Top 45+ CICS Interview Questions and Answers
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45+ [REAL-TIME] CICIS Interview Questions and Answers

Last updated on 29th May 2024, Popular Course

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Mala ( CICS Application Developer )

Mala, as a diligent CICS Application Developer, holds significant responsibilities within her role. Her primary duties include designing and developing CICS-based applications tailored to meet specific business needs.

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CICS, which stands for Customer Information Control System, is a software program engineered to streamline the operational activities of companies. Think of it as a pivotal nexus that fosters seamless communication among various applications. Essentially, CICS serves as the underlying software infrastructure that connects vital systems within an organization. For instance, in the banking sector, CICS plays a pivotal role in integrating your bank account with the ATM network.

1. First off, what is CICS?

Ans:

The acronym for Customer Information Control System is CICS. It is a software program designed to assist companies in running their day-to-day operations. Consider it as a central hub that facilitates communication between different apps. CICS is the software that, for instance, links your bank account to the ATM and manages the money withdrawal process when you use one.

2. What are CICI’s primary duties?

Ans:

Aspect CICS Transaction Server (CICS TS) CICS Web Support
Primary Functionality Provides a runtime environment for executing transactional applications written in languages like COBOL, PL/I, C, and Assembler. Enables CICS applications to interact with web browsers and serve web-based clients.
Protocol Support Supports traditional communication protocols such as SNA (Systems Network Architecture) and TCP/IP for communication with terminals and other systems. Supports modern web protocols such as HTTP and HTTPS for communication with web browsers and web-based clients.
Application Interface Typically used for running traditional mainframe applications that handle transactions, batch processing, and backend processing tasks. Allows CICS applications to expose their functionality as web services and integrate with web-based user interfaces.
Client Interaction Primarily interacts with terminal-based or client/server applications, often using 3270 terminal emulation or proprietary communication protocols. Interacts with web browsers and other web clients, providing HTML-based user interfaces and supporting technologies like JavaScript and CSS.

3. Describe RCT and TCT.

Ans:

Terminal Control Table (TCT): Each terminal linked to the CICS system has its own set of data stored in this table. This data includes the type of terminal device, device address, and current status. CICS uses the TCT to control terminal activities, including screen display management and transaction routing to the appropriate terminal. 

Resource Control Table, or RCT: Files, programs, and transactions are only a few of the resources in the CICS system that are detailed in the RCT table. Name, location, status, and other characteristics of the resource are included in this information.  

4. What constitutes a CICS system’s principal parts?

Ans:

A CICS system is made up of a number of essential parts that cooperate to handle system resources and execute transactions. Among the key elements are:

  • CICS Region: Terminals, software, and files are all logically grouped as CICS resources in a CICS region. It is in charge of overseeing the system. 
  • Terminal Control Program (TCP): TCP is in charge of overseeing user terminal and CICS system communication. It supervises screen displays, performs input and output functions, and responds to user requests.

5. In CICS, what distinguishes a program from a transaction?

Ans:

Program: A collection of instructions written in a high-level language, such as PL/I or COBOL, is called a program in CICS. It is processed, connected, and run in the context of CICS. Software can carry out a specific function, such as creating a report or updating a file. Employ a range of strategies to converse with one another and share information. Once the task is finished, CICS releases the resources allotted to it and gives the transaction back control.

6. What CICS command is used to get the time and date right now?

Ans:

To obtain the current date and time, use the ASKTIME CICS command. The CICS time-of-day clock (EIBTIME) and date (EIBDATE) entries in the EIB are updated by ASKTIME. The task’s first start date and time are initially entered in these two parameters. CICS issues an MVS STACK macro and updates it by a local time difference in response to an ASKTIME instruction.

7. How are CICS transactions handled?

Ans:

While the transaction is being processed, a few steps are taken. The actions are:

  • The user starts the transaction: Through a terminal or other input device, a user sends a request to start a transaction. A transaction code linked to a program or group of programs that carry out the desired activity is entered by the user.
  • Transaction identification and routing: After receiving a transaction request, the CICS system determines which program or programs to execute. Additionally, the system chooses the resources, including databases and files, that the transaction must access.
  • Program execution: In order to complete the transaction, the CICS system loads and runs the necessary programs. The programs carry out the required action, like creating a report or changing a file.

8. How is the CICS Resource Definition Online (RDO) used, and what is its purpose?

Ans:

The CICS Resource Definition Online (RDO) is a facility within the Customer Information Control System (CICS) that allows administrators to define and manage resources dynamically while CICS is running. Its primary purpose is to streamline the administration of CICS resources such as files, programs, transactions, and terminals. RDO enables administrators to define these resources through an online interface, eliminating the need to stop and restart CICS for resource changes.

