Top Oracle Tuxedo Interview Questions and Answers
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Top Oracle Tuxedo Interview Questions and Answers

Last updated on 17th Nov 2021, Blog, Interview Questions

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Oracle Tuxedo is a robust and highly scalable middleware platform designed to facilitate the development, deployment, and management of distributed applications. Developed by Oracle Corporation, Tuxedo provides a comprehensive set of features and services that enable enterprises to build mission-critical applications capable of handling high transaction volumes with low latency and high reliability.

1. What does Tuxedo mean?

Ans:

Transactions for Unix, Extended for Distributed Operations, is the full name of Tuxedo. In short, it’s a middleware platform that controls how computing environments are distributed and transactions are processed. Additionally, it is cross-platform software compatible with all operating systems. 

2. Describe middleware.

Ans:

In technical terms, middleware refers to a hidden layer or layers of software that sit between an application and the operating system. It includes standard features that are essential for numerous applications.  

3. What languages does Oracle Tuxedo support?

Ans:

Seven languages are used to write the software: C, C++, Java, Python, COBOL, Ruby, and PHP. The middleware, or framework, for developing scalable multi-tier client/server applications in dispersed, heterogeneous contexts spanning the Web and the enterprise is offered by Oracle Tuxedo.

4. What is the biggest benefit of a tuxedo?

Ans:

The biggest benefit of Tuxedo is its incredible clustering ability. In a split second, it can handle millions of queries. Due to its excellent optimization, it receives responses in a matter of microseconds.  

5. Which cluster does Oracle use?

Ans:

Oracle makes use of Real Application Clusters or Oracle RAC.  All of the rows from all of the tables that have the same cluster key are stored together in the Oracle database. Rows with the same hash key value are stored together in an Oracle Database hash cluster, which may consist of one or more tables.

6. Define Oracle Exadata’s primary features.

Ans:

  • Software level
  •  IORM (I/O Resource Manager)
  • Flash Cache
  • Smart Scan, and 
  • Hybrid Columnar Compression. 

7. How do we convert a regular database to an Exadata one?

Ans:

There are about nine different ways to accomplish that. 

  • One tangible standby
  • Reasonable Backup 
  • Import/Export
  • Conveyable Tablespace
  • Foldable Database
  • The Golden Portal
  • RMAN without heat 
  • Streams from Oracle
  • Restoration of hot backups

8. What is Exadata from Oracle?

Ans:

  • All that Exadata is is a data appliance. A server that already has a database installed and optimized is called a data appliance.
  • The Exadata database server is made up of three main parts: the Database Resource Manager, Cell Storage, Infiniband Switch, Cisco Switch, PDU, Database Instance, and ASM Instance.
  • Storage server cells, high-speed switches, and hardware-level functionality are among.

9. What does an Oracle hash cluster mean?

Ans:

An index clustered or nonclustered table with an index can be substituted with a hash cluster. Oracle Database uses key values stored in a separate index to locate the rows in a table when it has an indexed table or index cluster. You build a hash cluster and load tables into it in order to employ hashing.

10. What is RAC? 

Ans:

The best-shared disk database clustering technique offered by Oracle is called Oracle RAC. It is a scalable, highly available, flexible, and elastic clustered database solution. Oracle 9i marked the introduction of RAC in 2001. There is an enterprise edition in addition to the basic edition. 

11. What distinguishes an Oracle single instance from an RAC?

Ans:

  Feature Oracle Single Instance Oracle RAC
Architecture Single database instance on a single server Multiple database instances on multiple servers, forming a clustered environment
High Availability Limited high availability capabilities Provides high availability through the clustering of database instances across multiple servers
Scalability Limited scalability, typically vertical scaling (adding more resources to a single server) Scalable horizontally, allowing the addition of nodes to the cluster for increased capacity
Fault Tolerance Single point of failure; if the server goes down, the entire database becomes unavailable Improved fault tolerance as RAC allows database instances to failover to other nodes in case of a server failure
Performance Scales vertically by adding resources to a single server Scales horizontally by distributing the workload across multiple nodes, potentially improving performance

12. Describe SALT.

Ans:

Service architecture leveraging Tuxedo is known as SALT. The gateway is SOAP over HTTP. The Tuxedo API was designed to expose Tuxedo services as web services that can be called from within Tuxedo applications. SALT is determined by configuration. It has great availability and scalability. In the case of SALT, modifying the code is not necessary. 

