Kotlin vs Java | Know Their Differences and Which Should You Learn?
Last updated on 30th Dec 2021, Blog, General
For most, Kotlin’s strengths outweigh the language’s setbacks. There are definite limitations within Java that impede Android API design. Kotlin is inherently lightweight, clean and far less verbose, especially in terms of writing callbacks, data classes, and getters/setters.
- Introduction to Java and its Benefits
- Challenges of java and its application
- Introduction to Kotlin and its Benefits
- Challenges of Kotlin and its applications
- History of Kotlin and java
- Difference between Kotlin and Java
- Advantage of Kotlin and Java
- Disadvantage of Kotlin and Java
- Listed below are the benefits of the Java language.
- Java is multiplatform and works on practically any device, server or operating system.
- Its coding is robust, and it is impossible for a Java instruction to corrupt memory or compromise data from other applications in OS X.
- Java is object-oriented and makes it easy to build modular applications and reuse parts that contribute to robustness.
- It’s ready to use, and with Java, you’ll have a lot of third-part code ready to use.
- Comparing Kotlin vs Java performance with other languages, Java is easier to use, compile and simplifies debugging and deployment.
- Java is an open-source language that ensures security as many of its libraries are managed by trusted companies like Google, Apache and others
Introduction to Java and its Benefits:
Java is the native language used by Android, applications that communicate with the operating system and directly access the hardware use Java. This language allows the creation of any program and supports almost all types of machines, and OS X whether it is Android, Windows, or Linux. Java was developed by Sun Microsystems (now a property of Oracle) and anyone can use microservices with Java.
- Below are the challenges of Java.
- The syntax used by Java can be a bit complicated or cumbersome compared to other languages – such as C++ or Python.
- With Java, it is impossible to access some content that may be incompatible with the device or equipment being used.
- Accessing new Java enhancements in mobile development is not easy.
- Test-driven development for Java requires writing more code and carries a lot of risk of programming errors and bugs
- Java is slightly slower than other programming languages and takes up a lot of system memory
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Challenges of java and its application:
What are the challenges of the Java language?
What are the applications of Java?
- Kotlin application deployment is fast to compile, lightweight, and prevents applications from growing in size.
- Any piece of code written in Kotlin is much smaller than in Java, because it is less verbose and less code means fewer bugs.
- Kotlin compiles the code into a bytecode that can be executed in the JVM. Thus, all libraries and frameworks built in Java are transferred and run in a Kotlin project.
- Kotlin scripts help to configure projects in Android Studio to support automatic completion, and it helps to reduce compile-time error detection.
- It is protected from NullPointerException (The Billion Dollar Mistake).
Introduction to Kotlin and its Benefits:
What is Kotlin?
In Kotlin vs Java, Kotlin is the newly created language which is inspired by Java, but it is an improved version of it with many additional features. It is clean, relatively simple, and has fewer formalities and rules than Java and other programming languages. To use this language to program Android apps, developers still need to understand basic programming concepts and structures.
What are the benefits of Kotlin?
- Kotlin is not that popular, and therefore the developer community is sparse compared to other well established languages like Java.
- Kotlin matches loosely, and initial code readability becomes a bit difficult to read and understand at first.
- It has a small support community because Kotlin is smaller than Java. In addition, it has fewer libraries, blog posts, and tutorials.
- Kotlin has a steep learning curve, and converting teams to Kotlin can be a real challenge due to the language’s concise syntax.
- There are very few Kotlin developers available in the market. Therefore, it is quite difficult to find an experienced mentor.
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Challenges of Kotlin and its applications:
What are the challenges of Kotlin language
What are the applications of Kotlin?
- Provides Sorting Coding
- Kotlin uses the JVM, which combines the features of OOP and functional-oriented programming.
- Provides fast compilation
- Kotlin can support a wide variety of extension functions without any changes to the code
- You can write Kotlin code using the IDE or using the command-line interface
- Smart feature casting helps you cut application cost and improve its speed or performance.
- Write code once and run it on almost any computing platform
- It is designed for building object-oriented applications.
- It is a multithreaded language that allows automatic memory management.
- Facilitates distributed computing in its network-centric form.
Features of Kotlin and java:
Features of Java:
Here are the important features of Java:
- In 2016, Kotlin v1.0 was launched
- In 2017, Google announced first class support for Kotlin in Android
- In 2018, Kotlin v1.3 version was released bringing coroutines for asynchronous programming.
- In 2019, Google announced Kotlin as its preferred programming language for Android application developers
- The Java language was initially called OAK. Originally, it was developed to handle portable devices and set-top boxes. Oak was a huge failure.
