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Last updated on 09th Jun 2020, Blog, Tutorials
Introduction to Internet of Things: IoT Tutorial with IoT Application
What is the Internet Of Things(IoT)?
Internet of Things(IoT) is a network of physical objects or people called “things” that are embedded with software, electronics, network, and sensors that allows these objects to collect and exchange data. The goal of IoT is to extend to internet connectivity from standard devices like computer, mobile, tablet to relatively dumb devices like a toaster.
IoT makes virtually everything “smart,” by improving aspects of our life with the power of data collection, AI algorithm, and networks. The thing in IoT can also be a person with a diabetes monitor implant, an animal with tracking devices, etc.
History of IOT
- 1970- The actual idea of connected devices was proposed
- 1990- John Romkey created a toaster which could be turned on/off over the Internet
- 1995- Siemens introduced the first cellular module built for M2M
- 1999- The term “Internet of Things” was used by Kevin Ashton during his work at P&G which became widely accepted
- 2004 – The term was mentioned in famous publications like the Guardian, Boston Globe, and Scientific American
- 2005-UN’s International Telecommunications Union (ITU) published its first report on this topic.
- 2008- The Internet of Things was born
- 2011- Gartner, the market research company, include “The Internet of Things” technology in their research
How IOT works?
The entire IOT process starts with the devices themselves like smartphones, smartwatches, electronic appliances like TV, Washing Machine which helps you to communicate with the IOT platform.
Here, are four fundamental components of an IoT system:
1) Sensors/Devices: Sensors or devices are a key component that helps you to collect live data from the surrounding environment. All this data may have various levels of complexities. It could be a simple temperature monitoring sensor, or it may be in the form of the video feed.
- A device may have various types of sensors which performs multiple tasks apart from sensing. Example, A mobile phone is a device which has multiple sensors like GPS, camera but your smartphone is not able to sense these things.
2) Connectivity: All the collected data is sent to a cloud infrastructure. The sensors should be connected to the cloud using various mediums of communications. These communication mediums include mobile or satellite networks, Bluetooth, WI-FI, WAN, etc.
3) Data Processing: Once that data is collected, and it gets to the cloud, the software performs processing on the gathered data. This process can be just checking the temperature, reading on devices like AC or heaters. However, it can sometimes also be very complex like identifying objects, using computer vision on video.
4)User Interface: The information needs to be available to the end-user in some way which can be achieved by triggering alarms on their phones or sending them notification through email or text message. The user sometimes might need an interface which actively checks their IOT system. For example, the user has a camera installed in his home. He wants to access video recording and all the feeds with the help of a web server.However, it’s not always one-way communication. Depending on the IoT application and complexity of the system, the user may also be able to perform an action which may create cascading effects.
- For example, if a user detects any changes in the temperature of the refrigerator, with the help of IOT technology the user should be able to adjust the temperature with the help of their mobile phone.
IoT solutions are widely used in numerous companies across industries. Some most common IoT applications are given below:
The most common IoT applications are:
- Smart Thermostats: Helps you to save resources on heating bills by knowing your usage patterns.
- Connected Cars: IoT helps automobile companies handle billing, parking, insurance, and other related stuff automatically.
- Activity Trackers: Helps you to capture heart rate patterns, calorie expenditure, activity levels, and skin temperature on your wrist.
- Smart Outlets: Remotely turn any device on or off. It also allows you to track a device’s energy level and get custom notifications directly into your smartphone.
- Parking Sensors: IoT technology helps users to identify the real-time availability of parking spaces on their phones.
- Connect Health: The concept of a connected healthcare system facilitates real-time health monitoring and patient care. It helps in improved medical decision-making based on patient data.
Challenges of IoT
At present IoT is faced with many challenges, such as:
- Insufficient testing and updating
- Concern regarding data security and privacy
- Software complexity
- Data volumes and interpretation
- Integration with AI and automation
- Devices require a constant power supply which is difficult
- Interaction and short-range communication
Advantages of IoT
Key benefits of IoT technology are as follows:
- Technical Optimization: IoT technology helps a lot in improving technologies and making them better. Example, with IoT, a manufacturer is able to collect data from various car sensors. The manufacturer analyzes them to improve its design and make them more efficient.