13. What is included in the Oracle bundle?

Ans:

Logically related PL/SQL types, objects, and subprograms are grouped in an Oracle package, which is a schema object. Packages have a number of benefits: improved efficiency, information concealing, easier application design, modularity, and additional functionality.

14. Describe the fundamental ideas of PL/SQL.

Ans:

Oracle’s procedural SQL extension is called PL/SQL. SQL statements can be used to manipulate data in PL/SQL, while procedural elements like IF-THEN and LOOP can be used to manage program flow. Additionally, we may use collections and object types, define procedures and functions, declare constants and variables, and catch runtime errors.

15. Define A database trigger.

Ans:

A database trigger is a stored procedure that Oracle automatically calls in response to specific events, such as when a DML action updates a particular table. Triggers minimize the requirement for verification and cleanup procedures in each application, enforce business rules and stop incorrect values from being saved.

Here are a few key points regarding triggers to keep in mind:- There are no OLD values for insert triggers. -Delete triggers do not contain NEW values. – Triggers do not commit transactions.

16. What is the ASM?

Ans:

  • Oracle 10g introduced automatic storage management, or ASM. It offers storage options. It is an extremely effective solution for multi-terabyte database management.
  • Oracle ASM’s storage components include ASM disks, ASM disk groups, ASM allocation units, ASM extents, ASM files, and an ASM file extent map.
  • ASM can add or remove disks from volumes and carry out the internal load balancing in the storage. ASM essentially offers the volume manager layer, which is a need for all applications. 

17. What advantages does ASM offer?

Ans:

  • The use of ASM has various advantages. The fact that ASM uses striped files rather than logical volumes is one of its most crucial features.
  • It is capable of dynamic balance and online disk reconfiguration.
  • Its pace of rebalancing is programmable.
  • It offers redundancy according to files.
  • Additionally, ASM may be installed automatically and is aware of Custer. 

18. Which temporal data types does Oracle offer?

Ans:

Oracle offers three different sorts of data:

  • Date formats are provided in several formats by this data type.
  • Data type for timestamps that offer several timestamp types.
  • The interval data type offers a gap between times and dates.

19. In Oracle, what distinguishes RAC environments from non-RAC environments?

Ans:

A single instance accesses a single database in a non-RAC environment. Control files, redo log files, and database files that are physically on the desk are all contained in the database. On the other hand, a RAC environment consists of two or more instances, each executing on a different server, that communicate with a single database. 

20. Define a brief overview of data warehouses. 

Ans:

A relational database intended for query and analysis is called a data warehouse. Although data from other sources may be included, it typically consists of historical data obtained from transaction data. It helps a company to combine data from multiple sources and divides the workload between analysis and transaction.

A data warehouse environment consists of a relational database as well as an online analytical processing (OLAP) engine, client analysis tools, an extraction, transportation, transformation, and loading (ETL) solution, and other applications that oversee the collection and delivery of data to business users.

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    21. What is an Oracle instance of Oracle?

    Ans:

    An Oracle database instance is made up of the Oracle background processes, and an Oracle instance is a system global area (SGA). Oracle background processes and a system global area are allocated each time a database is started. When the instance terminates, the SGA is deallocated. Oracle associates an instance with the once it has been started given a database.

    22. What do the Oracle logical structures consist of?

    Ans:

    Logical structures of an Oracle database include tablespaces, schema objects, data blocks, extents, and segments. Because the physical and logical structures are separate, the physical storage of data can be managed without affecting access to logical storage structures. 

