Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers
Last updated on 04th Jul 2020BlogInterview Questions
These Software Testing Interview Questions have been designed specially to get you acquainted with the nature of questions you may encounter during your interview for the subject of Software Testing . As per my experience good interviewers hardly plan to ask any particular question during your interview, normally questions start with some basic concept of the subject and later they continue based on further discussion and what you answer.we are going to cover top 100 Software Testing Interview questions along with their detailed answers. We will be covering Software Testing scenario based interview questions, Software Testing interview questions for freshers as well as Software Testing interview questions and answers for experienced.
1. What is Software Testing?
According to ANSI/IEEE 1059 standard – A process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (i.e., defects) and to evaluate the features of the software item.
2. What are the best practices for writing test cases?
- Write test cases with end-users perspective
- Write test steps in a simple way that anyone can follow them easily
- Make the test cases reusable
- Set the priority
- Provide a test case description, test data, expected result, precondition, postcondition.
- Write invalid test cases along with valid test cases
- Follow proper naming conventions
- Review the test cases regularly and update them if necessary.
3. What is configuration management?
Configuration management (CM) is a process of systems engineering to maintain system resources, computer systems, servers, software, and product’s performance in a consistent state. It helps to record all the changes made in the system and ensures that the system performs as expected even though changes are made over time.
4. What is Exploratory Testing?
Exploratory testing is a hands-on approach in which testers are involved in minimum planning and maximum test execution. The planning involves the creation of a test charter, a short declaration of the scope of a short (1 to 2 hour) time-boxed test effort, the objectives and possible approaches to be used. The test design and test execution activities are performed in parallel typically without formally documenting the test conditions, test cases or test scripts. This does not mean that other, more formal testing techniques will not be used. For example, the tester may decide to use boundary value analysis but will think through and test the most important boundary values without necessarily writing them down. Some notes will be written during the exploratory-testing session so that a report can be produced afterward.
5. What is “use case testing”?
In order to identify and execute the functional requirement of an application from start to finish “use case” is used and the techniques used to do this is known as “Use Case Testing.”
6. What is the difference between the STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle) and SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle)?
SDLC deals with development/coding of the software while STLC deales with validation and verification of the software
7. What is traceability matrix?
The relationship between test cases and requirements is shown with the help of a document. This document is known as a traceability matrix.
8. What is Equivalence partitioning testing?
Equivalence partitioning testing is a software testing technique which divides the application input test data into each partition at least once of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. By this testing method, it reduces the time required for software testing.
9. What is white box testing and list the types of white box testing?
White box testing technique involves selection of test cases based on an analysis of the internal structure (Code coverage, branches coverage, paths coverage, condition coverage, etc.) of a component or system. It is also known as Code-Based testing or Structural testing. Different types of white box testing are
- Statement Coverage
- Decision Coverage
10. In white box testing, what do you verify?
In white box testing following steps are verified.
- Verify the security holes in the code
- Verify the incomplete or broken paths in the code
- Verify the flow of structure according to the document specification
- Verify the expected outputs
- Verify all conditional loops in the code to check the complete functionality of the application
- Verify the line by line coding and cover 100% testing
11. What is black box testing? What are the different black box testing techniques?
Black box testing is the software testing method which is used to test the software without knowing the internal structure of code or program. This testing is usually done to check the functionality of an application. The different black box testing techniques are
- Equivalence Partitioning
- Boundary value analysis
- Cause-effect graphing
12. What is the difference between static and dynamic testing?
- Static testing: During Static testing method, the code is not executed, and it is performed using the software documentation.
- Dynamic testing: To perform this testing the code is required to be in an executable form.
13. What are verification and validation?
Verification is a process of evaluating software at the development phase. It helps you to decide whether the product of a given application satisfies the specified requirements. Validation is the process of evaluating software at the after the development process and to check whether it meets the customer requirements.