- Improved Data Collection: Traditional data collection has its limitations and its design for passive use. IoT facilitates immediate action on data.
- Reduced Waste: IoT offers real-time information leading to effective decision making & management of resources. For example, if a manufacturer finds an issue in multiple car engines, he can track the manufacturing plan of those engines and solves this issue with the manufacturing belt.
- Improved Customer Engagement: IoT allows you to improve customer experience by detecting problems and improving the process.
- Security: IoT technology creates an ecosystem of connected devices. However, during this process, the system may offer little authentication control despite sufficient security measures.
- Privacy: The use of IOT, exposes a substantial amount of personal data, in extreme detail, without the user’s active participation. This creates lots of privacy issues.
- Flexibility: There is a huge concern regarding the flexibility of an IoT system. It is mainly regarding integrating with another system as there are many diverse systems involved in the process.
- Complexity: The design of the IOT system is also quite complicated. Moreover, it’s deployment and maintenance is also not very easy.
- Compliance: IOT has its own set of rules and regulations. However, because of its complexity, the task of compliance is quite challenging.
IOT Best Practices
- Design products for reliability and security
- Use strong authentication and security protocols
- Disable non-essential services
- Ensure Internet-managed, and IoT management hubs & services are secured
- Energy efficient algorithms should be designed for the system to be active longer.
- The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of physical objects or people called “things” that are embedded with software, electronics, network, and sensors which allows these objects to collect and exchange data.
- The actual idea of connected devices was proposed in 1970
- Four Key components of IoT framework are 1) Sensors/Devices, 2) Connectivity, 3) Data Processing, 4) User Interface
- Various applications of IoT are Smart Thermostats, Connected Cars, Activity Trackers, Smart Outlets, Connect Health, etc
- Technical Optimization, Improve Data Collection, Reduced Waste, Improved Customer Engagement are key benefits of IoT
- Security, Privacy, Complexity, Compliance, are key challenges of IoT
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What is the difference between IoT and IIoT?
- The full form of IoT is the Internet of Things
- A service model is human-centric.
- Communication transportation is done through wireless device
- The quality of data is medium to high.
- Criticality is not severe.
IIOT: The full form of IIoT is the Industrial Internet of Things
- A service model is machine-centric.
- It supports industry-oriented applications.
- Communication transportation is done through both wired and wireless devices.
- The quality of data is high to very high.
- Criticality is severe.
List layers of IoT protocol stack
Layers of IoT protocol stack are: 1) Sensing and information, 2) Network connectivity, 3) Information processing layer, 4) Application layer.
List mostly used sensors types in IoT
Mostly used sensor types in IoT are:
- Smoke sensor
- Temperature sensors
- Pressure sensor
- Motion detection sensors
- Gas sensor
- Proximity sensor
- IR sensors
Mention the basic difference between IoT and sensor businesses?
- A sensor business does not need an active internet connection to work. Internet of Things requires a control side to work.
What is Bluetooth Low Energy?
- Bluetooth Low Energy is a wireless PAN (Personal Area Network) technology. It uses less power to transmit long-distance over a short distance.
- MicroPython is a Python implementation, which includes a small subset of its standard library. It can be optimized to run on the ModeMCU microcontroller.
List available models in Raspberry Pi
Models of Raspberry Pi are:
- Raspberry Pi 1 Model B
- Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+
- Raspberry Pi 1 Model A
- Raspberry Pi Zero
- Raspberry Pi 3 Model B
- Raspberry Pi 1model A+
- Raspberry Pi Zero W
- Raspberry Pi 2
Some of the commonly used water sensors
The commonly used water sensors are:
- Turbidity sensor
- Total organic carbon sensor
- pH sensor
- Conductivity sensor
Differentiate between Arduino and Raspberry pi
The difference between Arduino and Raspberry pi is:
- Arduino is an open, programmable USB microcontroller.
