
**

**Ans:**

There are times when you would like to compare two data sets to see if they are exactly the same. For example, if two people enter the same data (double data entry), you would want to know if any discrepancies exist between the two datasets (the rationale of double data entry), and if so, where those discrepancies are. We start by reading in the two datasets, one entered by person1 and the second by person2. The two data sets are identical, except that we created a missing value in the ninth row, second variable, in the first data set, and we changed the very last entry from 51 to 52 in the second data set.

After entering each data set, we need to sort the data set. In our example, we will sort the data set on all variables, starting with the first variable in the data set. We use the SPSS keyword to do this. We use this method because it is very general and will work in many situations. (However, if you want to compare the files on only a few variables in the data set, you will need to list the variables in the same order in both sorts and on the subcommand of the update command.) After sorting the data set, we save it. We do this for both data sets.

**47)How Can I Compare Two Data Sets In Spss? **

**Ans:**

The codebook command was introduced in SPSS version 17. It provides information about the variables in a dataset, such as the type, variable labels, value labels, as well as the number of cases in each level of categorical variables and means and standard deviations of continuous variables. This information can be as important as the data themselves, because it helps to give meaning to the data. Also, this information can help you distinguish between two similar datasets.

**48)How Can Spss Help Me Document My Data?**

**Ans:**

Sometimes date data have been entered as string variables, and these variables need to be converted into numeric variables. Date variables are numeric variables in SPSS, and as such, they can be added, subtracted, etc. Specifically, date variables in SPSS are the number of seconds since the beginning of the Gregorian calendar, which was October 14, 1582. Let’s look at an example data set below. We see that we have date data entered as string variables in three different ways. The examples below will show how to convert each of these into date (numeric) variables that can be used in calculations.

**49)How Can I Convert String Variables Into Date
Variables?
**

**Ans:**

There are at least two ways to create a string variable in SPSS. In our first example, we show how to input string variables into a new data set. In the next example, we show how to create a string variable in an existing data set. In the last example, we will show how to remove unwanted characters from a string variable.

**50)How Do I Create And Modify String (Character)
Variables?
**

**Ans:**

Sometimes, a data set may have “holes” in them, i.e., missing values. Some statistical procedures such as regression analysis will not work as well, or at all on a data set with missing values. The observations with missing values have to be either deleted or the missing values have to be substituted in order for a statistical procedure to produce meaningful results. Thus we may want to know the number of missing values and the distribution of those missing values so we have a better idea on what to do with the observations with missing values. Let’s look at the following data set.

**51)
How Can I Count How Many Cases Are Missing In A String
Variable?
**

**Ans:**

There are at least two ways to find out how many missing cases there are in a string variable. The first way is to use the missing values command to define a missing value for the variable. The second way is to create a new variable which is zero if the value is not missing and one if it is missing. To do that, you will need to use the length and the trim functions with the compute command.

Consider the data set below. We have two string variables, fname (first name) and lname (last name). Because we have given fname a length of five and lname a length of eight, both variables are short string variables. (Note that if we had just typed (A), the length of the string variable would have been one, not the length of the first case, as it would have been in other statistical packages, such as SAS.)

**52)How Can I See The Number Of Missing Values And Patterns
Of Missing Values In My Data File?
**

**Ans:**

Let’s suppose that you received the following data set and were asked to analyze the data. You quickly notice that the independent variable, group, is a string variable, but you want to try running an ANOVA anyway.

**53)How Can I Easily Convert A String Variable To A
Categorical Numeric Variable?
**

**Ans:**

Sometimes you have a data set with a variable that appears to be a numeric variable, perhaps because it has numeric values, but is really a string variable. Because you cannot perform most statistical operations on a string variable, you may want to turn the string variable into a numeric variable. Consider the following data set.

**54)How Can I Change A String Variable Into A Numeric
Variable?
**

**Ans:**

Suppose that you have a group of people. Each person is given his or her own unique id number. Next, one by one, you ask each person to pick a partner. For each person, you write down his or her id number in one column, and the id number of the partner in a second column. So, the first person picks a partner, and then both people rejoin the group. Then the next person selects a partner. Some people will select the person who had selected them as a partner, while others will select a new person to be their partner.

