Top 40+ Protractor Interview Questions and Answers
Protractor Interview Questions and Answers

40+ [REAL-TIME] Protractor Interview Questions and Answers

Last updated on 13th Apr 2024, Popular Course

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Jenny. M (Software Developer - Protractor )

Jenny is a seasoned software developer specializing in Protractor automation testing. She possesses a deep understanding of frontend technologies and has a proven track record in designing and implementing robust test suites. Jenny's passion for quality assurance and continuous improvement drives her to excel in delivering reliable and efficient testing solutions using Protractor.

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Protractor stands out as an end-to-end testing framework tailored for Angular and AngularJS applications. Leveraging WebDriverJS, it accommodates both synchronous and asynchronous testing seamlessly. Simplifying Angular app testing, Protractor includes native support for Angular-specific elements like ng-model and ng-bind. Its features encompass automatic wait for Angular asynchronous operations and robust reporting tools. Developers find Protractor invaluable for crafting clean, maintainable tests using familiar technologies such as JavaScript and Jasmine or Mocha.

1. What’s Protractor, and why is it used to test Angular operations?

Ans:

  • A Protractor is an end-to-end test frame particularly designed for Angular and AngularJS operations. It provides an important and flexible testing terrain that is easy to use and integrates well with the Angular operations. Protractor works as a result on top of WebDriverJS and supports behavior-driven development( BDD) fabrics like Jasmine, Mocha, and Cucumber.
  • It extends the functionality of WebDriverJS by adding features that make it simpler to interact with AngularJS rudiments. The reason Protractor is favored for Angular operations is its capability to automatically stay for Angular’s tasks to complete before executing tests, simplifying the way formulators write tests, especially for asynchronous operations.
Overview of Protractor

2. How does Protractor handle rudiments that become visible only after a certain action is performed on the runner?

Ans:

Protractor handles similar rudiments by exercising the WebDriver’s unequivocal and implicit delay functionalities. An unequivocal delay is a law you define as staying for a certain condition before pacing further in the law. In this case, the Protractor can remain for an element to become visible, clickable, or attain a specific state. This is particularly useful in Angular operations, where rudiments might become visible or interactable only after completing asynchronous operations.

3. How do you set up a Protractor test?

Ans:

Setting up a Protractor test involves several ways. First, you need to install Node.js, as Protractor is a Node.js program. After installing Node.js, you can install Protractor encyclopedically using npm( Node Package Manager) with the command npm install- g protractor. We need to modernize the WebDriver, which was previously installed, utilizing the webdriver- director update command. This ensures that we have the most motorists for cybersurfers like Chrome and Firefox.

4. What are the crucial features of Protractor that distinguish it from other testing fabrics?

Ans:

  • Protractor offers several crucial features that make it stand out from other testing fabrics, especially for Angular operations. Originally, its native support for Angular operations meant it could automatically attend with Angular’s two-way data tapes and event circle, barring the need for homemade passings or delays.
  • Secondly, it provides easy-to-use locators specifically for Angular rudiments, similar to asby. Model, by. Binding, etc., making it simpler to elect rudiments grounded on Angular-specific attributes.
  • Protractor also integrates well with popular BDD testing fabrics like Jasmine, Mocha, and Cucumber, offering a rich ecosystem for writing tests.

5. How does the Protractor handle asynchronous operations?

Ans:

The Protractor handles asynchronous operations by using the WebDriver Control Flow, a line of pending pledges, to attend operations. Still, with the arrival of async await syntax in ultramodern JavaScript, Protractor and the underpinning WebDriverJS have shifted towards using this further intuitive approach for handling asynchronous law. This means that rather than chaining pledges, tests can now be written using the async await syntax, making the law cleaner and easier to read.

6. What’s a Locator in Protractor, and how numerous types of Locators are there?

Ans:

In a Protractor, a locator is an object that tells the Protractor how to find a certain DOM element on the runner so that it can interact with it. Locators are essential for writing effective end-to-end tests, allowing testers to elect rudiments in a way that mimics stoner relations. Protractor extends the locators handed by WebDriverJS with fresh bones that are specific to Angular operations, making it easier to elect rudiments bound by Angular-specific attributes.

7. Explain how to test an operation that isn’t Angular with Protractor.

Ans:

  • Although Protractor is designed for Angular operations, it can also be used to test non-Angular operations by turning off Angular synchronization in the Protractor test script.
  • This tells Protractor not to stay for Angular-specific rudiments and operations, allowing it to interact with the web runner as it would with any non-Angular operation.
  • When testing non-GAngular operations, testers need to calculate more heavily on WebDriver’s unequivocal and implicit delays to manage asynchronous operations since Protractor’s automatic synchronization with Angular’s event circle isn’t in effect.

8. What’s the difference between “GET” and “NAVIGATE in Protractor?

Ans:

Feature GET NAVIGATE
Description Navigates to a URL and waits for page load Navigates to a URL without waiting
Usage Typically used at the start of a test Used for quick navigation or history
Waiting Waits for page to fully load before next Does not wait for page load
Example browser.get(‘http://www.example.com’); browser.navigate().to(‘http://www.example.com’);

9. How can you run tests in multiple cybersurfers using Protractor?

Ans:

Protractor allows tests to be run in multiple cybersurfers contemporaneously by configuring the multiCapabilities property in theprotractor.conf.js train. This property accepts an array of objects, with each object representing the configuration for a different cybersurfer. You can specify cybersurfer names, performances, and other cybersurfer-specific settings within these objects.

10 . Describe how to handle train uploads in Protractor tests.