14. What are the different test levels?
There are four test levels
- Unit/component/program/module testing
- Integration testing
- System testing
- Acceptance testing
15. What is Integration testing?
Integration testing is a level of software testing process, where individual units of an application are combined and tested. It is usually performed after unit and functional testing.
16. What Test Plans consists of?
Test design, scope, test strategies, approach are various details that Test plan document consists of.
- Test case identifier
- Features to be tested
- Features not to be tested
- Test strategy & Test approach
- Test deliverables
- Staffing and training
- Risk and Contingencies
17. What is the difference between UAT (User Acceptance Testing) and System testing?
- System Testing: System testing is finding defects when the system undergoes testing as a whole; it is also known as end-to-end testing. In such type of testing, the application suffers from beginning till the end.
- UAT: User Acceptance Testing (UAT) involves running a product through a series of specific tests which determines whether the product will meet the needs of its users.
18. Mention the difference between Data Driven Testing and Retesting?
- Retesting: It is a process of checking bugs that are actioned by the development team to verify that they are fixed.
- Data Driven Testing (DDT): In data driven testing process, the application is tested with multiple test data. The application is tested with a different set of values.
19. What are the valuable steps to resolve issues while testing?
- Record: Log and handle any problems which have happened
- Report: Report the issues to higher level manager
- Control: Define the issue management process
20. What is the difference between test scenarios, test cases, and test script?
Ans:Difference between test scenarios and test cases is that
- Test Scenarios:A Test Scenario is any functionality that can be tested. It is also called Test Condition or Test Possibility.
- Test Cases: It is a document that contains the steps that have to be executed; it has been planned earlier.
- Test Script: It is written in a programming language and it’s a short program used to test part of the functionality of the software system. In other words a written set of steps that should be performed manually.
21. What is Latent defect?
Latent defect: This defect is an existing defect in the system which does not cause any failure as the exact set of conditions has never been met
22. What are the two parameters which can be useful to know the quality of test execution?
Ans:To know the quality of test execution, we can use two parameters
- Defect reject ratio
- Defect leakage ratio
23. What is the function of the software testing tool “phantom”?
Phantom is a freeware and is used for windows GUI automation scripting language. It allows us to take control of windows and functions automatically. It can simulate any combination of keystrokes and mouse clicks as well as menus, lists and more.
24. Explain what Test Deliverables is?
Test Deliverables are a set of documents, tools and other components that have to be developed and maintained in support of testing.
There are different test deliverables at every phase of the software development lifecycle
- Before Testing
- During Testing
- After the Testing
25. What is mutation testing?
Mutation testing is a technique to identify if a set of test data or test case is useful by intentionally introducing various code changes (bugs) and retesting with original test data/ cases to determine if the bugs are detected.
26. What all things you should consider before selecting automation tools for the AUT?
- Technical Feasibility
- Complexity level
- Application stability
- Test data
- Application size
- Re-usability of automated scripts
- Execution across environment
27. How will you conduct Risk Analysis?
For the risk analysis following steps need to be implemented
- Finding the score of the risk
- Making a profile for the risk
- Changing the risk properties
- Deploy the resources of that test risk
- Making a database of risk
28. What are the categories of debugging?
Categories for debugging
- Brute force debugging
- Cause elimination
- Program Slicing
- Fault tree analysis
29. What is fault masking explain with example?
- When the presence of one defect hides the presence of another defect in the system, it is known as fault masking.
- Example: If the “Negative Value” cause a firing of unhandled system exception, the developer will prevent the negative values input. This will resolve the issue and hide the defect of unhandled exception firing.
30. Explain what Test Plan is? What is the information that should be covered in Test Plan?
A test plan can be defined as a document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of testing activities and a test plan should cover the following details.
- Test Strategy
- Test Objective
- Exit/Suspension Criteria
- Resource Planning
- Test Deliverables
31. How can you eliminate the product risk in your project?
- It helps you to eliminate product risk in your project, and there is a simple yet crucial step that can reduce the product risk in your project.