    23. Define the cursor variable.

    Ans:

    A cursor variable is associated with different statements which can hold different values at run time. It is a reference type. Similar to an explicit cursor that isn’t restricted to a single query is a cursor variable. Either declare a variable of the predefined type SYS_REFCURSOR or define a type called REF CURSOR, after which declare a variable of that type to construct a cursor. Cursor variable limitations.

    24. Describe PLS_INTEGER datatype.

    Ans:

    • PLS_INTEGER and BINARY_INTEGER are identical data types and are only available in PL/SQL.
    • This cannot create a column in a table with either of these data types. PLS_INTEGER is a highly efficient integer 32-bit data type.
    • This will most commonly see PLS_INETGER (and BINARY_INETGER) in PL/SQL routines as an index variable.
    • An associative array (INDEX BY TABLE) index. Both PLS_INTEGER and BINARY_INTEGER allow whole numbers only. Decimal fractions are rounded to the nearest whole number.

    25. What is an EXPLAIN plan?

    Ans:

    The row source tree is the core of the execution plan. It shows the following information:

    • An ordering of the tables referenced by the statement -An access method for each table mentioned in the statement -A join method for tables affected by join operations in the statement .
    • Data operations like filter, sort, or aggregation In addition to the row source tree; the plantable contains information about the following:
    • Optimization, such as the cost and cardinality of each operation -Partitioning, such as the set of accessed partitions
    • Parallel execution, such as the distribution method of join inputs The EXPLAIN PLAN results let us determine whether the optimizer selects a particular execution plan, such as, nested loops join.

    26. What is a pragma? 

    Ans:

    The present alignment rule is modified for members of structures whose declarations comply with the #pragma pack directive alone. It has no direct effect on the alignment of the structure, but it may have an impact on the alignment of the structure as a whole by influencing the alignment of the structure’s elements. Pragma is a keyword in Oracle PL/SQL that is used to provide an instruction to the compiler like PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.

    27. What is the Oracle package? 

    Ans:

    A schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types, items, and subprograms. Packages offer several advantages: modularity, easier application design, information hiding, added functionality, and better performance.

    28. What is the DCL & DDL language?

    Ans:

     DCL is Data Control Language statements (GRANT, COMMIT). DDL (Data D DDL language definition Language) statements are used to define the database structure or schema (CREATE, ALTER, TRUNCATE). 

    29. What is partitioning? 

    Ans:

    Partitioning is a method of splitting large tables and indexes into smaller, more manageable pieces. A partitioning type determines how a partitioned table’s rows are distributed across partitions. Some partition types require the user to specify a partitioning expression that determines in which partition a row will be stored. The size of individual partitions depends on the partitioning type.

    30. Define tuxedo features and their benefits.

    Ans:

    • Comparable Memory Queues eliminates up to eight buffer copies by using shared memory queues for interprocess communications rather than IPC message queues.
    • Auto-tuning of SPINCOUNT :For the best locking method performance, the Tuxedo configuration’s SPINCOUNT property is dynamically adjusted based on the application workload.
    • XA enhancements: Implementing XA transactions is improved for best performance while using applications based on Oracle WebLogic Server and Oracle RAC.
    • Applications for FAN/TAF Integration can subscribe to RLAs and UP/DOWN for Oracle RAC instances to increase availability and decrease unplanned and scheduled downtime.

    31. Define how to manage and monitor in Oracle.

    Ans:

    • Controllability and Observation Lowering the total cost of ownership of enterprise mission-critical apps requires effective application stack management.
    • An extensive toolkit for managing and keeping an eye on Tuxedo infrastructure and deployed applications in development, test, and production environments is included with Oracle Tuxedo.
    • Oracle Tuxedo comes with command line utilities, including ™ admin, that may be used interactively or automatically from shell scripts.
    • Additionally, Tuxedo has a JMX interface and MIB (Management Information Base) API, which can be used to build bespoke tools or to manage and monitor Tuxedo applications from custom applications. 