Ans:

  • Handling train uploads in Protractor tests involves interacting with the train input element directly. Since cybersurfers generally circumscribe JavaScript from setting the train path in a training input for security reasons, Protractor tests need to bypass the train selection dialog.
  • This can be achieved by transferring the absolute path of the train to be uploaded to the train input element using the sendKeys() system. It’s important to ensure that the train path is correct and accessible to the test terrain.
  •  Once the path is set in the input field, the form can be submitted as part of the test, mimicking the train upload process. This approach allows for testing the upload functionality without stoner commerce.

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    11. How does Protractor ensure that your tests are run against the operation as it would appear to a real stoner?

    Ans:

    Protractor ensures tests mimic real stoner relations by running them in a real cybersurfer terrain. It interacts with the operation using factual DOM events and rudiments, much like a stoner would, rather than counting on mock objects or simulated surroundings. This approach catches issues that might only manifest in a live cybersurfer, similar to rendering issues or integration problems with third-party libraries.

    12. Describe how to use. all for handling multiple rudiments in Protractor.

    Ans:

    You were used in Protractor to elect and interact with multiple rudiments that match a given locator. This is particularly useful for dealing with lists, tables, or any set of analogous rudiments on the runner. For case, if you need to count the number of particulars in a list or assert that a set of rudiments has specific values, element. All comes in handy after opting for rudiments with elements. You can use styles like. count(),. each(),. chart(), and. sludge() to perform operations on all named rudiments.

    13. What challenges have you faced while using Protractor, and how did you overcome them?

    Ans:

    Common challenges with Protractor include:

  • Dealing with timing issues.
  • Handling the non-GAngular corridor of operations.
  • Setting up complex test suites.
  • Timing issues, especially with largely asynchronous operations, can be eased by using ExpectedConditions to stay for specific rudiments or countries.Complex test setups can frequently be simplified by using runner Objects to organize tests and applicable factors.

    14. How do you manage data-driven tests in Protractor?

    Ans:

    Data-driven testing in Protractor involves running the same set of tests with different sets of data. This approach is eased by using external data sources, similar to JSON or CSV lines, and feeding this data into tests. Protractor tests can stoutly read data from these lines using Node.js functionalities, allowing for flexible and applicable test cases. By repeating the data sets within the tests, you can ensure that your operation behaves rightly under colorful conditions and inputs.

    15. How do you perform drag and drop conduct in Protractor?

    Ans:

    Drag-and-drop conduct in Protractor can be achieved through the browser actions () API, which provides a way to simulate complex stoner gestures. To perform a drag-and-drop, you first identify the source element( the bone you want to drag) and the target element, where the source and target are the WebElements you’ve named. This system effectively simulates the drag-and-drop action by automating the mouse movements and conduct needed, allowing you to test interactive, drag-and-drop functionalities within your Angular operation.

    16. Discuss how to incorporate visual retrogression testing with Protractor.

    Ans:

    • Incorporating visual retrogression testing into Protractor tests involves landing screenshots of the operation under test at specific countries and comparing these with birth images to describe changes.
    • Tools like Protractor- image- comparison or webdrivercss can be integrated into Protractor tests to automate this process. These tools give functionalities to capture and compare screenshots during test prosecution.
    • To use these tools effectively, first, establish birth images that represent the anticipated state of the UI. During posterior test runs, new screenshots are compared against these nascences to identify unintended changes.

    17. How do you handle train uploads in Protractor tests?

    Ans:

    Handling train uploads in Protractor involves interacting with the train input element directly. First, you need to identify the element on the runner. Rather than bluffing a click and handling the training dialog( which isn’t possible due to security restrictions in cybersurfers), you directly set the train path on the input element using the. sendKeys() system. For illustration, element(by.css(‘ input( type = ” train”)’)). sendKeys(‘/ path/ to/ train’); sends the train path to the input, driving the upload process.

    18. Explain how you can use a Protractor to test anon-angular operation.

    Ans:

    Protractor is primarily designed for Angular operations, but it can also be used to test non-Angular operations by turning off Angular-specific features. To do this, you setbrowser.waitForAngularEnabled( false) on the morning of your test or before interacting with the angular runner. This tells Protractor not to stay for Angular’s bootstrapping process and ignore Angular-specific hooks, allowing it to interact with the web runner as any other Selenium WebDriver-ground tool would.

    19. What are runner Objects, and how do they facilitate test maintainability in Protractor?

    Ans:

    • Runner Objects is a design pattern used in test robotization to enhance test maintainability and reduce law duplication. A runner Object represents a runner( or a part of it) of your web operation, recapitulating the runner’s structure and actions in an applicable class.
    • By using runner Objects, you abstract the details of the UI structure and relations into styles of this class.
    • This separation means that if the UI changes, you only need to modernize the runner Object rather than the tests themselves, significantly perfecting maintainability.
    • In Protractor, using runner Objects helps manage complexity, especially in large-scale operations, by furnishing a clear and modular structure for test scripts.

    20. How do you remedy Protractor tests?

    Ans:

    Debugging Protractor tests can be approached in several ways. A common system is using a browser. Pause (), which pauses the test prosecution at a specific point, allowing you to check the cybersurfer’s current state. Another approach is to run Protractor with the– check – brk option, which enables Node.js’s debugger and pauses prosecution before the first line of the Protractor test script. This allows you to attach a debugger customer( similar to Chrome DevTools) to step through the test law.