- Investigate the specification documents
- Have discussions about the project with all stakeholders including the developer
- As a real user walk around the website
32. What is the common risk that leads to project failure?
The common risk that leads to a project failure are
- Not having enough human resource
- Testing Environment may not be set up properly
- Limited Budget
- Time Limitations
33. On what basis you can arrive at an estimation for your project?
To estimate your project, you have to consider the following points
- Divide the whole project into the smallest tasks
- Allocate each task to team members
- Estimate the effort required to complete each task
- Validate the estimation
34. Explain how you would allocate a task to team members?
|Analyze software requirement specification||All the members|
|Create the test specification||Tester/Test Analyst|
|Build up the test environment||Test administrator|
|Execute the test cases||Tester, a Test administrator|
35. Explain what is testing type and what are the commonly used testing type?
- To get an expected test outcome, a standard procedure is followed which is referred to as Testing Type.
Commonly used testing types are
- Unit Testing: Test the smallest code of an application
- API Testing: Testing API created for the application
- Integration Testing: Individual software modules are combined and tested
- System Testing: Complete testing of the system
- Install/UnInstall Testing: Testing done from the point of client/customer view
- Agile Testing: Testing through Agile technique
36. While monitoring your project what all things you have to consider?
The things that have to be taken in considerations are
- Is your project on schedule
- Are you over budget
- Are you working towards the same career goal
- Have you got enough resources
- Are there any warning signs of impending problems
- Is there any pressure from management to complete the project sooner
37. What are the common mistakes which create issues?
- Matching resources to wrong projects
- Test manager lack of skills
- Not listening to others
- Poor Scheduling
- Ignoring the small problems
- Not following the process
38. What does a typical test report contain? What are the benefits of test reports?
A test report contains the following things:
- Project Information
- Test Objective
- Test Summary
The benefits of test reports are:
- Current status of project and quality of product are informed
- If required, stakeholder and customer can take corrective action
- A final document helps to decide whether the product is ready for release
39. What is test management review and why it is important?
Management review is also referred to as Software Quality Assurance or SQA. SQA focusses more on the software process rather than the software work products. It is a set of activities designed to make sure that the project manager follows the standard process. SQA helps test manager to benchmark the project against the set standards.
40. What are the best practices for software quality assurance?
The best practices for an effective SQA implementation is
- Continuous Improvement
- Tool Usage
- Responsibility by team members
- Experienced SQA auditors
41. When is RTM (Requirement Traceability Matrix) prepared?
RTM is prepared before test case designing. Requirements should be traceable from review activities.
42. What is the difference between Test matrix and Traceability matrix?
- Test Matrix: Test matrix is used to capture actual quality, effort, the plan, resources and time required to capture all phases of software testing
- Traceability Matrix: Mapping between test cases and customer requirements is known as Traceability Matrix
43. In Software Testing what are stubs and drivers?
Both stubs and drivers are part of incremental testing. In incremental testing, there are two approaches namely bottom-up and top-down approach. Drivers are used in bottom-up testing and stub is used for a top-down approach. In order to test the main module, the stub is used, which is a dummy code or program.
44. What is the step you would follow once you find the defect?
Once a defect is found you would follow the step
- Recreate the defect
- Attach the screenshot
- Log the defect
45. Explain what is “Test Plan Driven” or “Key Word Driven” method of testing?
This technique uses the actual test case document developed by testers using a spreadsheet containing special “key Words”. The key words control the processing.
46. What is the DFD (Data Flow Diagram)?
When a “flow of data” through an information system is graphically represented, then it is known as Data Flow Diagram. It is also used for the visualization of data processing.
47. Explain what LCSAJ is?
- LCSAJ stands for ‘linear code sequence and jump.’ It consists of the following three items
- Start of the linear sequence of executable statements
- End of the linear sequence
- The target line to which control flow is transferred at the end of the linear sequence
48. Explain what N+1 testing is?
The variation of regression testing is represented as N+1. In this technique, the testing is performed in multiple cycles in which errors found in test cycle ‘N’ are resolved and re-tested in test cycle N+1. The cycle is repeated unless there are no errors found.