**55)How Can I Find Differently Ordered Pairs In My Data? **

**Ans:**

Group-mean centered and grand-mean centered variables are often used in multilevel models. Creating a single centered variable is simple enough to do, but creating several group-mean centered or grand-mean centered variables at once takes a little bit of programming. In the first example below, we will create an SPSS macro called group_cvars to create a series of group-mean centered variables. In the second example, we will create a macro called grand_cvars to create a series of grand-mean centered variables. We need to create macros for these tasks because we will be creating multiple new variables. We will use do-loops within the macros to assign names and values to the new variables.

**56)How Can I Create Multiple Grand-Mean Centered Or
Group-Mean Centered Variables?**

**Ans:**

Data analysis sometimes requires a dataset that contains all possible pairs of cases in your current dataset. This is particularly common when analyzing dyadic data. For example, if you have a group of children, you may want to form a dataset that pairs each child with each other child in the dataset so that you can study interaction at the dyad level. A more complex case is one in which you want to form all possible pairs within some set of groups in your data. For example, the children may be from different classrooms and you may wish to form pairs of students only within the classroom.

Below we show two examples of creating a dataset of matched pairs. The first example creates all possible pairs in the dataset. The second example extends the first by forming all possible pairs within groups defined by a variable in our dataset. The examples show how to match pairs, as well as how to “clean up” the results, for example, by removing duplicate pairs

**57)How Can I Form All Possible Pairs In My Dataset?**

**Ans:**

If you have been working on your data in SPSS, but need to move to Mplus to complete your analysis, you can prepare and save your data in a form that Mplus can read. We will be preparing the dataset sample

**58)How Can I Move My Data From Spss To Mplus?
**

**Ans:**

Let’s say that we have done a simple regression analysis by group and we want to create a new column in the original data set that contains the slope for each group. We show an example here on how to accomplish this using OMS (Output Management System) utility. This example can be generalized to many other situations, such as to multiple regression or different types of regression models

**59)How Can you Create A New Variable That Contains The Slopes
From A Regression Analysis By Group?
**

**Ans:**

- The create command has many functions that are useful for making new variables. Below is a list of these functions.

CSUM | Cumulative sum |

DIFF | Difference |

FFT | Fast Fourier transform |

IFFT | Inverse fast Fourier transform |

LAG | Lag |

LEAD | Lead |

MA | Centered moving averages |

PMA | Prior moving averages |

RMED | Running medians |

SDIFF | Seasonal difference |

T4253H | Smoothing |

**60)What Are Some Of The Differences Between The Compute,
Create And Shift Values Commands?
**

**Ans:**

SPSS has several commands that allow users to generate new variables using functions. Among these are compute, create and shift values. Below we will show some of the similarities and differences between these commands, so that you can decide which command best suits your needs.

**61)How To Create A Variable That Contains The Number Of
Reciprocal Friends?
**

**Ans:**

Each person can nominate up to 5 friends. For example, focal person with id = 44006 has nominated 4 friends and we want to know how many of these 4 friends have also nominated 44006, that is the number of reciprocal friends initiated by 44006. One way to accomplish this task is to first turn the data in long format so each focal person will have as many rows of data as the number of friends nominated. Then we merge back the original data matching focal id with friend. At this point, we can simply identify by rows if the focal id and the friend is a reciprocal friend. Last, we aggregate the data back to get the total number of reciprocal friends.

**62)How Can I Calculate Time At Dropout? **

**Ans:**

When working with longitudinal data, there is often participant dropout. To examine when dropout occurs and to see if any variables predict dropout, we need to create a variable indicating when each person drops out of the study.

**63)How Can I Compare Regression Coefficients Between Two
Groups?
**

**Ans:**

Sometimes your research hypothesis may predict that the size of a regression coefficient should be bigger for one group than for another. For example, you might believe that the regression coefficient of height predicting weight would be higher for men than for women. Below, we have a data file with 10 fictional females and 10 fictional males, along with their height in inches and their weight in pounds.