    21. Discuss how to handle authentication in Protractor tests.

    Ans:

    Handling authentication in Protractor tests can be done in several ways, depending on the type of authentication medium your operation uses. For operations with a login runner, you can write Protractor law to navigate to the login runner and programmatically enter the username and word credentials. Another approach is to use HTTP requests to gain authentication commemoratives( if applicable) before running your tests, setting these commemoratives in the cybersurfer’s original storehouse or eyefuls as demanded.

    22. What’s the difference between an element and an element? All in Protractor?

    Ans:

    • In Protractor, element and element are all used to elect DOM rudiments, but they differ in the compass of their selection. Element is used to find a single component on the runner.
    • It takes a locator as an argument and returns the first element that matches the locator criteria.
    • On the other hand, element. All are used to elect multiple rudiments that match a given locator, returning an array—such as the ElementArrayFinder object. This object can be used to apply conduct or assertions to all named rudiments.
    • The choice between element and element. It all depends on whether you need to interact with a single element or multiple rudiments that partake in the same locator.

    23. How can you ensure your Protractor tests are dependable and not short?

    Ans:

    Ensuring that protractor tests are dependable and not short involves several stylish practices. Originally, it used unequivocal delays(e.g., browser. wait with ExpectedConditions) rather than counting on fixed-duration sleep, which can lead to changeable results. Secondly, structure your tests using the runner Object Model to reduce law duplication and ameliorate maintainability. Thirdly, make judicious use of retries for conduct known to be prone to flakiness, though this should be a last resort.

    24. Describe how to handle pop-ups and cautions in Protractor.

    Ans:

    Handling pop-ups and cautions in Protractor, specifically JavaScript cautions, documentation, and prompts, is done using the browser. Switch (). Alert () system, which returns an Alert object. This object provides styles like accept() to click’ OK,’ dismiss() to click’ Cancel,’ or sendKeys( textbook) to class into a prompt. It’s important to note that handling these pop-ups synchronously with the inflow of the test is pivotal since they block further conduct until resolved.

    25. How do you test responsive web designs or mobile views in Protractor?

    Ans:

    • Testing responsive web designs or mobile views in Protractor involves configuring your tests to run on different screen sizes and judgments. This can be achieved by setting the cybersurfer window size using a browser. manage(). window(). setSize( range, height) in your tests.
    • You can define multiple configurations to simulate colorful biases and judgments. You run your tests against each configuration to corroborate that your operation’s UI and functionality work properly on different screen sizes. 
    • Also, using cybersurfer parrots or pall-grounded testing services that offer real mobile bias can give more accurate results for mobile view testing.

    26. How do you manage configuration in Protractor for different surroundings?

    Ans:

    Managing configurations for different surroundings in Protractor involves using theconfig.js train effectively. You can define specific configuration settings for each terrain, similar to the base URL, global variables, or custom parameters. Exercising command-line arguments or terrain variables to switch between these configurations is a common approach. For this case, you might use–params—environment = staging to elect a staging terrain.

    27. Explain how to use async await in Protractor to handle pledges.

    Ans:

    Using async await in Protractor simplifies handling asynchronous operations, similar to cybersurfer relations and element queries, by making the law appear coetaneous. This point is part of ECMAScript and is supported in Protractor through the Selenium WebDriverJS, which Protractor is erected. To use async await, mark your test functions with the async keyword, which also allows you to use the await keyword before any operation that returns a pledge.

    28. How does Protractor handle rudiments that become visible only after a certain action is performed?

    Ans:

    • The Protractor handles stoutly visible rudiments using unequivocal delays or the Anticipated Conditions API. These tools allow tests to stay for specific conditions to be true before pacing.
    • For illustration, if an element becomes visible after a stoner action like clicking a button, you can use a browser. Wait () in combination with expected conditions. Visibility ( element) to stay until the element is visible.
    • This system ensures that your tests regard the asynchronous nature of web operations, where rudiments might not be incontinently available for commerce.

    29. Discuss the significance of winters in Protractor and how to configure them.

    Ans:

    Winters are pivotal in Protractor tests to ensure they run reliably without staying indefinitely for conditions or rudiments. Protractor provides several types of winter scripts: winters for asynchronous scripts, runner cargo winters for navigation, and implicit delays for element finding. Configuring these winters meetly helps balance test speed and trustability. Confirming these winters are grounded on operation geste and network conditions can significantly reduce flakiness in tests.

    30. What’s the part of theprotractor.conf.js train?

    Ans:

    The Theprotractor.conf.js train is a pivotal configuration train for Protractor tests, acting as the central place to manage test settings and preferences. It includes configurations similar to the Selenium WebDriver garçon address, target cybersurfers, test suites, global parameters, and hooks like prepare () for setting up the test terrain before prosecution.

    31. How do you incorporate visual retrogression testing in Protractor?

    Ans:

    Incorporating visual retrogression testing into Protractor involves using third-party libraries or tools that compare screenshots of web runners over time to describe changes. Libraries are similar to protractor-image-comparison, or integrating with pall-grounded services like Applitools can automate this process. To apply visual retrogression testing, you first need to capture birth images of your operation under test. In posterior test runs, new screenshots are compared against these nascences, with differences flagged for review.

    32. How can you optimize Protractor tests for performance?

    Ans:

    • Optimizing Protractor tests for performance involves several strategies to reduce prosecution time and ameliorate effectiveness. 
    • Resemblant prosecution is a crucial approach, where tests are run contemporaneously across multiple cybersurfer cases, which can be configured in theprotractor.conf.js train using the multiCapabilities option.
    • Minimizing unequivocal delays and counting on Protractor’s automatic synchronization with Angular can also speed up tests.
    • Moreover, precisely structuring tests to avoid gratuitous cybersurfer restarts and reusing runner objects and factors can significantly reduce overall test time.