49. What is Fuzz testing and when it is used?
Fuzz testing is used to detect security loopholes and coding errors in software. In this technique, random data is added to the system in an attempt to crash the system. If vulnerability persists, a tool called fuzz tester is used to determine potential causes. This technique is more useful for bigger projects but only detects a major fault.
50. Mention what the main advantages of statement coverage metric of software testing are?
- The benefit of statement coverage metric is that
- It does not require processing source code and can be applied directly to object code
- Bugs are distributed evenly through the code, due to which percentage of executable statements covered reflects the percentage of faults discovered
51. How to generate test cases for “replace a string” method?
- If characters in new string > characters in the previous string. None of the characters should get truncated
- If characters in new string< characters in the previous string. Junk characters should not be added
- Spaces after and before the string should not be deleted
- String should be replaced only for the first occurrence of the string
52. How will you handle a conflict amongst your team members?
- I will talk individually to each person and note their concerns
- I will find a solution to the common problems raised by team members
- I will hold a team meeting, reveal the solution and ask people to co-operate
53. Mention what are the categories of defects?
Mainly there are three defect categories
- Wrong: When a requirement is implemented incorrectly
- Missing: It is a variance from the specification, an indication that a specification was not implemented or a requirement of the customer is not met
- Extra: A requirement incorporated into the product that was not given by the end customer. It is considered as a defect because it is a variance from the existing requirements
54. Explain how does a test coverage tool work?
The code coverage testing tool runs parallel while performing testing on the actual product. The code coverage tool monitors the executed statements of the source code. When the final testing is done, we get a complete report of the pending statements and also get the coverage percentage.
55. Mention what the difference between a “defect” and a “failure” in software testing is?
- In simple terms when a defect reaches the end customer, it is called a failure while the defect is identified internally and resolved; then it is referred to as a defect.
56. Explain how to test documents in a project that span across the software development lifecycle?
The project span across the software development lifecycle in the following manner
- Central/Project test plan: It is the main test plan that outlines the complete test strategy of the project. This plan is used till the end of the software development lifecycle
- Acceptance test plan: This document begins during the requirement phase and is completed at the final delivery
- System test plan: This plan starts during the design plan and proceeds until the end of the project
- Integration and Unit test plan: Both these test plans start during the execution phase and last until the final delivery
57. Explain which test cases are written first black boxes or white boxes?
Black box test cases are written first as to write black box test cases; it requires project plan and requirement document all these documents are easily available at the beginning of the project. While writing white box test cases requires more architectural understanding and is not available at the start of the project.
58. Explain what the difference between latent and masked defects is?
- Latent defect: A latent defect is an existing defect that has not caused a failure because the sets of conditions were never met
- Masked defect: It is an existing defect that has not caused a failure because another defect has prevented that part of the code from being executed
59. Mention what bottom-up testing is?
Bottom-up testing is an approach to integration testing, where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.
60. Mention what the different types of test coverage techniques are?
Different types of test coverage techniques include
- Statement Coverage: It verifies that each line of source code has been executed and tested
- Decision Coverage: It ensures that every decision in the source code is executed and tested
- Path Coverage: It ensures that every possible route through a given part of the code is executed and tested
61. Mention what the meaning of breath testing is?
Breath testing is a test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail
62. Explain what the meaning of Code Walk Through is?
Code Walk Through is the informal analysis of the program source code to find defects and verify coding techniques
63. Mention what the basic components of defect report format are?
The essential components of defect report format include
- Project Name
- Module Name
- Defect detected on
- Defect detected by
- Defect ID and Name
- Snapshot of the defect
- Priority and Severity status
- Defect resolved by
- Defect resolved on
64. Mention what the purpose behind doing end-to-end testing is?
- End-to-end testing is done after functional testing. The purpose behind doing end-to-end testing is that
- To validate the software requirements and integration with external interfaces
- Testing application in real-world environment scenario
- Testing of interaction between application and database
65. Explain what it means by test harness?
A test harness is configuring a set of tools and test data to test an application in various conditions, and it involves monitoring the output with expected output for correctness.
