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Python Operators

Must-Know Python Operators & How To Master It

Last updated on 23rd Jun 2020, Blog, General

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Operators are the constructs which can manipulate the value of operands.Consider the expression 4 + 5 = 9. Here, 4 and 5 are called operands and + is called operator.

Types of Operator

Python language supports the following types of operators.

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Comparison (Relational) Operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Bitwise Operators
  • Membership Operators
  • Identity Operators

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    Python Arithmetic Operators

    Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then −

    Example:

    OperatorDescriptionExample

    + Addition

    Adds values on either side of the operator.

    a + b = 30

    – Subtraction

    Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand.

    a – b = -10

    * Multiplication

    Multiplies values on either side of the operator

    a * b = 200

    / Division

    Divides left hand operand by right hand operand

    b / a = 2

    % Modulus

    Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder

    b % a = 0

    ** Exponent

    Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators

    a**b =10 to the power 20

    //

    Floor Division – The division of operands where the result is the quotient in which the digits after the decimal point are removed. But if one of the operands is negative, the result is floored, i.e., rounded away from zero (towards negative infinity)

    9//2 = 4 and 9.0//2.0 = 4.0, -11//3 = -4, -11.0//3 = -4.0

    Python Comparison Operators

    These operators compare the values on either sides of them and decide the relation among them. They are also called Relational operators.

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    Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then −

    Example:

    Python Assignment Operators

    Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then −

    OperatorDescriptionExample
    ==If the values of two operands are equal, then the condition becomes true.(a == b) is not true.
    !=If values of two operands are not equal, then the condition becomes true.(a != b) is true.
    <>If values of two operands are not equal, then the condition becomes true.(a <> b) is true. This is similar to != operator.
    >If the value of the left operand is greater than the value of the right operand, then the condition becomes true.(a > b) is not true.
    <If the value of the left operand is less than the value of the right operand, then the condition becomes true.(a < b) is true.
    >=If the value of the left operand is greater than or equal to the value of the right operand, then the condition becomes true.(a >= b) is not true.
    <=If the value of the left operand is less than or equal to the value of the right operand, then the condition becomes true.(a <= b) is true.

    Example:

    OperatorDescriptionExample
    =Assigns values from right side operands to left side operandc = a + b assigns value of a + b into c
    += Add ANDIt adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operandc += a is equivalent to c = c + a
    -= Subtract ANDIt subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operandc -= a is equivalent to c = c – a
    *= Multiply ANDIt multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operandc *= a is equivalent to c = c * a
    /= Divide ANDIt divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operandc /= a is equivalent to c = c / a
    %= Modulus ANDIt takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operandc %= a is equivalent to c = c % a
    **= Exponent ANDPerforms exponential (power) calculation on operators and assign value to the left operandc **= a is equivalent to c = c ** a
    //= Floor DivisionIt performs floor division on operators and assign value to the left operandc //= a is equivalent to c = c // a

    Python Bitwise Operators

    Bitwise operator works on bits and performs bit by bit operation. Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; Now in the binary format their values will be 0011 1100 and 0000 1101 respectively. Following table lists out the bitwise operators supported by Python language with an example each in those, we use the above two variables (a and b) as operands −

    • a = 0011 1100
    • b = 0000 1101
    • —————–
    • a&b = 0000 1100
    • a|b = 0011 1101
    • a^b = 0011 0001
    • ~a  = 1100 0011

    There are following Bitwise operators supported by Python language

    Example:

    OperatorDescriptionExample
    & Binary ANDOperator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands(a & b) (means 0000 1100)
    | Binary ORIt copies a bit if it exists in either operand.(a | b) = 61 (means 0011 1101)
    ^ Binary XORIt copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both.(a ^ b) = 49 (means 0011 0001)
    ~ Binary Ones ComplementIt is unary and has the effect of ‘flipping’ bits.(~a ) = -61 (means 1100 0011 in 2’s complement form due to a signed binary number.
    << Binary Left ShiftThe left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand.a << 2 = 240 (means 1111 0000)
    >> Binary Right ShiftThe left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand.a >> 2 = 15 (means 0000 1111)

    Python Logical Operators

    There are following logical operators supported by Python language. Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20 then

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    Example:

    OperatorDescriptionExample
    and Logical ANDIf both the operands are true then condition becomes true.(a and b) is true.
    or Logical ORIf any of the two operands are non-zero then the condition becomes true.(a or b) is true.
    not Logical NOTUsed to reverse the logical state of its operand.Not(a and b) is false.

    Python Membership Operators

    Python’s membership operators test for membership in a sequence, such as strings, lists, or tuples. There are two membership operators as explained below −

    Example:

    OperatorDescriptionExample
    inEvaluates to true if it finds a variable in the specified sequence and false otherwise.x in y, here in results in a 1 if x is a member of sequence y.
    not inEvaluates to true if it does not find a variable in the specified sequence and false otherwise.x not in y, here not in results in a 1 if x is not a member of sequence y.

    Python Identity Operators

    Identity operators compare the memory locations of two objects. There are two Identity operators explained below −

    Example:

    OperatorDescriptionExample
    isEvaluates to true if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and false otherwise.x is y, here it results in 1 if id(x) equals id(y).
    is notEvaluates to false if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and true otherwise.x is not y, here is not results in 1 if id(x) is not equal to id(y).

    Python Operators Precedence

    The following table lists all operators from highest precedence to lowest.

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    Example:

    Sr.No.Operator & Description
    1**Exponentiation (raise to the power)
    2~ + -Complement, unary plus and minus (method names for the last two are +@ and -@)
    3* / % //Multiply, divide, modulo and floor division
    4+ -Addition and subtraction
    5>> <<Right and left bitwise shift
    6&Bitwise ‘AND’
    7^ |Bitwise exclusive `OR’ and regular `OR’
    8<= < > >=Comparison operators
    9<> == !=Equality operators
    10= %= /= //= -= += *= **=Assignment operators
    11is is notIdentity operators
    12in not inMembership operators
    13not or andLogical operators


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