    33. Explain the process of integrating Protractor tests with a CI/ CD channel.

    Ans:

    Integrating Protractor tests with a CI/ CD channel enhances robotization and ensures that tests are run automatically as part of the figure and deployment process. This integration involves configuring your CI/ CD tool( similar to Jenkins, GitLab CI, or GitHub conduct) to execute Protractor tests as a step in the channel. The process generally includes installing dependencies, starting a Selenium garçon( if not using a direct connect option with ChromeDriver or GeckoDriver), and executing the Protractor test suite using command-line scripts.

    34. How do you test an operation with multiple tabs or windows in Protractor?

    Ans:

    Testing operations that involve multiple tabs or windows in Protractor requires managing cybersurfer window handles. This allows you to interact with rudiments in the new environment. After performing the necessary conduct, you can switch back to the original window or tab using the same system. This approach is essential for testing workflows that gauge across multiple cybersurfer surrounds, similar to OAuth overflows or vindicating geste that triggers new windows or tabs.

    35. What strategies can you use to test horizonless scroll functionality with Protractor?

    Ans:

    • Testing horizonless scroll functionality with Protractor involves bluffing stoner conduct to spark the lading of new content and vindicating that the content loads as anticipated.
    • This can be done using unequivocal delays to stay for a specific element that indicates new content has been loaded. 
    • Repeating this process until a certain condition is met(e.g., a specific number of particulars are loaded or a” cargo More” button disappears) allows you to test the horizonless scroll functionality effectively.
    • This approach requires careful consideration of lading times and the dynamic nature of the content being tested.

    36. What’s the purpose of the onPrepare function in Protractor, and how is it used?

    Ans:

    The prepare function in Protractor’s configuration train is a hook that’s called before any tests are executed. It’s used for setting up the test terrain, similar to initializing global variables, configuring cybersurfer settings, or enforcing custom command extensions. For illustration, you can use prepare to maximize the cybersurfer window, set global winters, or produce custom locators. This function is particularly useful for performing any necessary way that ensures your test suite runs easily and constantly across different surroundings.

    37. Describe the process of integrating external reporting tools with Protractor.

    Ans:

    Integrating external reporting tools with Protractor enhances test reporting and analysis capabilities. This is generally achieved by using Protractor plugins or third-party libraries compatible with the testing frame. For this case, you can integrate with popular reporting tools like Allure, Jasmine Journalists, or Protractor Beautiful Journalists by installing the necessary npm package and configuring it within theprotractor.conf.js train. These tools can give detailed reports, including test prosecution results, screenshots of failure, and prosecution time.

    38. How can you ensure your Protractor tests are justifiable and scalable?

    Ans:

    Ensuring Protractor tests are justifiable and scalable involves several stylish practices, including the use of runner Object Models( POM) to abstract and synopsize runner details, keeping tests DRY(Don’t Repeat Yourself) by exercising mileage functions, and participating in setup/ teardown routines, and organizing tests logically into suites for effective prosecution. It’s also pivotal to keep tests independent to avoid slinging failures and to use descriptive picking conventions for tests and variables for clarity.

    39. Explain how to remedy Protractor tests effectively.

    Ans:

    Remedying Protractor tests effectively involves several strategies, similar to using the erected-in debugger tools and adding a browser. Pause () at points of interest to check the operation state and use console.log statements to affair variable countries and prosecution inflow. The Protractor configuration train also supports a debug option that can be used to run tests in debug mode, furnishing a more detailed affair.

    40. What approaches can be taken to test responsive web designs with Protractor?

    Ans:

    • Testing responsive web designs with Protractor involves changing the viewport size to pretend colorful bias and screen judgments. This can be achieved by using the browser. manage(). window(). setSize( range, height) command to programmatically acclimate the cybersurfer window confines during tests.
    • You can define a set of confines that correspond to target bias(e.g., smartphones, tablets, desktops) and run the same tests for each size to confirm that the operation’s UI and functionality acclimatize correctly. 
    • Also, using cybersurfer inventor tools or third-party services to emulate device-specific conditions can give a perceptive view of how well the operation performs across different surroundings.

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    41. How do you use Protractor for cross-browser testing?

    Ans:

    Exercising Protractor for cross-browser testing involves configuring theprotractor.conf.js train to run tests across multiple cybersurfers. This is done by setting up the multiCapabilities configuration option with an array of cybersurfer configurations you wish to test against, similar to Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari. Each cybersurfer configuration can include specific preferences and options for the testing terrain.

    42. Discuss strategies for minimizing flakiness in Protractor tests.

    Ans:

    Minimizing flakiness in Protractor tests requires a focused approach to test stability and trustability. This includes using unequivocal delays and the Expected Conditions API to ensure that rudiments are in the asked state before commerce rather than counting on fixed sleep times. Regularly streamlining the WebDriver and cybersurfer performances helps help inconsistencies caused by outdated motorists. Organizing tests into independent, tone-contained units minimizes the chance of tests affecting each other’s state.

    43. How can a Protractor interact with rudiments inside an iframe?

    Ans:

    • Interacting with rudiments inside an iframe using Protractor needs switching the environment from the main cybersurfer window to the iframe.
    • This can be achieved by using the browser. Switch (). The frame () system takes either a frame indicator, frame name, or WebElement pledge to identify the iframe.
    • Once the environment has been switched, it can interact with the rudiments inside the iframe as if they were part of the main runner.
    • After the necessary relations are performed, it’s important to switch the environment back to the major runner using the browser. Switch (). defaultContent () function.