9. In CICS, how can we read a VSAM file?

Ans:

Typically consisting of four alphanumeric characters, a “TransID” is specified in the CICS system definition (CSD) file. A user selects the Transid of the program they wish to run when they start a transaction, and CICS then calls that application. In CICS, “TransIDs” are widely used to start transactions and carry out transaction programs. Program-to-program communication is another usage for them, where a program can transfer control to another program by utilizing its TransID.

10. How do you define the word “deadlock”?

Ans:

When many tasks are waiting for one another, a deadlock occurs. Resources must be kept either free or isolated from one another. A situation where neither side in an argument will compromise or accept the demands of the other makes it impossible to establish a consensus.

11. How Does CICS Handle Errors?

Ans:

In CICS, error handling can be accomplished in the following ways:

Return codes: Depending on whether an operation is successful or unsuccessful, CICS programs may return different return codes. The calling software can take corrective action by examining and handling these return codes appropriately.
Condition handling: To handle abnormal termination (ABEND) circumstances that arise during runtime, CICS applications can utilize the EXEC CICS HANDLE ABEND command. This command enables the application to handle unexpected exceptions by taking corrective action.

12. Describe COMMAREA and its advantages.

Ans:

  • The term COMMAREA refers to the Communication Area, a common data area where CICS programs communicate with one another. 
  • Data can be passed between applications running in the same CICS task using COMMAREA, which provides several benefits.
  • It facilitates quick and easy data transfer between applications without requiring the overhead of writing information to a file or database.
  • Its uniform data interchange format throughout programs guarantees dependable and consistent communication.
  • It enables dynamic data sharing without requiring file layouts or pre-defined data structures.

13. What kinds of DFHMDF are included in the CICS Set?

Ans:

CICS Map Definition Facility, or DFHMDF, is the tool used to define maps for CICS applications. The DFHMDF in the CICS set comes in various varieties. Every type has a distinct function and is used to specify different CICS application elements, including files, programs, terminals, maps, and programs. 

14. What distinguishes CICS from other systems for processing transactions?

Ans:

The majority of transaction processing systems provide the same features, but CICS is unique from them in the following ways:

  • Flexibility in application: It offers excellent application versatility and supports a number of programming languages, including Assembler, C, C++, PL/I, COBOL, and C. Because of this adaptability, developers may create and manage complex systems that need to be written in many programming languages with ease.
  • Scalability: It can manage both extensive and sophisticated settings for transaction processing and can grow to accommodate the needs of big businesses. It can manage millions of users and thousands of transactions per second.
  • Reliability: With features like backup, recovery, and automated restart, it is a highly dependable transaction processing system. Errors and system breakdowns can be swiftly and effectively recovered from.

15. Describe a few of the most popular CICS.

Ans:

  • EXEC CICS LINK: This command allows you to launch a program in the same CICS region from within another program.
  • EXEC CICS XCTL: This command is used to move control within a task from one program to another.
  • EXEC CICS RETURN: This command returns control to the caller program after another program has executed it.
  • EXEC CICS SEND: This command is used to send information to a different terminal or application.
  • EXEC CICS RECEIVE: This command is used to accept input from a terminal or other application.
  • The command EXEC CICS READ is used for reading data from a file.
  • To write data to a file, use the EXEC CICS WRITE command.

16. Describe EIB. Give a thorough explanation.

Ans:

The Execution Interface Block, or EIB for short, is a data structure that CICS uses to transfer data between a CICS job and the CICS system. All CICS applications have access to the EIB, which provides details about the transaction, the task at hand, and the environment in which it is operating. The EXEC CICS GET EIB command allows CICS programs to contact the EIB and receive information about the environment and current tasks. 

17. In a CICS program, how is data integrity ensured?

Ans:

Employ Sync Points for CICS: A sync point is a transactional checkpoint where CICS ensures that every modification made to the resources is either committed or reversed. By utilizing sync points, we can ensure that updates are only committed when they are all successful and are rolled back when any of them fail. This guarantees the consistency and dependability of the data.

18. How Does the CICS Program Handle Dynamic Memory Allocation?

Ans:

The CICS dynamic storage allocation services are usually used to manage dynamic memory allocation in CICS programs. Programs can dynamically create and deallocate memory at runtime with the help of these services. Numerous CICS dynamic storage allocation services are offered.

19. Enumerate a few strategies that you can use to maximize CICS performance.

Ans:

  • To maximize performance, we can develop effective code by selecting suitable data structures and algorithms.
  • Caching is an option, and Discuss RCT and TCT.
  • The Terminal Control Table, or TCT for short, is an index of each terminal.
  • On the other hand, the Resource Control Table, or RCT for short, is a list of DB2 plan names and the transaction ID.

20. What is an operating system’s CICS job priority?

Ans:

CICS operates on high priority in the operating system and is referred to as a batch task itself. The operating system? When an application calls for it, CICS, also known as a batch job, executes on a high priority within the operating system middleware that specializes in processing massive payloads of online transactions reliably and quickly.