66. Explain in a testing project what testing activities would you automate?
In testing project testing activities, you would automate are
- Tests that need to be run for every build of the application
- Tests that use multiple data for the same set of actions
- Identical tests that need to be executed using different browsers
- Mission critical pages
- A transaction with pages that do not change in a short time
67. What is the MAIN benefit of designing tests early in the life cycle?
It helps prevent defects from being introduced into the code.
68. What is risk-based testing?
- Risk-based Testing is the term used for an approach to creating a Test Strategy that is based on prioritizing tests by risk. The basis of the approach is a detailed risk analysis and prioritizing of risks by risk level. Tests to address each risk are then specified, starting with the highest risk first.
69. What is the KEY difference between preventative and reactive approaches to testing?
Preventative tests are designed early; reactive tests are designed after the software has been produced.
70. What is the purpose of exit criteria?
The purpose of exit criteria is to define when a test level is completed.
71. What determines the level of risk?
The likelihood of an adverse event and the impact of the event determine the level of risk.
72. When is used Decision table testing?
Decision table testing is used for testing systems for which the specification takes the form of rules or cause-effect combinations. In a decision table, the inputs are listed in a column, with the outputs in the same column but below the inputs. The remainder of the table explores combinations of inputs to define the outputs produced.
73. Why we use decision tables?
The techniques of equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis are often applied to specific situations or inputs. However, if different combinations of inputs result in different actions being taken, this can be more difficult to show using equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis, which tend to be more focused on the user interface. The other two specification-based techniques, decision tables, and state transition testing are more focused on business logic or business rules. A decision table is a good way to deal with combinations of things (e.g., inputs). This technique is sometimes also referred to as a ’cause-effect’ table. The reason for this is that there is an associated logic diagramming technique called ’cause-effect graphing’ which was sometimes used to help derive the decision table
74. What is the MAIN objective when reviewing a software deliverable?
To identify defects in any software work product.
75. Which of the following defines the expected results of a test? Test case specification or test design specification.
Test case specification defines the expected results of a test.
76. What is the benefit of test independence?
It avoids author bias in defining effective tests.
77. As part of which test process do you determine the exit criteria?
The exit criteria are determined on the bases of ‘Test Planning’.
78. What is Alpha testing?
Pre-release testing by end user representatives at the developer’s site.
79. What is beta testing?
Testing performed by potential customers at their own locations.
80. Mention what the difference between Pilot and Beta testing is?
The difference between a pilot and beta testing is that pilot testing is actually done using the product by the group of users before the final deployment, and in beta testing, we do not input real data, but it is installed at the end customer to validate if the product can be used in production.
81. Which activity in the fundamental test process includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system?
A ‘Test Analysis’ and ‘Design’ includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system.
82. What is typically the MOST important reason to use risk to drive testing efforts?
Because testing everything is not feasible.
83. What is random/monkey testing? When is it used?
Random testing is often known as monkey testing. In such type of testing data is generated randomly often using a tool or automated mechanism. With this randomly generated input, the system is tested, and results are analyzed accordingly. These testing are less reliable; hence it is normally used by the beginners and to see whether the system will hold up under adverse effects.
84. Which of the following are valid objectives for incident reports?
- Provide developers and other parties with feedback about the problem to enable identification, isolation, and correction as necessary.
- Provide ideas for test process improvement.
- Provide a vehicle for assessing tester competence.
- Provide testers with a means of tracking the quality of the system under test.
85. Consider the following techniques. Which are static and which are dynamic techniques?
- Equivalence Partitioning.
- Use Case Testing.
- Data Flow Analysis.
- Exploratory Testing.
- Decision Testing.
Data Flow Analysis and Inspections are static; Equivalence Partitioning, Use Case Testing, Exploratory Testing and Decision Testing are dynamic.