    44. What are Protractor’s limitations, and how can they be eased?

    Ans:

    Protractor’s limitations stem from its focus on Angular, requiring the disabling of certain synchronization features for non-Angular testing. As a WebDriver wrapper, it also faces issues with browser support and driver management. These can be mitigated by using WebDriver Manager for driver operations and disabling Angular synchronization when necessary. For complex asynchronous tasks outside Angular, explicit delays and precise timing can help.

    45. Discuss how to apply custom locators in Protractor.

    Ans:

    Enforcing custom locators in Protractor allows for further flexible and justifiable tests, especially when dealing with complex or custom-made web factors. Custom locators can be added using.addLocator(), which takes a name for the locator and a function that defines how to find the rudiments. This function gets executed in the cybersurfer environment and can use any JavaScript or DOM manipulation sense to return an element or a list of rudiments.

    46. How does Protractor ensure tests run against the rearmost operation state?

    Ans:

    • The Protractor ensures tests run against the rearmost operation state by automatically waiting for Angular’s event circle to come idle before executing each command.
    • This means it waits for HTTP requests, pledges, and Angular-specific timekeepers and processes to complete. This synchronization medium is pivotal for testing Angular operations, as it reduces flakiness caused by trying to interact with rudiments that aren’t yet ready or visible.
    • For operations or corridors of the operation that don’t use Angular, Protractor provides the browser.wait() function, which can be used with custom Anticipated Conditions to explicitly stay for certain conditions to be met, ensuring the operation is in the asked state before pacing.

    47. What strategies can be used for testing dynamic web operations with Protractor?

    Ans:

    Testing dynamic web operations with Protractor, where content might change grounded on stoner commerce or asynchronous operations, requires strategies to deal with rudiments that may not be incontinently present or visible. Using Protractor’s Anticipated Conditions browser (ExpectedConditions). allows tests to stay for specific conditions to be true before pacing, similar to the presence, visibility, or clickability of rudiments.

    48. Can Protractor be integrated with nonstop Integration( CI) systems? How?

    Ans:

    Protractors can be seamlessly integrated with nonstop Integration( CI) systems like Jenkins, CircleCI, or Travis CI to automate running tests as part of the development channel. The integration process generally involves configuring the CI system to execute the Protractor test suite as a step in the figure process. This can include setting up the necessary terrain, similar to asNode.js, and any needed cybersurfers or headless cybersurfers, as well as executing the protractor command with the applicable configuration train.

    49. Explain the significance of using runner Object Models( POM) in Protractor tests.

    Ans:

    • Using runner Object Models(POMs) in Protractor tests is pivotal for maintaining a clean separation between test sense and runner-specific details. POMs synopsize the parcels and styles for interacting with a web runner’s rudiments, making tests more readable, justifiable, and applicable.
    • This abstraction subcaste allows for changes in the web runner’s structure or rudiments to be streamlined in a single position rather than across multiple test scripts.
    • POM enhances the scalability of test suites by simplifying the process of writing new tests and streamlining living bones in response to operation changes, significantly reducing the overall trouble needed for test conservation.

    50. How can Protractor test for performance?

    Ans:

    Optimizing Protractor tests for performance involves several strategies to reduce prosecution time and ameliorate effectiveness. Resemblant test prosecution using the multiCapabilities configuration can drastically cut down on total run time by distributing tests across more cybersurfer cases. Minimizing the use of unequivocal delays and counting on Protractor’s automatic synchronization with Angular operations help keep tests running simply without gratuitous detainments.

    51. How would you test a REST API with Protractor?

    Ans:

    While Protractor is primarily designed for end-to-end testing of Angular web operations, it can also be used to test REST API integrations within those operations by making HTTP requests directly from test scripts. This can be achieved by integrating Protractor with request libraries like Axios or the native http module in Node.js. The test would involve transferring the request to the API endpoint and also asserting the response against anticipated values, similar to status canons, heads, and body content.

    52. How do you manage test data in Protractor tests?

    Ans:

    Efficient test data management in Protractor involves using external files (JSON, CSV, XML) or databases to load different data sets as needed. Structuring test data logically, mirroring the application’s domain model, enhances clarity and maintainability. Utilizing environment variables or configuration files allows switching between data sets for different environments (e.g., development, staging, production), ensuring flexibility and environment-specific testing.

    53. How do you corroborate tooltips in Protractor tests?

    Ans:

    • Vindicating tooltips in Protractor tests involves interacting with the element that triggers the tooltip and validating the tooltip’s presence and content.
    • This generally requires swimming over the element, which can be achieved using the conduct API(browser. actions(). mouseMove( element). perform()). Once the tooltip appears, it can be located using its CSS chooser or other attributes.
    • The content of the tooltip can also be recaptured and asserted against the anticipated textbook.
    • It’s important to consider the timing and visibility of tooltips, as they may bear unequivocal delays to ensure they’re displayed before trying to interact with or corroborate them.

    54. How can Protractor be used for mobile web testing?

    Ans:

    Protractor can be used for mobile web testing by integrating with tools like Appium, which extends Selenium’s WebDriver to work with mobile and web operations. This setup allows Protractor tests to run against mobile web cybersurfers in an analogous way to how they run against desktop cybersurfers. The key is configuring Protractor to use Appium as the WebDriver garçon, which also communicates with mobile cybersurfers on parrots, simulators, or real bias.

    55. Explain the process of integrating visual retrogression testing with Protractor.

    Ans:

    Integrating visual regression testing with Protractor involves capturing and comparing screenshots during tests to detect UI changes. Tools like Protractor-image-comparison or WebdriverCSS can automate this process by being initialized within Protractor configurations. Screenshots are taken at key points and compared with baseline images to identify differences. Proper management of baseline images and understanding the tool’s sensitivity are crucial for effective testing.