- Raspberry pi is a credit card size computer
Raspberry pi :
- It can execute one program at a time.
- Users can run more than one program at a time.
What are mostly used IoT protocols?
The mostly used IoT protocols are:
- Very Simple Control Protocol (VSCP)
- Data Distribution Service (DDS)
- MQTT protocol
- Simple Text Oriented Messaging Protocol(STOMP)
Mention some of the wearable Arduino boards
Wearable Arduino boards are:
- Lilypad Arduino main board
- Lilypad Arduino simple
- Lilypad Arduino simple snap
- Lilypad Arduino USB
Explain IoT GE-PREDIX:
GE or General Electric Predix is a software for the information assortment from industrial instruments. It offers a PaaS which allows users performance management and operation optimization facility. It connects instrumentation, people, and information in an exceedingly conventional technique.
Define IoT Contiki
IoT Contiki is software that targets explicitly little devices connected with the Internet. It is used with process power bandwidth, power, and restricted memory. Contiki helps for the management of programs, resources, processes, communication, and memory.
What are the operating systems supported by Pi?
Operating systems supported by Pi are:
- Open ELEC (Open Embedded Linux Entertainment center)
- RISC OS
- OSMC (Open Source Media Centre)
- Windows IoT Core
Difference between M2M and IoT?
- Communication is done within an embedded software at the client site.
- It uses isolated systems of devices having the same standards.
- A cellular network or wired network is used for device connectivity.
- Machines can communicate with one machine at a time.
- Communication is done for grand-scale projects.
- It uses integrated devices, applications, and data across varying standards.
- IoT is inherently more scalable.
- It uses an active Internet connection for device connectivity.
- Many machines can communicate with each other over the Internet.
What is IoT Testing?
IoT testing is a type of testing to check IoT devices. Today there is an increasing need to deliver better and faster services. There is a huge demand to access, create, use, and share data from any device. The thrust is to provide greater insight and control over various interconnected IoT devices. Hence, the IoT testing framework is important.
What are the types of IoT?
There are two types of IoT:
- Internet of Things: It creates a business that uses gadgets to perform a task.
- Industrial Internet of Things: It creates business in the industry like agriculture.
- LPWANs. Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWANs) are the new phenomenon in IoT. …
- Cellular (3G/4G/5G) …
- Zigbee and Other Mesh Protocols. …
- Bluetooth and BLE. …
- Wi-Fi. .& RFID
Explain the types of testing in IoT?
IoT devices testing types are:
- Usability Testing: There are so many devices of different shape and form factors are used by the users. Moreover, the perception also varies from one user to others. That’s why checking the usability of the system is very important in IoT testing.
- Compatibility Testing: There are lots of devices that can be connected through the IoT system. These devices have varied software and hardware configuration. Therefore, a possible combination is huge. As a result, checking the compatibility in the IoT system is important.
- Reliability and Scalability Testing: Reliability and Scalability is important for building an IoT test environment which involves a simulation of sensors by utilizing virtualization tools and technologies.
- Data Integrity Testing: It’s important to check the Data integrity in IoT testing as it requires a large amount of data and its application.
- Security testing: In the IoT environment, many users are accessing a massive amount of data. Thus, it is important to validate users via authentication, have data privacy controls as part of security testing.
- Performance Testing: Performance testing is important to create a strategic approach for developing and implementing an IoT testing plan.
What is the basic difference between the IoT network and Wireless Sensor Network?
Wireless Sensor Network things connected to the wireless network and gather some monitoring environment or data. IoT contains a combination of:
- Cloud Storage
- web or mobile application.
Internet of Things is the concept in which the virtual world of information technology connected to the real world of things. The technologies of the Internet of things such as RFID and Sensor make our life become better and more comfortable.Hope you have found all the details that you were looking for, in this article.