    32. What is an ERP System? 

    Ans:

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a comprehensive software system designed to manage and integrate various aspects of a company’s business processes and operations. ERP systems facilitate the flow of information and coordination between different departments within an organization by consolidating data and processes into a unified platform.

    33. Define Advanced security in ATMI.

    Ans:

    ATMI provides a highly optimized, X/Open-based API for C, C++, COBOL and Java across all Oracle Tuxedo-supported platforms for developing transactional and messaging applications, supporting request-response, asynchronous, conversational and message-based communication paradigms.

    34. Define SCA in Tuxedo.

    Ans:

     SCA is a standard-based and extremely easy-to-use programming model, allowing developers to focus on business logic without the need to learn any APIs. Developers implement service interfaces in C++ and run corresponding implementations through Tuxedo-provided tools to create application servers for Tuxedo runtime. This programming model makes it simple for standalone C/C++ applications to be hosted within Tuxedo runtime and leverages its reliability, availability, scalability and performance benefits. 

    35. What function does CICS serve in a mainframe?

    Ans:

    The middleware known as CICS (Customer Information Control System) resides between business applications and the IBM mainframe operating system z/OS. It is utilized to create client transaction application programs as an online transaction processing (OLTP) system.

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    36. Define enterprise Messaging.

    Ans:

    • Business Texting The runtime infrastructure of Oracle Tuxedo is renowned for being highly available, scalable, transactional, and low latency.
    • These functions offer an enterprise messaging platform with great performance when paired with rich messaging features.
    • Oracle Tuxedo Message Queue capabilities can be used to meet your most demanding messaging requirements.
    • It offers features like in-memory or persistent queuing, store-and-forward, asynchronous queue operations, publish and subscribe, filtering, notification and delivery interest points, reliable message delivery, dynamic queue alias, undelivered message action, and more.

    37. Explain the Features of Tuxedo Application in Cache.

    Ans:

    These use cases were made possible by this feature:

    • Caching of data for Tuxedo applications Data caching allows for the storage of Tuxedo-typedTuxedo buffers in the scattered cache.
    • Applications for Tuxedo can now access the cached data from anywhere within the Tuxedo domain.
    • This provides a novel approach to data sharing between clients and servers in addition to enabling the caching of frequently accessed data to eliminate the need to query the database repeatedly.

    38. Define the TLOG.

    Ans:

    The Oracle Database can create TLOGs thanks to this capability. Oracle Tuxedo 12c Release 2 (12.1.3) now supports this capability on all supported platforms. Refer to the Oracle Tuxedo Users Guide’s About Transactions section, File Formats, Data Descriptions, MIBs, System Processes Reference, and Command Reference for additional details on this capability.

    39. Define XA Transaction Affinity.

    Ans:

    Regardless of whether the database requests originate from an Oracle WebLogic Server or an Oracle Tuxedo application server, XA affinity enables all database requests within a single global transaction to be routed to the same Oracle RAC instance. By lowering the expense of rerouting database queries to a different Oracle RAC server, this functionality may enhance the performance of the program as a whole.

    40. What is the Oracle Tuxedo batch and CICS application runtime?

    Ans:

    Organizations may transfer online and batch mainframe applications to open systems without having to rewrite them in Java or .Net, thanks to Oracle Tuxedo Application Runtime for CICS and Batch. Oracle Tuxedo, the top C/C++ and COBOL application server, powers it.

    41. What does SQL explain plan mean?

    Ans:

    The Oracle Database’s execution of the SQL statement after it has been explained is displayed in the EXPLAIN PLAN output. Due to variations in the execution and explain plan environments, this plan may not match the SQL statement’s actual execution plan.

    42. Define High Availability and Fault Management in Tuxedo.

    Ans:

    Superior Reliability and Error Control:

    To run the application in a distributed client/server environment, thousands of separate processors and processes must work together. Numerous problems are possible. Oracle Tuxedo maintains the application’s functionality in the event of a failure in the following ways:

    • By offering duplicated server groups that can continue when anything breaks, it ensures that there is never a single point of failure.
    • Fixes errors in the operating application and returns it to working order.