    56. What are the prerequisites needed to run Protractor?

    Ans:

    To run Protractor, several prerequisites must be met. Originally, Node.js had to be installed on the system as Protractor was a Node.js program. This installation also provides npm( Node Package Manager), which is essential for installing Protractor and managing its dependencies. Secondly, a Selenium WebDriver is needed because Protractor interacts with web cybersurfers through WebDriver’s API.

    57. How do Protractor, Selenium Garçon, and Selenium WebDriver work together?

    Ans:

    • Protractor, Selenium Garçon, and Selenium WebDriver form an important triad for end-to-end testing of web operations. Protractor acts as a wrapper around WebDriverJS, furnishing a testing frame specifically designed for Angular operations.
    • It uses Selenium WebDriver to interact with cybersurfers by transferring commands to the Selenium Garçon, which also communicates with the cybersurfer’s native support for robotization.
    • Selenium Garçon acts as a conciliator, rephrasing Protractor’s high-position commands into conduct in the cybersurfer through the WebDriver API. This setup allows for bluffing stoner relations with the web operation in a real cybersurfer, enabling inventors to write tests that nearly mimic stoner geste.

    58. What’s Jasmine?

    Ans:

    Jasmine is a geste – geste-driven development( BDD) frame for testing JavaScript law. It provides:

    • A clean, simple syntax for writing tests.
    • Making it simple to describe test suites.
    • Test cases.
    • Assertions.

    Jasmine is designed to run on any JavaScript-enabled platform and doesn’t bear a DOM. It comes with an array of features, such as intelligencers, remainders, and mocks, that help in writing insulated and independent tests.

    59. What is Mocha?

    Ans:

    Mocha is a flexible, point-rich JavaScript test frame running on Node.js and in cybersurfer, making asynchronous testing easy and delightful. Mocha’s adaptable nature allows it to work with any assertion library and offers a choice between TDD(Test-Driven Development), BDD(Behavior-Driven Development), and other interfaces. It provides a rich set of features similar to asynchronous testing, test content reports, and the use of any assertion library that pleases the inventor.

    60. What’s Typescript?

    Ans:

    • TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript developed by Microsoft and designed to gauge JavaScript development for larger systems.
    • TypeScript adds voluntary static codifying to JavaScript, which can help describe crimes beforehand through a compendium process before law prosecution.
    • This point is particularly useful for inventors coming from statically compartmented languages, as it allows them to write further predictable laws with smaller bugs.
    • TypeScript is completely compatible with JavaScript and compiles down to plain JavaScript law, making it usable on any cybersurfer, host, or operating system.
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    61. What’s a spec train in Protractor?

    Ans:

    A spec train in Protractor is basically a JavaScript or TypeScript train that contains the suite of tests or” specifications” to be run against a web operation. These lines follow a structure supported by the testing frame used by Protractor ( generally Jasmine), where tests are defined using describe and blocks. The describe function is used to group individual tests, which are defined within its functions.

    62. How do you count a spec train in Protractor?

    Ans:

    To count a spec train in Protractor, you can use the count configuration option in your Protractor configuration train(conf.js). This option allows you to specify an array of train patterns that shouldn’t be included when running your tests. You can use wildcards to count multiple lines that match a certain pattern or specify individual train paths to count specific spec lines. This point is particularly useful when you have spec lines that are moreover under development, short, or not applicable to a particular test run.

    63. What’s the use of directConnect in Protractor?

    Ans:

    • The directConnect option in Protractor allows tests to bypass the Selenium Garçon and connect directly to cybersurfer motorists, similar to ChromeDriver or GeckoDriver.
    • This option simplifies the setup process for running tests because it eliminates the need for a standalone Selenium Garçon, reducing the complexity and potentially speeding up the prosecution of tests.
    • DirectConnect supports a limited number of cybersurfers( primarily Chrome and Firefox), but for those cybersurfers, it offers a more straightforward and faster way to run Protractor tests.
    • It’s particularly useful for original development and testing, enabling quicker feedback cycles without compromising the delicacy of end-to-end tests.

    64. How do you add a custom locator for Protractor?

    Ans:

    Adding a custom locator in Protractor allows you to define new ways to elect DOM rudiments that the erected-in locators don’t cover. To produce a custom locator, you use the.addLocator system, furnishing a name for your locator and a function that describes how to find the element( s). The function you give receives the factual parameters passed during the locator call and should return an element or an array of rudiments.

    65. What’s ElementFinder?

    Ans:

    • ElementFinder in Protractor is a wrapper around a WebDriver element that provides an important way to interact with rudiments on a web runner.
    • It represents a single element on the runner and offers styles to perform conduct similar as clicking, transferring keys, getting textbook, and more.
    • ElementFinder is slow, meaning that it does not actually essay to find an element until an action is called.
    • This design helps manage asynchronous operations more efficiently, allowing Protractor to attend to Angular’s event cycle.

    66. What’s an ElementArrayFinder?

    Ans:

    An ElementArrayFinder in Protractor is analogous to ElementFinder but is designed to work with multiple rudiments. It represents an array of rudiments on the webpage that match a given query. Like ElementFinder, ElementArrayFinder is lazy, performing conduct on all matched rudiments only when an action system is called. It provides a set of styles to interact with arrays of rudiments, including filtering, counting, and penetrating individual rudiments.