**64)How Can I Compare Regression Coefficients Across Three
(Or More) Groups?
**

**Ans:**

Sometimes your research hypothesis may predict that the size of a regression coefficient may vary across groups. For example, you might believe that the regression coefficient of height predicting weight would differ across three age groups (young, middle age, senior citizen). Below, we have a data file with 10 fictional young people, 10 fictional middle age people, and 10 fictional senior citizens, along with their height in inches and their weight in pounds. The variable age indicates the age group and is coded 1 for young people, 2 for middle aged, and 3 for senior citizens. Below we show two ways that you can get this data file into SPSS. One way is to cut and paste the following code into an SPSS syntax window and run it.

**65)How Can I Explain A Three-Way Interaction In
Anova?
**

**Ans:**

First off, let’s start with what a significant three-way interaction means. It means that there is a two-way interaction that varies across levels of a third variable. Say, for example, that a b*c interaction differs across various levels of factor a.

One way of analyzing the three-way interaction is through the use of tests of simple main-effects, e.g., the effect of one variable (or set of variables) across the levels of another variable.

**66)How Can I Use Aggregate And Oms To Help Explain A
Three-Way Interaction In Anova?
**

**Ans:**

First off, let’s start with what a significant three-way interaction means. It means that there is a two-way interaction that varies across levels of a third variable. Say, for example, that a b*c interaction differs across various levels of factor a.

One way of analyzing the three-way interaction is through the use of tests of simple main-effects, e.g., the effect of one variable (or set of variables) across the levels of another variable.

We need to select a two-way interaction to look at more closely. For the purposes of this example we will examine the b*c interaction. We can use the plot subcommand of the glm command to graph the b*c interaction for each of the two levels of a. We use the emmeans subcommands to get the numeric values that are displayed on the graphs.

**67)How Can I Compare Regression Coefficients Across Three
(Or More) Groups?
**

**Ans:**

Sometimes your research hypothesis may predict that the size of a regression coefficient may vary across groups. For example, you might believe that the regression coefficient of height predicting weight would differ across three age groups (young, middle age, senior citizen). Below, we have a data file with 10 fictional young people, 10 fictional middle age people, and 10 fictional senior citizens, along with their height in inches and their weight in pounds. The variable age indicates the age group and is coded 1 for young people, 2 for middle aged, and 3 for senior citizens. Below we show two ways that you can get this data file into SPSS. One way is to cut and paste the following code into an SPSS syntax window and run it.

**68)How Can I Create A Scatterplot With A Regression Line In
Spss?
**

**Ans:**

There are at least two ways to make a scatterplot with a regression line in SPSS. One way is to use the graph command, and another way is to use the ggraph command.

**69)How Can I Output The Results Of My Regression To An Spss
Data File?
**

**Ans:**

Sometimes it is useful to output the results of a regression analysis to a data file for further analyses. To do this in SPSS, you can use the output subcommand of the regression command. You have two choices of what to save using this subcommand: you can save the covariance matrix of the coefficients (with the covb option) or you can save the correlation matrix of the coefficients (with the covr option). Let us use a data set called hsb2 as an example. We will save the results and the covariance matrix of the coefficients in a file called out1.sav.

**70)
How Can I Run A Piecewise Regression In Spss?
**

**Ans:**

Say that you want to look at the relationship between how much a child talks on the phone and the age of the child. You get a random sample of 200 kids. You ask them how old they are and how many minutes they spend talking on the phone.

**71)How Can I Get Out-Of-Sample Predicted Values?**

**Ans:**

Sometimes it is useful to get predicted values for cases that were not used in the regression analysis. There are two ways to do this in SPSS. Let’s use the hsb2 dataset and create some missing values in a variable. Specifically, we will set the first nine values in the variable write to be missing. Then we will use write as our outcome variable in an OLS regression analysis. Of course, the cases with missing values will not be used in the analysis, but we can still get the predicted values for those cases.