    43. Give Tuxedo services’ Caching results definition.

    Ans:

    When result caching is turned on, Tuxedo first verifies that the cache has the response for the request buffer. This is carried out in accordance with a set of adjustable fields included in the request buffer. In the event that a cache hit is successful, the cache returns the response, and no service call is made.

    The following use cases were made possible by this feature:

    • Data caching for Tuxedo applications. The distributed cache can be used to store Tuxedo-typed buffers when data caching is enabled.
    • Applications for Tuxedo can now access the cached data from anywhere within the Tuxedo domain. This provides a fresh approach to client data sharing.

    44. What does Oracle’s plan display?

    Ans:

    The Oracle optimizer’s selected execution plans for the SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT, and DELETE commands are shown in the EXPLAIN PLAN statement. An execution plan for a statement is the set of steps Oracle takes to run the statement. The execution plan’s key component is the row source tree.

    45. How does the SQL Developer’s plan accomplish?

    Ans:

    The result of the EXPLAIN PLAN displays how the database would have executed the SQL. Statement after the explanation of the statement. The explained plan may not match the actual plan utilized during the execution of the statement due to variations in the environments for the explained plan and the execution.

    46. Why would one utilize partitioning?

    Ans:

    Partitioning is a robust feature that facilitates the division of tables, indexes, and index-organized tables into smaller segments, allowing for more precise management and access to these database objects.

    47. Define Distributed cache in Oracle.

    Ans:

    Dispersed Caching Tuxedo apps have access to a distributed cache thanks to the distributed caching capability. With the help of Oracle Coherence, a distributed cache, this functionality offers additional APIs for accessing the cache. Utilizing this functionality, distributed caching users can benefit from everything Oracle Coherence has to offer.

    48. What kind of data is a cursor?

    Ans:

    • A cursor type can be either the user-defined type that is based on the built-in CURSOR data type or the built-in CURSOR data type.
    • It is possible to limit the properties of the linked cursor’s result row by specifying a particular row type when creating a user-defined cursor type.
    • A cursor that has a pointer to a query result set is called a cursor variable. The OPEN FOR statement is run using the cursor variable to identify the result set.

    49. What does RDF mean?

    Ans:

    • The Resource Description Framework (RDF). Framework for Resource Description
    • A general framework for displaying related data on the Web is the Resource Description Framework (RDF).
    • Standardized metadata exchange and description are made possible via RDF statements.

    50. Which components make up an RDF?

    Ans:

    RDF lexicon comprises the subsequent components: The predicate “rdf: type” indicates that a resource is an instance of a class. RDF: The class of typed literals, or XML literal values, is called XMLLiteral. rdf: Property is the class of properties in relation to binary relations (i.e., relations that are predicates in triples).

    51. How do you use Oracle SQL Square?

    Ans:

    The SQUARE() method in SQL can be used to calculate a number’s square. It returns the squared number after receiving a number as an argument. You can also use this expression to compute the square of a number; no additional function is required. The square of a number can also be calculated as number * number.

    52. Define the Oracle package.

    Ans:

    Database objects exclusive to the Oracle DBMS are called Oracle Packages. They serve as containers, assembling logically connected items into a unified definition. A package consists of two parts: the body and the specification. The: The specification section lists the different components.

    53. What are Oracle instances and schemas?

    Ans:

    A database’s comprehensive description is referred to as its schema. An instance is a group of data and information that the database has at any one time. A database’s comprehensive description is referred to as its schema. An instance is a group of data and information that the database has at any one time.

    54. Which ASM settings are crucial?

    Ans:

    The following Oracle ASM initialization parameters are covered in this section:

    • ASM_DISKGROUPS.
    • ASM_DISKSTRING.
    • ASM_IO_PROCEDURE.
    • ASM_POWER_LIMIT.
    • PREFERRED READ FAILURE GROUPS ASM.
    • The size of the database cache.
    • instance_type. diagnostic_dest.