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    21. Be able to distinguish between FCT and PCT.

    Ans:

    • Program Control Tables, or PCTs, contain an exhaustive list of transaction identifiers matched to their related programs. 
    • The File Control Table, or FCT for short, contains a comprehensive list of all the files that CICS has utilized, together with information about their record length and status.

    22. What does a CICS task entail?

    Ans:

    A CICS task is a specific CICS transaction that is executed once. This procedure begins when the enter key is pushed, and the key is input into the transaction. The program’s execution ends once it gives CICS back control. A unique license known as a CEMT (Conference of European Ministers of Transport) authorization enables companies to transport goods between nations within a group of nations known as CEMT countries. It makes it simpler to transport items across borders without requiring a number of separate licenses, much like a passport for goods.

    23. By CEMT, what do you mean?

    Ans:

    • Master Terminal Transaction is referred to as CEMT. It’s an ID for a system transaction that asks what’s going on and modifies the resources’ state. 
    • Permission issued by the Conference of European Ministers of Transport, or CEMT, is a unique license that permits companies to transfer commodities between nations within a group of nations known as CEMT countries. 
    • It makes it simpler to transport items across borders without requiring a number of separate licenses, much like a passport for goods.

    24. Could you please define COMMAREA?

    Ans:

    Since COMMAREA serves as a temporary storage facility, it is frequently referred to as a communication area. It serves as a data transfer medium for several programs that are loaded by a single transaction or a group of related transactions. The name of a data area sometimes referred to as a communication area, where data is sent to a transaction or program is specified by the COMMAREA. It is a command-line option for XCTL, RETURN, and LINK.

    25. What are a few commonly used CICS programs?

    Ans:

    We typically utilize the following CICS programs: Task Control, Storage Control, Terminal Control, and File Control. To tell EGL how to generate the call statement, use the linkage options section. You can set the type property of a callLink element in the linkage options section of the CICS® environments to one of the following values: localCall.

    26. How does SEND MAP MAP ONLY differ from SEND MAP DATA ONLY?

    Ans:

    • ONLY SEND MAP DATA: This allows the data to be transmitted without a layout. It is employed to update the information displayed on the screen.
    • SEND ONLY MAP: The data is not transferred over this; only the map is. The data is never transmitted when we are sending menu screens.

    27. What does MDT mean? Moreover, what is your opinion on FRSET and FSET?

    Ans:

    The acronym for modified data tag is MDT. If the field modification needs to be completed on the screen, MDT functions like an attribute byte. When performing an input operation, MDT is used. MDT is reset using FRSET. The field will be sent until it is reset via FRSET. FSET is responsible for ensuring that the field is sent via MDT. FSET is used during an output operation.

    28. What is the primary purpose of the extra- and intra-partition TDQs?

    Ans:

    CICS includes several batch areas, and some datasets are mostly used as communication conduits between CICS and the batch regions that are not under its purview. Extra-partition TDQs support the previously described procedure. Conversely, intra-partition TDQs are lines of communication inside the CICS area. These channels have several queues.

    29. Each map is divided into several fields, and within each of these fields are three standard working storage fields. Bring those up?

    Ans:

    • In CICS, the three most often used working storage fields are output/input field, length, and attribute. 
    • These three fields are necessary in order to categorize the maps.
    • CICS includes several batch areas, and some datasets are mostly used as communication conduits between CICS and the batch regions that are not under its purview. 
    • Extra-partition TDQs support the previously described procedure.

    30. How does EIBCALEN fit into CICS?

    Ans:

    Otherwise, regardless of the size of the data area of the summoned program, EIBCALEN always contains the value given in the LENGTH option of a LINK, XCTL, or RETURN command. Make sure your transaction accesses data in that region and that the value in EIBCALEN corresponds with the value in the DSECT for your program.

    31. Each map is divided into several fields, and within each of these fields are three standard working storage fields. Bring those up?

    Ans:

    • In CICS, the three most often used working storage fields are output/input field, length, and attribute. 
    • These three fields are necessary in order to categorize the maps.
    • The attribute byte has a bit called MDT that shows the field modification on the screen. 
    • To ensure the safe transmission of a field, Fset alters MDT during an output operation. 
    • Finally, the MDT is reset using Frset. While waiting for the reset, the field broadcast keeps going.

    32. Describe the main distinction between the INTO option, and the SET option of the EXEC CICS RECEIVE MAP command.

    Ans:

    The primary distinction between the INTO and SET options of the EXEC CICS RECEIVE MAP command lies in how they handle the data received from a terminal. When using the INTO option, the received map data is copied directly into a user-defined data area specified by the INTO option. This method involves physically moving the data from the CICS internal storage to the user-defined storage area, which can be beneficial for straightforward data handling and processing within the application program.