**72)Where to find the syntax editor in SPSS?**

**Ans:**

A much better idea, however, is to click the Paste button. Upon doing so, a new SPSS window opens which is known as the Syntax Editor. It’s recognized by the orange icon in its left top corner. The Syntax Editor contains a FREQUENCIES order which holds the directions we just gave SPSS in the Frequencies exchange.

**73) What kind of table structure does SPSS have?**

**Ans:**

Although the Syntax dialect can sound threatening, it is anything but difficult to utilize. SPSS datasets dependably have a 2-dimensional table structure where the columns normally speak to cases, (for example, people or family units) and the sections or factors speak to estimations, (for example, age, sex, or family unit wage).

**74)What are the factual capacities of the SPSS?**

**Ans:**

Its factual capacities run from straightforward rates to complex investigations of difference, numerous relapses, and general straight models. The numerous highlights of SPSS are open by means of pull-down menus or can be modified with a proprietary syntax language.

**75)What is the frequency of yes answers in SPSS?**

**Ans:**

Frequency of “yes” answers for dependent variables in the actual data set is 21 events out of 174. Am I setting up the options incorrectly on the regression? Any help appreciated!

**76)How many input variables are there in SPSS?**

**Ans:**

**77)How does the choice of SPSS depend on?**

**Ans:**

The choice depends on the satisfaction of parametric testing prerequisites (most importantly: distribution of variable values statistically insignificantly different from a Gaussian distribution; and homoscedasticity across the variable values).

**78) What are the types of biases that you can encounter while sampling?**

**Ans:**

- Selection bias
- urvivorship bias
- Under coverage bias

There are three types of biases:

**79) What is the meaning of TF/IDF vectorization?**

**Ans:**

- TF-IDF is an acronym for Term Frequency – Inverse Document Frequency. It is used as a numerical measure to denote the importance of a word in a document. This document is usually called the collection or the corpus.

The TF-IDF value is directly proportional to the number of times a word is repeated in a document. TF-IDF is vital in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) as it is mostly used in the domain of text mining and information retrieval.

**80)A paired samples t-test is different from an independent t-test because it:**

**Ans:**

compares groups on correlations Correlation” is a statistical tool used to assess the degree of association of two quantitative variables measured in each member of a group. … To illustrate various concepts, we use scatter plots, a graphical method of showing values of two variables for each individual in a group.

**81)Which statement is true about IQR (interquartile range)? (Select all that apply)**

**Ans:**

It is used to measure the spread of the data E B. It indicates whether the variable is normally distributed or not It is the range between the values at the 25th and 75th percentile

**82)What’s the market share of SPSS in IBM?**

**Ans:**

to research, SPSS has a market share of about 29.5%. So, You still have the opportunity to move ahead in your career in SPSS Analytics. Mindmajix offers Advanced SPSS Interview Questions 2021 that helps you in cracking your interview & acquire a dream career as an IBM SPSS Analyst.

**83)What are the advantages and disadvantages of SPSS?**

**Ans:**

The numerous highlights of SPSS are open by means of pull-down menus or can be modified with a proprietary syntax language. Syntax programming has the advantages of reproducibility and taking care of complex information controls and investigations. Although the Syntax dialect can sound threatening, it is anything but difficult to utilize.

**84)What are the factual capacities of the SPSS?**

**Ans:**

Its factual capacities run from straightforward rates to complex investigations of difference, numerous relapses, and general straight models. The numerous highlights of SPSS are open by means of pull-down menus or can be modified with a proprietary syntax language.

**85)What kind of table structure does SPSS have?**

**Ans:**

Although the Syntax dialect can sound threatening, it is anything but difficult to utilize. SPSS datasets dependably have a 2-dimensional table structure where the columns normally speak to cases, (for example, people or family units) and the sections or factors speak to estimations, (for example, age, sex, or family unit wage).