    55. What distinguishes the Exadata X9M from the X10M?

    Ans:

    • X9M vs X10M Exadata: Dissecting the Improvement in Performance
    • Intrinsic Memory Function: Although the X10M and X9M both use in-memory processing, the X10M’s faster insights come from faster data retrieval and analysis from memory due to processor technology breakthroughs.
    • The AI-driven optimization of the Exadata X10M enhances artificial Intelligence-Powered Optimization Automation.

    56. Define SALT for Tuxedo.

    Ans:

    Oracle Service Architecture Leveraging Tuxedo (SALT) is a bi-directional Web services gateway that is standards-based. SALT offers high-performance, user-friendly, configuration-driven RESTful and SOAP/HTTP Web services that offer transparent and dependable access to the current Oracle Tuxedo services.

    57. What characteristics does Oracle’s ASM have?

    Ans:

    ASM made volume management and file system administration for Oracle databases easier.  ASM enhanced database availability, performance, and file system scalability in addition to streamlining storage management.

    58. What does ASM aim to achieve?

    Ans:

    ASM is handled fully from the perspective of the hacker, not the defender, as opposed to other cybersecurity disciplines. Targets are identified, and risks are evaluated according to the opportunities they offer to a vicious attacker.

    59. Which fundamental components make up ASM?

    Ans:

    The state name, state box, decision box, and conditional outputs box are the four main elements that are connected in an ASM chart. One state of a finite state machine or regular state diagram corresponds to an ASM state, which is shown as a rectangle.

    60. What drawbacks does Oracle’s ASM have?

    Ans:

    • Drawbacks of ASM It takes longer to provision an Oracle database. to the just installed server.
    • An extra four to six hours are projected for installing and configuring the GI with ASM.
    • Although patching is more complicated, you can patch databases, ASM, and Grid Infrastructure with only one GO, thanks to the auto functionality of the patch tool.

    61. What does Oracle Arcs mean?

    Ans:

    Cloud Service for Oracle Account Reconciliation:

    • The cloud-based Oracle Account Reconciliation Cloud (ARCS) is a specially designed solution.
    • It was created to oversee your worldwide reconciliation procedure.
    • It guarantees that every reconciliation created is appropriately qualified and offers real-time visibility into the performance of reconciliations.

    62. What does Exadata mean by MS?

    Ans:

    MS (Management Server): MS service offers DBA a communication or management interface for Cell Server. The command line tool used by Exadata DBAs to carry out Exadata Administration tasks is called CellCLI. Restart Server (RS): This service is used to ensure that the Exadata Serve operates as intended.

    63. What is the size of Exadata X9M storage?

    Ans:

    Data Sheet for Oracle Exadata Storage Expansion X9M-2 With 11 Exadata Storage Expansion X9M racks and a typical full rack configuration, the Exadata X9M-2 boasts a raw disk capacity of 47 Petabytes (48,168 TB) and 7,136 CPU cores specifically allocated for SQL processing. Additional RoCE switches can be used to build larger combinations.

    64. How many switches does Exadata have?

    Ans:

    The Oracle Exadata Database Machine has three InfiniBand switches. Two 36-port InfiniBand leaf switches (Sun Datacenter QDR InfiniBand Switch 36) are part of the Oracle Exadata Database Machine. Leaf switches are the two switches that are situated in the center of the rack.

    65. What is a procedure vs. package in Oracle?

    Ans:

    A package is a collection of linked commands and functions, along with the variables and cursors they employ, that are kept in the database for future usage as a single entity. Packaged procedures and functions are similar to standalone procedures and functions in that users or applications can invoke them explicitly.

    66. What does Oracle’s RAC environment mean?

    Ans:

    Customers can operate a single Oracle database with Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC). They are accessing shared storage and distributing the database across several servers to optimize availability and facilitate horizontal scaling.