    33. What is the executive interface block (EIB) in complete form, and what do you know about it?

    Ans:

    An EIB stays connected to a task until it is finished. Throughout the assignment, the EIB does not change as it moves through the program. We can access EIB fields by examining your COBOL program in reading mode. The CICS loads the Execute Interface Block (EIB), a control block, automatically for each program. The EIB is specific to a job and is there for the whole task lifecycle. It includes a collection of task-related system-related data.

    34. Give a personal explanation of PPT.

    Ans:

    • The abbreviation for the program processing table is PPT. It contains all of the program names and related maps. 
    • I use it to ascertain whether a new version of the program is accessible or if I might need to download a new copy.Conversely, intrapartition TDQs are lines of communication that exist inside the CICS area. 
    • These television networks are split up into several lines.

    35. What distinguishes TCT from RCT in particular?

    Ans:

    “Terminal control table” (abbreviated TCT) is a list of every terminal. The resource control table, or RCT, is a grouping of DB2 plan names and transaction identifiers. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are typically blinded, controlled, and randomized. A predefined method is used to determine the significance of the results statistically.

    36. How do PCT and FCT differ from one another?

    Ans:

    The program control table, or PCT, is a list of all transaction identifiers matched to their corresponding programs. The file control table, or FCT for short, is a detailed list of all the files used by CICS, together with information about their record length and status.

    37. Explain MRO.

    Ans:

    The term multi-region operation is MRO. It is a system that permits data sharing, communication, and resources between the same CPU’s CICS address areas.”MRO is an acronym for maintenance, repair, and operations, or overhaul in certain situations. It encompasses all activities required for facility maintenance and to maintain the production process without interfering with it directly.

    38. What does the phrase CICS mean in its entirety? Why is it applied?

    Ans:

    • CICS, which stands for Customer Information Control System, is an abbreviation. 
    • This kind of system control software oversees IBM management’s online transactions and monitors the company’s interactions. 
    • IBM offers two mainframe operating systems: batch and time-sharing. 
    • A single request is often used to start CICS processing, which may also impact one or more objects. The CICS was founded in 1969.

    39. What does the CICI’s PPT mean? What is contained in it?

    Ans:

    The acronym for Processing Programming Table is PPT. Within the CICS, PowerPoint includes crucial data such as the name of the program, Mapset names, task use counter, language, size, primary storage location, map, and so forth. The Processing Programming Table (PPT) in CICS contains data that includes program names, Mapset names, task utilization counters, sizes, languages, and primary storage addresses, among other things.

    40. What is CICI’s main feature?

    Ans:

    CICS is used primarily for online application development and execution. Its primary purpose is to provide excellent accessibility to the database and its files. CICS facilitates data transmission and reception in a structured manner and offers a communication route via the terminal.

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    41. What does an Integrated CICS translator need to have?

    Ans:

    • The integrated CICS translator is contacted by the compiler when it encounters CICS statements in the source program.
    • The translator then acts on the CICS statements and returns to the compiler with the information on which native language statements to produce.
    • Compared to a Separate Translator, there are no restrictions with an Integrated Translator.
    • It can also manage CICS statements that are embedded in the Source Program and native COBOL.

    42. In CICS, what is the distinction between a call and a link?

    Ans:

    In CICS, the primary distinction between a call and a link is that, in the case of a call, any modifications made to the called program also require the calling program to be compiled. When it comes to a link, it’s not necessary. When using LINK, the program can be called in the same region, or it can be statically or dynamically routed to another area. CICS has little interaction with a CALL, and the processing remains in the exact location.

    43. In CICS, what do you mean by TCT and RCT?

    Ans:

    In CICS, the words TCT and RCT are also used. The abbreviation for Terminal Control Table is TCT. It is an aggregation of each relevant terminal.  However, RCT, which stands for Resource Control Table, is a list of plans.  It combines DB2 names and transaction identifiers.

    44. How do PCT and FCT differ from one another?

    Ans:

    • The abbreviation PCT, or program control table, is used in CICS. 
    • This list includes the entire collection of transaction identifiers matched to their related applications. 
    • Nevertheless, FCT also stands for File Control Table. 
    • It includes a comprehensive list of every file that CICS has utilized, together with information about the file’s status and record length.

    45. What does the term CEMT mean to you?

    Ans:

    The abbreviation for CICS Execute Master Terminal is CEMT. It serves as a transaction ID for the system and is mostly used to update and query the state of CICS environments as well as other system functions. We have no trouble handling transactions, tasks, files, applications, etc., and can modify the resources’ state. By entering CEMT and hitting ENTER, we can view every available option.