86. Why are static testing and dynamic testing described as complementary?
Because they share the aim of identifying defects but differ in the types of defect they find.
87. What are the phases of a formal review?
In contrast to informal reviews, formal reviews follow a formal process. A typical formal review process consists of six main steps:
- Review meeting
88. What is the role of moderator in the review process?
The moderator (or review leader) leads the review process. He or she determines, in co-operation with the author, the type of review, approach and the composition of the review team. The moderator performs the entry check and the follow-up on the rework, in order to control the quality of the input and output of the review process. The moderator also schedules the meeting, disseminates documents before the meeting, coaches other team members, paces the meeting, leads possible discussions and stores the data that is collected.
89. What is an equivalence partition (also known as an equivalence class)?
An input or output ranges of values such that only one value in the range becomes a test case.
90. When should configuration management procedures be implemented?
During test planning.
91. A Type of Functional Testing, which investigates the functions relating to the detection of threats, such as virus from malicious outsiders?
92. Testing wherein we subject the target of the test, to varying workloads to measure and evaluate the performance behaviors and the ability of the target and the test to continue to function properly under these different workloads?
93. Testing activity which is performed to expose defects in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components is?
Integration Level Testing
94. What are the Structure-based (white-box) testing techniques?
Structure-based testing techniques (which are also dynamic rather than static) use the internal structure of the software to derive test cases. They are commonly called ‘white-box’ or ‘glass-box’ techniques (implying you can see into the system) since they require knowledge of how the software is implemented, that is, how it works. For example, a structural technique may be concerned with exercising loops in the software. Different test cases may be derived to exercise the loop once, twice, and many times. This may be done regardless of the functionality of the software.
95. When should “Regression Testing” be performed?
After the software has changed or when the environment has changed Regression testing should be performed.
96. What is negative and positive testing?
A negative test is when you put in an invalid input and receives errors. While positive testing is when you put in a valid input and expect some action to be completed in accordance with the specification.
97. What is the purpose of a test completion criterion?
The purpose of test completion criterion is to determine when to stop testing
98. What can static analysis NOT find?
For example memory leaks.
99. What is the difference between re-testing and regression testing?
Re-testing ensures the original fault has been removed; regression testing looks for unexpected side effects.
100. What are the Experience-based testing techniques?
In experience-based techniques, people’s knowledge, skills, and background are a prime contributor to the test conditions and test cases. The experience of both technical and business people is important, as they bring different perspectives to the test analysis and design process. Due to previous experience with similar systems, they may have insights into what could go wrong, which is very useful for testing.
101. What type of review requires formal entry and exit criteria, including metrics?
102. Could reviews or inspections be considered part of testing?
Yes, because both help detects faults and improves quality.
103. An input field takes the year of birth between 1900 and 2004 what the boundary values for testing this field are?
104. Which of the following tools would be involved in the automation of regression test? a. Data tester b. Boundary tester c. Capture/Playback d. Output comparator.
- d. Output comparator
105. To test a function, what has to write a programmer, which calls the function to be tested and pass test data.
106. What is the one Key reason why developers have difficulty testing their own work?
Lack of Objectivity
107.”How much testing is enough?”
The answer depends on the risk for your industry, contract and special requirements.
108. When should testing be stopped?
It depends on the risks for the system being tested. There are some criteria based on which you can stop testing.
- Deadlines (Testing, Release)
- Test budget has been depleted
- Bug rate fall below a certain level
- Test cases completed with certain percentage passed
- Alpha or beta periods for testing ends
- Coverage of code, functionality or requirements are met to a specified point
109. Which of the following is the primary purpose of the integration strategy for integration testing in the small?
The primary purpose of the integration strategy is to specify which modules to combine when and how many at once.
110. What are semi-random test cases?
Semi-random test cases are nothing, but when we perform random test cases and do equivalence partitioning to those test cases, it removes redundant test cases, thus giving us semi-random test cases.