    67. What are runner Objects, and how do they facilitate test script conservation?

    Ans:

    Runner Objects are design patterns used in test robotization to enhance test conservation and reduce law duplication. A runner Object represents a runner or a section of a web operation, recapitulating the rudiments and operations on that runner. By using this pattern, all relations with the runner go through the runner Object, making the tests more readable and easier to maintain.

    68. How do you corroborate the tooltip textbook using Protractor?

    Ans:

    To corroborate the tooltip textbook in Protractor, testers generally hang over the element that displays the tooltip and also recoup the tooltip’s textbook for verification. This can be fulfilled by using the conduct class to pretend the mouse hangs over the element, and also the getAttribute(‘title’)( for simple tooltips) or penetrating the element that contains the tooltip textbook directly if it’s stoutly generated with JavaScript.

    69. What mouse conduct can be performed using a protractor?

    Ans:

    • Protractor enables the prosecution of colorful mouse conduct through the cybersurfer’s WebDriver API, enhancing test scripts’ capability to pretend stoner relations.
    • These conduct include clicking( click()), right- clicking( contextClick()), double- clicking( doubleClick()), swimming over rudiments( mouseMove( element)), pressing the mouse button without releasing( mouseDown()), and releasing the mouse button( mouseUp()).
    • These styles can be used in combination to perform complex stoner relations on web rudiments, contributing to further comprehensive end-to-end testing.

    70. What are the styles present in Alerts Class?

    Ans:

    The cautions class in Selenium WebDriver, accessible through Protractor for handling cybersurfer cautions, provides several styles for interacting with cautions. These include accepting () to accept or” OK” an alert, dismiss() to cancel or” Close” an alert, getText() to recoup the alert’s textbook, and sendKeys( textbook) to class into a prompt alert. These styles allow automated test scripts to interact with and assert the geste of web-grounded cautions, ensuring they perform as anticipated within operations.

    71. How do you set a value to prompt Alert in Protractor?

    Ans:

    To set a value in a prompt alert using Protractor, you first need to switch the WebDriver environment to the alert using the browser. Switch (). alert(). You can also use the sendKeys( value) system to class the asked value into the prompt. After entering the value, you can accept the prompt to do so. This capability is pivotal for testing web operations that bear Stoner input through prompt cautions, allowing automated scripts to emulate Stoner conduct directly.

    72. How do you accept Alert in Protractor?

    Ans:

    • Accepting an alert in Protractor is straightforward and involves switching the WebDriver’s environment to the alert and also using the accept() system.
    • This is generally done by first calling browser.switchTo(). Alert (), which focuses on the alert window and also invokes accept() on the performing alert object.
    • This process stimulates the stoner to click the” OK” button on the alert, allowing the test to continue with posterior conduct or assertions. This indicates that the operation behaves rightly upon the alert’s acceptance.

    73. How do you cancel Alert in Protractor?

    Ans:

    To dismiss an alert in Protractor, the command browser.switchTo(). alert(). dismiss() is used. This system switches the control from the webpage to the alert and also performs the dismiss action, which is original to clicking the’ Cancel’ button on the alert. This functionality is critical for handling unanticipated cautions during automated testing, ensuring that tests can do or terminate gracefully grounded on the script conditions.

    74. How can we corroborate whether an element is displayed on a webpage or not?

    Ans:

    In Protractor, to corroborate the visibility of an element on a webpage, the displayed () system is employed. This system checks if the component is presently visible to the stoner on the runner. It returns a pledge that resolves to a boolean value, true if the element is visible, allowing for tentative testing grounded on the presence or absence of UI rudiments. This is particularly useful for dynamic content where the visibility of rudiments can change grounded on stoner commerce or other asynchronous events.

    75. what are the disadvantages of Protractor?

    Ans:

    • While popular for testing Angular operations, Protractor has disadvantages that can affect its suitability for certain systems.
    • It was originally designed for AngularJS and Angular operations, which means its technical features might not be as effective or useful for Angular systems, limiting its versatility.
    • Secondly, Protractor acts as a wrapper around WebDriverJS, adding a fresh subcaste of complexity and implicit points of failure, especially when remedying issues related to commerce between these layers.

    76. What are the types of failure in Protractor

    Ans:

    Failures in Protractor tests can be astronomically classified into many orders: Assertion Failures, where the test’s anticipated issues don’t match the factual results; Synchronization Failures, which occur when the test script and the web operation are out of sync; Locator Failures, performing from incorrect or outdated pickers; and terrain/ Configuration Failures, which are related to the setup of the Protractor terrain or web motorist configurations.

    77. What are the colorful winters in Protractor?

    Ans:

    Protractor manages several types of winters to handle asynchronous operations gracefully Page cargo Downtime, which dictates how long stay for a runner to completely load before proceeding; Script Downtime, for setting the maximum time allowed for asynchronous scripts to run; Implicit stay, which automatically waits for rudiments to appear in the DOM before throwing a” not set up” error; and Explicit stay, which is used to stay for a certain condition to be met before pacing. 

    78. How To Assert Commodity in Protractor?

    Ans:

    In Protractor, assertions are used to validate the state of your operation against anticipated conditions. This is generally done using a testing frame like Jasmine or Mocha, which provides a rich set of assertion styles. For illustration, to assert that a particular element is visible, you might use anticipate(element.isDisplayed()). toBe( true);. Assertions are the foundation of testing, enabling you to corroborate that your operation behaves as anticipated under colorful conditions, thereby ensuring the quality and trustability of your software.