    46. In CICS, what do you mean when you say “BMS”?

    Ans:

    • The abbreviation for Basic Mapping Support is BMS. BMS is made available by CICS to specify and format the screen. 
    • The MAP is the screen defined by the BMS. The Mapset is a compilation of all the screens.
    • An application programming interface (API) that connects terminal devices with CICS® programs is known as essential mapping support or BMS. 
    • For this purpose, there are two sets of commands: BMS and COM. Terminal control describes the other one. In numerous applications, BMS offers innumerable benefits.

    47. Which CICS control tables are crucial?

    Ans:

    Certain IBM-supplied CICS control tables must be updated with the application information for CICS application programs to be executed successfully. A list of several significant control tables is provided below: TCT is an abbreviation for Table of Terminal Control. It is required to be entered when logging into a CICS terminal. The terminal IDs associated with the active CICS area are listed in this table. The Terminal Control Program and Terminal Control Table recognize the incoming data from the terminal.

    48. What is COMMAREA and how may it be used to achieve what goals?

    Ans:

    The most abbreviated and often used term for a communication area is COMMAREA. It’s the data space where information is moved or transferred between different programs. This area of temporary storage is mainly utilized as a means of data transfer between various programs that are loaded by a single transaction or by a group of transactions.

    49. In CICS, what is EIB? How is it helpful to us?

    Ans:

    • The acronym EIB in CICS stands for EXEC Interface Block. Every application has an EIB control block loaded automatically by the CICS. 
    • Each task receives some system-related information from CICS automatically in the form of an EIB. 
    • Every job has a distinct EIB that is active for the whole task. It includes a collection of data pertaining to the system that matches the assignment. 
    • Every EIB field is available for use by users in their application applications.

    50. What is COMMAREA, and how does using it help?

    Ans:

    The most abbreviated and often used term for a communication area is COMMAREA. It’s the data space where information is moved or transferred between different programs. This area of temporary storage is mostly utilized as a means of data transfer between various programs that are loaded by a single transaction or by a group of transactions.

    51. In CICS, what is EIB? How is it helpful to us?

    Ans:

    The acronym EIB in CICS stands for EXEC Interface Block. Every application has an EIB control block loaded automatically by the CICS. Each task receives some system-related information from CICS automatically in the form of an EIB. Every job has a distinct EIB that is active for the whole task. It includes a collection of task-related system-related data. Every EIB field is available for users to use in their applications.

    52. In the CICS, what is a transaction? What function do transactions serve in the CICS?

    Ans:

    • A transaction initiates or completes a specific task. It serves as a unique identification.
    • A transaction can be started concurrently from several systems but from different systems.
    • Although background transactions are possible, interactive processing that is started by a single request often constitutes a transaction.
    • A transaction is a four-character entry type that prohibits any transaction name duplication.
    • A transaction can map to the program one to one or multiple times. When the transaction trigger occurs, it is carried out.

    53. Which varieties of DFHMDF are there in the CICS set?

    Ans:

    Some of the DFHMDF types found in the CICS set are as follows:

    • POS: The position in the CICS is abbreviated as POS. The row and column positions in the field with respect to the upper left corner of the map position are indicated by the POS parameter.
    • Attrib: The field attribute’s abbreviation is ATTRB. The BMS usually uses the default values for the auto-skip protection, average intensity, and the modified value. 
    • Initial: The BMS does not require the initial type either. It is only utilized in the title and label fields, which in the BMS already have a fixed value.

    54. What are some of the critical fields in the CICS EIB block named?

    Ans:

    The CICS Execute Interface Block (EIB) contains several critical fields that provide vital information about the current task and the execution environment within a CICS program. Some of the key fields include EIBDATE and EIBTIME, which record the date and time the task started, essential for timestamping and logging purposes. EIBTRMID stores the terminal identifier, which is useful for identifying the terminal from which the transaction originated. EIBTASKN holds the task number assigned by CICS, aiding in task management and debugging.

    55. What does MDT mean to you? What functions do FRSET and FSET serve in MDT?

    Ans:

    • Modified Data Tag is what the abbreviation MDT stands for. During an input operation, MDT is employed. If the field on the screen is changed,
    • subsequently, MDT functions as a little attribute byte.
    • For Flag Reset, use FRSET. It is employed to turn off the modified data tag in the attribute bytes for each field on the screen and to reset MDT. 
    • A changed data tag that has been turned on, either by the user or the program, remains on until it is expressly turned off, even after many screen transmissions. Conversely, FSET activates the updated data tag. 

    56. What category does a CICS program fall under?

    Ans:

    A CICS program can be divided into the following categories:

    • Talk-based programs
    • Not in dialogue
    • Programs ostensibly conversational

    57. What does the phrase “conversational programs” mean to you?

    Ans:

    Conversational programs require human intervention to execute. Put another way, a conversational program asks the user for input before processing the data and displaying the results on the screen. Sending messages to the terminals and getting responses from the users who are actively using them is the primary function of the conversational programs. For instance, send and receive commands are always used in web applications to facilitate communication between users and the application program.