    67. What is ARC In software?

    Ans:

    • The Advanced Computing Environment project, a group of computer manufacturers that has since disbanded, published the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which outlines a common MIPS RISC-based computer hardware and firmware environment.
    • A single instance accesses a single database in an Oracle database that is not RAC. The database is made up of the data files, control files, and redo logs that are stored on disk.
    • An instance is a collection of background processes and memory associated with Oracle running on a computer system.

    68. Which three categories of middleware exist?

    Ans:

    The three primary types of middleware functions are:

    • Support middleware, 
    • Information-exchange and 
    • Management middleware, and
    • Application-specific middleware.

    69. What distinguishes BLOB from CLOB?

    Ans:

    • Binary Large Objects (BLOBs) and Character Large Objects (CLOBs) can be stored in the database as stream objects with InterSystems SQL.
    • Binary data, such as pictures, is stored in BLOBs, whereas one or more IP addresses may be required for network settings.
    • By utilizing the PrivNIC or MultiPrivNIC agents, you can set up private IP addresses for high availability.

    70. What is a database in an RAC environment from one in a single-instance environment?

    Ans:

    In its lifetime, an instance is only allowed to mount and open one database. Multiple instances of a database can mount and open it concurrently or one after the other (a process known as random access control, or RAC). Every machine in a cluster, referred to as a node, runs an instance of Oracle in an RAC environment.

    71. What does Oracle RAC’s MTU mean?

    Ans:

    IP frames, the standard MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) is 1500 bytes. The process of sending an 8k Oracle block involves putting six data pieces together to form a frame or packet. But if you utilize Jumbo Frames (9000 bytes), everything in the block fits neatly into one frame or packet.

    72. Which kind of IP is included in Oracle RAC?

    Ans:

    Oracle RAC requires private IP addresses in order to facilitate communication between cluster nodes. According to your personal information, one or more IP addresses may be required for network settings. By utilizing the PrivNIC or MultiPrivNIC agents, you can set up private IP addresses for high availability.

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    73. Which three categories of middleware exist?

    Ans:

    • Middleware that enables integration and communication between various software systems, apps, and services falls under the integration middleware category. 
    • The development, deployment, and administration of applications are supported by a set of standard services and functionalities offered by platform middleware.
    • Development Middleware: Provides frameworks, libraries, and tools to facilitate the creation and testing of software, development middleware helps the software development process.

    74. Which three kinds of database schema are there?

    Ans:

    • Conceptual Schema: This focuses on the entities, their characteristics, and the connections between them, providing an overview of the whole database structure at a high level.
    • Logical Schema: Also referred to as the logical data model, this schema uses a logical representation of entities, attributes, and relationships to define the database’s structure.
    • Physical Schema: The real database implementation on a particular hardware and software platform is represented by the physical schema, also known as the physical data model.

    75. What does middleware mean to you?

    Ans:

    Software that sits in between an operating system and its installed applications is known as middleware. Middleware serves as a covert translation layer that facilitates data management and communication for dispersed applications.

    76. What do Oracle instances mean?

    Ans:

    An Oracle instance refers to the running environment of an Oracle database. It comprises the Oracle Database software along with the associated memory structures and background processes that manage the database’s operations. These background processes handle tasks such as managing memory, coordinating access to data files, managing disk I/O, and ensuring data consistency and concurrency control. Essentially, an Oracle instance is responsible for providing access to the database and handling requests from users and applications. Each Oracle database has its own instance, and multiple instances can run on a single server or across multiple servers in a clustered environment.

    77. What does Oracle architecture mean by instance?

    Ans:

    An Oracle instance consists of both background processes and memory structures. To access database data, we must first launch an instance. Oracle background processes are initiated, and a system global area (SGA) is allocated each time you start your instance.

    78. Describe the Redo Log.

    Ans:

    The redo log, which is made up of two or more preallocated files that record all database changes as they happen, is the most important structure for recovery operations. Each Oracle database instance has a redo log attached to it to safeguard the database in the event of an instance failure.