    79. How do you test for robustness and transitions with Protractor?

    Ans:

    • Testing for robustness and transitions with Protractors can be challenging due to their dynamic nature. 
    • Still, it’s attainable by using Protractor’s Expected Conditions to wait for rudiments to reach a requested state, similar to being visible or unnoticeable, which indicates the completion of a vitality. 
    • Also, you can check the CSS parcels of rudiments to ensure they have reached the anticipated state post-animation. 
    • This approach allows you to corroborate both the presence and correctness of robustness and transitions in your operation.

    80. How do you test for responsiveness with Protractor?

    Ans:

    To test responsiveness with Protractor, you acclimate the cybersurfer window’s confines to mimic colorful device defenses using the browser. manage(). window(). setSize( range, height). This system allows you to validate the operation’s layout and functionality at different screen sizes. Following the resize, you can use Protractor to interact with the runner and corroborate that rudiments acclimate rightly to the new viewport, ensuring that your operation is responsive across bias.

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    81. What’s the difference between Expected Conditions and Jasmine Matchers in Protractor?

    Ans:

    • Anticipated Conditions and Jasmine Matchers in Protractor cater to different aspects of testing. Anticipated Conditions are specifically designed for staying mechanisms, furnishing a way to ensure that certain conditions on the web runner are true before pacing.
    • This is particularly useful for handling asynchronous geste. Jasmine Matchers are still used for assertions, allowing you to compare anticipated results against factual issues in your tests and thereby determine the pass or fail status of your test cases.

    82. What’s ng-model in Protractor?

    Ans:

    Ng- model is a directive in AngularJS that binds the value of HTML controls( input, select, textarea) to operation data. In Protractor, the ng-model is used to fluently identify these tapes, allowing for straightforward commerce with form rudiments. Protractor provides the. Model () locator for opting rudiments bound with an ng-model, easing conduct like transferring keys or reacquiring values, which is incredibly useful for end-to-end testing of AngularJS operations.

    83. How do you execute JavaScript in Protractor?

    Ans:

    Executing JavaScript in Protractor uses the browser.executeScript() function, which allows you to run arbitrary JavaScript laws in the cybersurfer’s environment. This capability is essential for performing operations outside the scope of Protractor’s API, such as interacting with the original storehouse, manipulating CSS, or scrolling to a specific element. It provides an important way to extend your tests’ functionality beyond standard relations.

    84. What’s the IDE for Protractor?

    Ans:

    There is not a devoted IDE for Protractor; still, it integrates well with any IDE that supports JavaScript, similar to Visual Studio Code, WebStorm, Atom, or Sublime Text. These IDEs offer rich features like syntax pressing, law completion, debugging tools, and integrated outstations, enhancing the development and testing experience. Choosing an IDE for Protractor comes down to particular preference and the specific features you need for your workflow.

    85. Can you elect a checkbox using Protractor?

    Ans:

    • Yes, opting for a checkbox using Protractor is straightforward. You identify the checkbox element using Protractor’s locator strategies, similar to Asby. model(), by.css(), or any other applicable chooser and also use the click() system to toggle its state.
    • However, you can first use the isSelected() system to check its current state and also decide whether to click it grounded on the asked outgrowth If you need to ensure the checkbox is in a specific state( checked or unbounded).
    • This approach mimics stoner commerce, allowing you to test forms and inputs in your operation directly.

    86. How do you bring out CSS attributes from Protractor?

    Ans:

    In Protractor, you can recoup CSS attributes of rudiments using the getCssValue() system. This system allows you to pierce the value of a specific CSS property for an element on the runner. For illustration, to get the background color of a component, you would detect the element using one of Protractor’s locator strategies, which is also called getCssValue(‘background- color’). This is particularly useful for testing visual aspects of web operations, ensuring that styles are applied correctly across different countries or conduct.

    87. How do you set the gecko motorist path in Protractor?

    Ans:

    To set the GeckoDriver path in Protractor for running tests on Firefox, you need to specify the path to the GeckoDriver executable in your Protractor configuration train. This is done by setting the geckoDriver property in the config object. You can download the GeckoDriver executable from its sanctioned depository and place it in a suitable position. Also, in your Protractor configuration train, add or modernize the geckoDriver path like exports. Config = { geckoDriver’/ path/ to/ your/ geckodriver’,.};. This tells Protractor where to find the motorist-demanded Firefox, ensuring your tests can run on this cybersurfer.

    88. What’s an XPath?

    Ans:

    • XPath stands for XML Path Language. It’s a query language that allows you to elect bumps from an XML document. Still, in the environment of web robotization and testing tools like Protractor, XPath is used to navigate through rudiments and attributes in an HTML document of a web runner.
    • XPath provides a way to detect rudiments using path expressions, offering a veritably important and adaptable means of specifying locales of rudiments within a web runner. It can be particularly useful in situations where simpler locator strategies( like ID or class name) aren’t sufficient to identify an element uniquely.

    89. Explain the group indicator in XPath.

    Ans:

    Group indicator in XPath refers to the use of hiatuses to group corridor of an XPath expression, which can also be listed to elect specific bumps within that group. This conception is particularly useful when dealing with multiple rudiments that satisfy a certain condition, but only a particular case is required. By grouping these rudiments and furnishing an indicator, you can directly pierce the utmost element that matches the XPath criteria.

    90. What does ignoring synchronization do?

    Ans:

    Ignoring synchronization in Protractor means turning off its automatic waiting for Angular operations by setting browser.ignoreSynchronization=true; or browser.waitForAngularEnabled(false); in newer versions. This is useful for testing non-Angular or hybrid applications to avoid unnecessary delays. It allows tests to run more controlled, with explicit management of delays and pauses, but requires careful handling to prevent timing issues.

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