    58. What does the phrase “non-conversational programs” mean to you?

    Ans:

    Applications that don’t require human input to run are known as non-conversational applications. When we begin the execution of the program, it has access to all necessary inputs. Stated differently, non-conversational applications are those that are utilized to display reports or messages. Non-conventional programs operate in batch mode and are very similar to batch programs. Their primary function is to periodically display a sequence on the screen.

    59. Pseudo-conversational programs: what do you mean by them?

    Ans:

    Programs that mimic conversations react to events or actions taken by the user. It is a conversational program subtype that only operates when it is launched and or invoked by a different program. Additionally, some user actions are required, such as hitting Enter, etc. Another name for it is an event-based program.

    60. What does the phrase “conversational programs” mean to you?

    Ans:

    • Conversational programs require human intervention to execute. Put another way, a conversational program asks the user for input before processing the data and displaying the results on the screen.
    • Sending messages to the terminals and getting responses from the users who are actively using them is the primary function of the conversational programs. 
    • For instance, send and receive commands are always used in web applications to facilitate communication between users and the application program.
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    61. What does the phrase “non-conversational programs” mean to you?

    Ans:

    Applications that don’t require human input to run are known as non-conversational applications. When we begin the execution of the program, it has access to all necessary inputs. Stated differently, non-conversational applications are those that are utilized to display reports or messages. Non-conventional programs operate in batch mode and are very similar to batch programs. Their primary function is to periodically display a sequence on the screen.

    62. What does the phrase pseudo-conversational programs mean to you?

    Ans:

    Programs that mimic conversations react to events or actions taken by the user. It is a conversational program subtype that only launches or is called by another program. Additionally, some user actions are required, such as hitting Enter, etc. Another name for it is an event-based program.

    63. Describe the process for initiating a CICS transaction.

    Ans:

    The CICS initiation process is as follows:

    • TCP, or transmission control protocol, generates entries in TCT, or total cost technology, based on data stored in TIOA or terminal input/output.
    • After obtaining the transaction identity from TIOA, the Task Control Program (KCP) verifies that it is present in PCT.
    • Task Control Area (TCA), where KCP generates task control data, is acquired by SCP.
    • Next, KCP searches for the application.
    • Programs listed in PPT that are loaded from PCT.

    64. What is MDT specifically?

    Ans:

    Indeed. The acronym for Modified Data Tag is MDT.

    • The character of one attribute is retained.
    • Its two values are 1. and 0.
    • The terminal operator has not modified this field if it is 0.
    • The terminal operator has modified this field if the value is 1.
    • Data from the field is sent from the terminal to the host computer if MDT is set to 1.

    65. Is Quasi-reentrancy defined?

    Ans:

    A quasi-reentrant program enters and exits in the same state before and after each EXEC CICS instruction. When control is transferred to a program, both upon entrance and before and after each EXEC CICS command, it is said to be quasi-reentrant if it remains in that consistent condition.

    66. What variations of DFHMDF are there in the CICS?

    Ans:

    Some of the DFHMDF types present in the CICS set are as follows:

    • POS: The acronym for “position” in the CICS is POS. The row and column positions in the field surrounding the upper left corner of the map are indicated by the POS parameter.
    • Length: The length invariably indicates how many characters are in the field. Each length will require one more column than its length value as the attribute bytes are absent from length.
    • ATTRIB: The field attribute is shortened to ATTRIB. Most of the time, the field attribute is not required in the Basic Mapping Support (BMS). This is a result of the BMS constantly using auto-skip protection, average intensity, and personalized tag default settings.
    • Initial: An initial is also not necessary in the BMS. The only initial that can be used is the one that already has a constant value in the BMS for the label and title fields.

    67. In the CICS, what are the main uses for the transaction?

    Ans:

    Several applications of the transaction in the CICS include the following:

    A transaction is a unique identifier that is mainly utilized to carry out or start a specific task. Four-character input is referred to as a transaction, and duplication is not allowed, especially in transaction names. Multiple systems may simultaneously initiate a transaction, but not from the same system. Most of the time, a transaction will have one or more mappings to the program that need to be executed when the transaction trigger occurs.

    68. What is the primary purpose of TDQs, both extra- and intra-partition?

    Ans:

    CICS has multiple batch areas, and certain datasets are mostly used as communication channels between CICS and batch regions outside CICI’s domain. While intra-partition TDQs serve as routes for communication within the CICS region, extra-partition TDQs support the previous step. These channels have multiple queues.