    79. What does Oracle tablespace mean?

    Ans:

    Control files, Datafiles, and Tablespaces The whole contents of an Oracle database are stored in one or more tablespaces, which are logical storage units. An Oracle database’s tablespaces are made up of one or more data files, which are actual physical entities that follow the specifications of the operating system on which Oracle is installed.

     80. What distinguishes an Oracle database from an instance?

    Ans:

    • The data on disk is called a database, and it is kept in operating system files (or, in the case of Unix, in raw files).
    • The background processes and the System Global Area (SGA) RAM make up the instance.
    • Oracle Server Manager or Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) is used to START the instance.

    81. Define Temporal Data Types.

    Ans:

    • PGQL queries support the temporal types DATE, TIMESTAMP, and TIMESTAMP WITH TIMEZONE. The Oracle SQL TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE type is used internally to represent each of these value types.
    • Two varieties of INTERVALs exist. INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH: This method uses year and month to record intervals. Day-to-second intervals, including fractional seconds, are stored using days, hours, minutes, and seconds.

    82. Define database schema.

    Ans:

    • A database’s comprehensive description is referred to as its schema. An instance is essentially a group of data and information that the database has at any one time.
    • A database schema refers to the logical and visual configuration of the entire relational database.
    • The database objects are often grouped and displayed as tables, functions, and relations. A schema describes the organization and storage of data in a database and defines the relationship between various tables.
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    83. Which tablespace is the USER?

    Ans:

    USERS permanent tablespace with application data is called USERS. Oracle uses user-created and entered data to populate this section. A tablespace called UNDOTBS holds the undo information needed for automated undo management. A tablespace called TEMP holds indexes and temporary data.

    84. What does DBMS partitioning entail?

    Ans:

    Database partitioning, also known as data partitioning, is the process of dividing the data within the database of an application into discrete sections or partitions. After that, these partitions can be independently maintained, accessed, and stored.

    85. What connection exists between the data file, tablespace, and database?

    Ans:

    One or more tablespaces, or logical storage units, can be found in an Oracle database. All of the data in a database is stored in these tablespaces combined. One or more files known as data files make up each tablespace. The physical formats of the data files follow the specifications of the operating system that Oracle is executing on.

    86. What makes  an Oracle database’s logical database structure?

    Ans:

    In the Oracle database, the logical database structure consists of two primary parts: 

    • Database Tablespaces Schema Objects
    • An Oracle database’s logical storage unit is called a tablespace. It consists of several linked logical constructions. Tablespaces by default are: 
    • SYSAUX and SYSTEM tablespaces 
    • Tablespace Users
    • Tablespace UNDOTBS1
    • Tablespace TEMP 

    87.What kinds of items exist in an Oracle database?

    Ans:

    The Oracle Database Objects are as follows:

    • Tables: This group of components is arranged both horizontally and vertically.
    • Tablespaces: In Oracle, they are logical storage units.
    • Views: A virtual table created from one or more tables is called a view.
    • Indexes: This is a record-processing performance tweaking technique.
    • Synonyms: A table by that name.

    88. In Oracle, what is a bulk copy?

    Ans:

    Data from tables and views can be imported and exported using bulk copy, or BCP. It does not replicate the same data’s structure. Its process for transferring data is rapid, and users can easily take a backup of their data.

    89. Define View?

    Ans:

    A logical table that is based on one or more tables or views is called a view. A view is another name for a user-defined database object that is used to hold SQL query results so they may be accessed at a later time. Views are sometimes referred to as logical tables since they store the data virtually rather than physically. Base Tables are the equivalent tables that the views are indicated on; they are devoid of data.

    90. What does the integrity constraint mean?

    Ans:

    An integrity constraint is a declaration that serves as a table column business rule. They are employed to guarantee the database’s data’s consistency and correctness. Another term for it is a declarative method of defining a business rule for a column in a table. 

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