- In 1995, Sun changed the name to “Java” and modified the language to take advantage of the www (World Wide Web) development business.
- Later in 2009, Oracle Corporation acquired Sun Microsystems and took ownership of three major Sun software assets: Java, MySQL, and Solaris.
History of Kotlin and java:
Here, are important landmarks from Kotlin’s history:
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History of java
Here, are the important landmarks from the history of the Java language.
- Kotlin allows users to create an extension function. Java does not provide any extension functions.
- Kotlin doesn’t require a lot of work for the data class. Java developers write and build a lot of elements to develop classes
- Kotlin does not provide implicit conversions. Java supports implicit conversions.
- There are no null variables or objects in Kotlin. Void variables or objects are part of the Java language.
- Kotlin combines the features of both object-oriented and functional programming. Java is limited to object-oriented programming.
- Kotlin does not support static members. Java uses static members.
- Variables of a primitive type are objects Variables of a primitive type are not objects
- In Kotlin, we can have one or more secondary constructors. In Java, we cannot have secondary constructors. However, it can have multiple constructors.
- Kotlin string template also supports expressions. Java strings do not support expressions like Kotlin.
- Kotlin code is fairly easy to deploy. Java code is hard to deploy.
- Kotlin programs do not require semicolons in their program. Java programs require semicolons.
- In Kotlin, coroutines are concurrency design patterns that can be used to simplify code. Java uses two coroutine options such as 1) Rx Java and 2) Project Loon.
- Kotlin has no wildcard-types. Wide-cards are available in Java.
- Kotlin’s type system has built-in zero protection. Null pointer exception is mainly responsible for the development of Java and Android.
- Smart Cast feature is available in Kotlin. Smart Cast facility is not available in Java.
- Kotlin does not require any variable data type specifications; Java requires variable data type specifications.
- Kotlin supports lambda expressions. Java does not support lambda expressions.
- Lazy-loading feature is available in Kotlin. This feature is not available in Java.
- The language scripting capabilities allow you to use Kotlin directly in your Gradle build scripts. The Java language does not offer scripting capabilities.
- It supports modern programming concepts such as delegates, extensions, and higher-order functions. Java supports the OOPS programming concept.
- The average salary for a Java developer is $104,793 per year. The average salary for “Kotlin” for a software engineer ranges from about $107,275 per year for an Android developer to $121,034 per year.
Difference between Kotlin and Java:
Here, are the differences between Kotlin vs Java:
- Using the Kotlin Multi Platform Framework, you can extract a common codebase that will target all of them at the same time
- Kotlin provides built-in zero security support, which is a life saver, especially on Android, which is full of outdated Java-style APIs.
- It is more concise and expressive than Java, which means there is less room for error.
- Provides user friendly and understandable coding criteria
- Splits large apps into smaller layers.
- Uses a lot of function types and specific language constructs like lambda expressions.
- Helps developers create extension functions
- Provides a very simple and almost automatic way of creating data classes
- Kotlin is a statically typed language, so it is very easy to read and write.
- This language allows the exchange and use of information from Java in a variety of ways.
- It will take less time to write new code in Kotlin.
- It is quite easy to deploy Kotlin code and maintain it at scale.
- Checked exceptions that improve error detection and resolution
- Detailed documentation is available.
- A large pool of skilled developers is available
- A huge range of third party libraries
- It allows you to create standard programs and reusable code.
- It is a multi-threaded environment that allows you to perform multiple tasks simultaneously in a single program.
- excellent performance
- Easy to navigate libraries
Advantage of Kotlin and Java:
Benefits of Kotlin:
Here, the advantages/benefits of Kotlin are:
Benefits of java:
Here, are the pros/benefits of Java
- Small community of developers, so it lacks learning materials and professional support.
- Java does not offer a function of checked exceptions which can lead to errors.
- slow compilation speed compared to java
- Kotlin, being a highly declarative language, sometimes it helps you generate a large amount of boilerplate in the associated JVM bytecode
- Android API is not very suitable for design due to several limitations
- Demands a lot of manual work which increases the number of possible errors
- The JIT compiler makes the program comparatively slow.
- Java has high memory and processing requirements.
- It does not provide support for low-level programming constructs such as pointers.
- You have no control over garbage collection because Java does not offer functions like delete(), free().
Disadvantage of Kotlin and Java:
Here, there are disadvantages/disadvantages of using Kotlin:
Disadvantages of java:
Here, the cons/disadvantages of Java are:
When considering all the disadvantages of Java, especially the problem with NullPointerExceptions, Kotlin seems to be the better of the two. However Java is still an essential language for the development of every Android app as the Android OS itself is based on it. If you want to future proof your Android app development services, you should hire Kotlin developers for the same.