    69. Describe re-entry in terms of CICS.

    Ans:

    After the operating system interrupts itself, it performs other OS activities, including OS chores of the same program. A reentrant program does not change itself to reenter itself and continue processing. Additionally, it is a “reusable” or “reentrancy” application. In the context of CICS, a reentrant program is a quasi-reentrant program. To state it differently, In this sense, a quasi-reentrant program is a CICS program that stays true to itself, allowing it to return and carry on processing following a CICS interruption. 

    70. Why are CICS translators needed?

    Ans:

    • When used from the compiler option, the Integrated CICS translator is necessary for the COBOL compiler to operate. 
    • The compiler uses the integrated CICS translator to communicate with CICS statements in the source program. 
    • After modifying the CICS statements, the translator returns and instructs the compiler on what native language statements should be generated. 
    • In contrast to a Separate translator, Integrated Translator does not impose any limitations on the management of native Cobol statements in the Source Program or CICS statements.

    71. To get the current date and time, what CICS command will you use?

    Ans:

    In CICS, to obtain the current date and time, you would typically use the EXEC CICS ASKTIME command. This command retrieves the current system date and time from the CICS system clock and stores it in a user-specified storage area. The ASKTIME command allows developers to capture the date and time precisely when needed within their application programs. Once retrieved, the date and time information can be used for various purposes such as timestamping transactions, logging events, scheduling tasks, or performing time-sensitive operations.

    72. What distinguishes the command EXEC CICS XCTL from the command EXEC CICS LINK?

    Ans:

    The XTCL command transfers control to an application that resides at the same logical level and does not expect to control it back, whereas the LINK command passes the power to an application program to the next logical level and expects control back. One of the definitions of the field CHG is the picture, which tells the BMS what kinds of images are often used to produce the fields. When data is moved into the map, Picout is also used to modify the COBOL or PL/I facilities.

    73. How would you define CICS?

    Ans:

    CICS, or Customer Information Control System, is software developed by IBM to track communications. Batch and time-sharing are IBM’s mainframe operating systems. CICS stands for “Customer Information Control System,” a general-purpose transaction processing subsystem for the z/OS® operating system. 

    74. What is a CICS task, in your opinion?

    Ans:

    • In essence, a CICS job is the execution of a CICS transaction once. This process begins when the enter key is pressed after inputting the key into the transaction. 
    • The execution process is ongoing until the software gives CICS back control. 
    • The same JVM server process contains parallel threads that carry out CICS activities. 
    • All CICS tasks share the same JVM, even if they are executing numerous applications at once. 
    • Additionally shared are all static classes and static data. For a Java program to be used with a JVM server in CICS, it must be thread safe.

    75. Illustrate how PCT and FCT differ from one another.

    Ans:

    The Program Control Table (PCT) and the File Control Table (FCT) are both crucial components within the Customer Information Control System (CICS), yet they serve distinct purposes and exhibit differences in their functionalities. The PCT is primarily responsible for managing program-related information, such as program entry points and associated attributes. It acts as a lookup table that CICS references to locate and execute programs requested by transactions. In contrast, the FCT focuses on managing file-related information, including data set names, record formats, and access methods.

    76. How would you start a transaction using CICS?

    Ans:

    Initiating a CICS transaction is straightforward. To begin, clear the screen by using the CLEAR button. The transaction identification is then entered, either by itself or in conjunction with other data on the command line displayed on the screen.

    • On the IP Resource Monitor, type TS (CICS Transaction Start) next to a COMMON resource. A panel for confirmation displays.
    • Fill out the following forms: Tran. Indicates which CICS transaction your server should begin. Parmesan.

    77. What is meant by the term “EIB”?

    Ans:

    Each task is within a command level. In addition to the standard CICS control blocks, the environment also contains an associated control block called the EXEC interface block (EIB). Application software can access every field in the EIB by name. The member states of the European Union jointly own the European Investment Bank (EIB). It aims to increase Europe’s potential for growth and jobs and encourage climate change mitigation measures.

    78. Can dynamic calls be used in CICS?

    Ans:

    Indeed. The calling program must utilize the CALL identifier, and the call function must be specified in a PPT in order to use dynamic calls in CICS. But you have to make sure the COB PATH environment variable is set correctly. Additionally, you need to confirm that the called module is named correctly.

    79. What feature of CICS is the most crucial?

    Ans:

    CICS focuses on web application development and execution. It creates a smooth communication channel for sending and receiving structured data over the terminal. One of the most crucial aspects of CICS is the accessibility of databases and the files they hold.

    80. What is CICS in its entirety? What is its primary purpose?

    Ans:

    • The phrase Customer Information Control System is abbreviated as CICS. 
    • It is a system control program that oversees IBM management’s online transactions. 
    • It evaluates IBM’s communications as well. IBM’s mainframe operating system mainly uses batch and time-sharing. 
    • CICS is a processing type that was primarily developed using a single request that one or more objects can fulfill.
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    81. What fundamental specifications should an Integrated CICS translator meet?