**86)Which is better for data processing SAS or SPSS?**

**Ans:**

Data processing is faster in SAS as compared to SPSS. SPSS does process data quickly but only when it is small in amount. When data gets larger is it difficult to handle it through SPSS. SAS can easily handle large amounts of data.

**87)Why is SPSS known as the first statistical programming language?**

**Ans:**

That is the reason it is known as IBM SPSS. SPSS is widely used by researchers, education researchers, marketing organizations, and data miners. It was the first-ever statistical programming language for the PC. It is one of the best programming languages to do reporting via tables and charts.

**88)Which is better to use, SPSS or Stata?**

**Ans:**

Given that you’re from an Economics background, it is suggested to go ahead with STATA or SPSS. Stata has witnessed a rapid rise in the last few years ,especially all international orgs in India like the UN office,World Bank regional office,Institute of economic growth, NCAER they all have swapped from spss to stata.

**89)How is SPSS used in the Social Sciences?**

**Ans:**

SPSS is basically software that is used in statistical analysis. It is an abbreviation for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. It is also used by market researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government, education researchers, marketing organizations and data miners.

**90)What is SPSS used for?**

**Ans:**

SPSS is a Software which is widely used as an Statistical Analytic Tool in the Field of Social Science, Such as Market research, Surveys, Competitor Analysis, and others.

**91)What is SPSS in statistics?**

**Ans:**

SPSS is short for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, and it’s used by various kinds of researchers for complex statistical data analysis. The SPSS software package was created for the management and statistical analysis of social science data.

**92)What statistical analysis should I use?**

**Ans:**

Typically, linear, ordinal, or multinomial regressions are the appropriate statistical analyses to use when the outcome variables are interval, ordinal, or categorical-level variables, respectively.

**93)What are examples of statistical analysis?**

**Ans:**

Statistical analysis is the science of collecting data and uncovering patterns and trends. It’s really just another way of saying “statistics.” After collecting data you can analyze it to: Summarize the data. For example, make a pie chart. Find key measures of location.

**94)How is the data view used in SPSS?**

**Ans:**

When you use SPSS, you work in one of several windows: the data view, the variable view, the output view, the draft output view. Eventually you’ll also use the syntax editor (think: code) to save or refine your queries. The data view The data view displays your actual data and any new variables you have created.

**95)When was the first version of SPSS created?**

**Ans:**

The SPSS Corporation initially created the SPSS software system package within the early 1980’s and has recently discharged version eleven. It presently one among the foremost usually used applied math packages. The benefits of the package area unit its relative simple use, its familiarity to several applied math consultants and its practicality.

**96)How can SPSS help you understand the demand for a product?**

**Ans:**

With the help of the obtained statistical information, researchers can easily understand the demand for a product in the market, and can change their strategy accordingly. Basically, SPSS first stores and organizes the provided data, then it compiles the data set to produce suitable output.

**97)What was the original name of SPSS software?**

**Ans:**

Long produced by SPSS Inc., it was acquired by IBM in 2009. Current versions (post 2015) have the brand name: IBM SPSS Statistics. The software name originally stood for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), reflecting the original market, then later changed to Statistical Product and Service Solutions.

**98)When was the first stage of SPSS growth?**

**Ans:**

There have been five stages of growth in the institutional history of SPSS: 1968-1975: “SPSS became a product,” when the technology was first developed and grew on its own as an academic enterprise.

**99)Where was SPSS reincorporated as a public company?**

**Ans:**

SPSS is reincorporated in Delaware and is taken public on the NASDAQ exchange. The company made an acquisition (of SYSTAT Inc.), and released software compatible with Microsoft Windows 95. SPSS embarks upon an expansion strategy and acquires eight companies in the coming five years.

**SPSS Sample Resumes! Download & Edit, Get Noticed by Top Employers!**Download

**100)When did NASA start using SPSS for Mean Time?**

**Ans:**

NASA began using SPSS for mean time between part failure on the space shuttle in the mid-1970s, and the National Forest Service used the software for incidences of injuries and bear encounters throughout the national parks system.