    Ans:

    In order to use a COBOL compiler, it is required. When you choose the Form Compiler option, the Integrated CICS translator will be utilized. When the compiler comes across CICS statements in the source program, it gets in touch with the integrated CICS translator. After that, the translator modifies the CICS statements and then gets back to the compiler with the native language statements that it needs to generate. 

    82. In CICS, how would you distinguish between a call and a link?

    Ans:

    • The primary distinction between call and link in CICS is that, in the case of calling, the calling program must also be assembled whenever program modifications are made. 
    • The same is not required for links. Since a call from a CICS program doesn’t use the exec cics command, it would be considered outside of CICS. 
    • Data can be sent to and received from a CICS application using a link, which is a CICS command. In the CICS communication area, data is passed.

    83. In what way would you distinguish START from XTCL?

    Ans:

    The START command is helpful in starting a new task. It is a command meant only for interval management. Although the XCTL command is primarily for program control, it can also be used to transfer power to a program that is executing within the same task.

    84. What is CEMT specifically?

    Ans:

    The complete name of CEMT is CICS Execute Master Terminal. Its main application is to monitor and modify the state of CICS environments and other system operations. Its function is to act as a transactional ID for the system. Thanks to CEMT, managing transactions, tasks, files, programs, etc., is simple. With CENT’s assistance, one can also alter the resources’ state. Entering CEMT and pressing ENTER allows us to see every option.

    85. In the context of CICS, what is BMS?

    Ans:

    BMS, or Basic Mapping Support, is used by CICS to design and format the screen. The term “MAP” refers to the screen as defined. The term “Mapset” refers to the collection of them. An application programming interface (API) that connects CICS® programs and terminal devices is called Basic Mapping Support (BMS). In numerous applications, BMS offers various benefits: Device dependencies are eliminated from the application software by BMS.

    86. Which CICS control tables are some of the most crucial ones?

    Ans:

    • CICS requires that some control tables provided by IBM be updated on a regular basis with the application data. The following is a summary of a few of the critical control tables:
    • TCT: The Terminal Control Table is a database that contains all of the terminal IDs associated with the current CICS area. It acknowledges every piece of incoming data from the terminal.
    • PCT: The program names or IDs that match make up the Program Control Table, or PCT. The Transaction IDs, or TRANSID, are also contained in it. Every PCT table has its unique Transaction ID or TRANSID.
    • PPT: A processing Program Table, or PPT, is a type of table that holds information like the application or mapset name, the primary storage address, the language, the size, the load library address, the task use counter, and more. Every PPT table has the appearance of a unique Program or Mapset name.

    87. What is COMMAREA, and what are the benefits of using it?

    Ans:

    COMMAREA is the most commonly used and succinct name for a communication area. It is the name of the data region used for storing and exchanging data between programs. It acts as a conduit for data transfer across different applications that are loaded by one transaction or by a collection of transactions. COMMAREA is primarily a location for short-term storage. COMMAREA is usually used in conjunction with the TRANSID option to return information to the program that performs the Transaction ID so that the user may use it when executing that transit. Up to 64K bytes of data can be transmitted over COMMAREA at a time.

    88. In CICS, how would you distinguish between tasks and transactions?

    Ans:

    The main distinction between a task and a transaction in the context of CICS is that a task requires user initiative, but a transaction can be invoked by multiple users simultaneously. While various users can initiate a transaction, one user initiates a task at a time.

    89. Which CICS programs are some of the most popular ones?

    Ans:

    The following are a few of the most popular CICS applications:

    • Programs for Storage Control
    • Programs for task control and file control
    • Program for Terminal Control

    90. What does the phrase “mapset” mean to you?

    Ans:

    A load module consisting of altered and connected maps is called a mapset. It needs to include a PPT. Names ranging from one to seven characters are entered. A map is an arrangement of displays. It is necessary to create both logical or symbolic maps (used mainly by the application program) and physical maps (used primarily by CICS).

    91. What does the word MDT mean to you? Regarding MDT, what is the function of FRSET and FSET?

    Ans:

    • We refer to Modified Data Tag (MDT) as that abbreviation. MDT is used while an input procedure is being carried out. 
    • The MDT behaves something like an attribute byte when you change a field’s value on the screen. 
    • FRSET is the acronym for Flag Reset. The primary purposes of it are to reset MDT and turn off the modified data tag for every field on the byte attributes of the screen. 
    • Even across subsequent screen broadcasts, a changed data tag that has been turned on once—by the user or the program—remains on until explicitly turned off. 

    92. How should every CICS program be categorized?

    Ans:

    CICS programs can be divided into the following categories:

    • Interactive Programs
    • Concealment-Based Programs
    • Non-discursive programs

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