Top 45+ Practice UNIX Interview Questions [ ANSWERED ]
Last updated on 04th Jul 2020, Blog, Interview Questions
These SAP Interview Questions have been designed specially to get you acquainted with the nature of questions you may encounter during your interview for the subject of SAP As per my experience good interviewers hardly plan to ask any particular question during your interview, normally questions start with some basic concept of the subject and later they continue based on further discussion and what you answer .we are going to cover top 100 SAP Interview questions along with their detailed answers. We will be covering SAP scenario based interview questions SAP interview questions for fresher’s as well as interview MVC questions and answers for experienced
1) Explain the architecture of Unix system and its components
- OLAP Processor
- Metadata Repository,
- Process designer and other functions.
- Business Explorer BEx is reporting and analysis tool that support query, analysis and reporting functions in. Using BEx, you can analyze historical and current data to different degree of analysis.
2)What is an InfoObject and why it is used in Unix ?
- Info Objects are known as smallest unit in Unix and are used in Info Providers, DSOs, Multi providers, etc. Each Info Provider contains multiple Info Objects.
- InfoObjects are used in reports to analyze the data stored and to provide information to decision makers.
3) What are the different categories of Info Objects in Unix system?
Info Objects can be categorized into below categories −
- Characteristics like Customer, Product, etc.
- Units like Quantity sold, currency, etc.
- Key Figures like Total Revenue, Profit, etc.
- Time characteristics like Year, quarter, etc.
4) What is the use of Infoarea in Unix system?
Info Area in Unix are used to group similar types of object together. Info Area are used to manage Info Cubes and Info Objects. Each Info Objects resides in an Info Area and you can define it a folder which is used to hold similar files together.
5) How do you access to source system data in BI without extraction?
To access data in BI source system directly. You can directly access to source system data in BI without extraction using Virtual Providers. Virtual providers can be defined as InfoProviders where transactional data is not stored in the object. Virtual providers allow only read access on BI data.
6)What are different types on Virtual providers?
- VirtualProviders based on DTP
- VirtualProviders with function modules
- VirtualProviders based on BAPIs
7) Which Virtual Providers are used in which scenario of data extraction?
VirtualProviders based on DTP −
Ans: This type of Virtual Providers are based on the data source or an Info Provider and they take characteristics and key figures of source. Same extractors are used to select data in source system as you use to replicate data into BI system.
8) When to Virtual Providers based on DTP?
- When only some amount of data is used.
- You need to access up to date data from a SAP source system.
- Only few users executes queries simultaneously on the database.
9) Virtual Provider with Function Module −
This Virtual Provider is used to display data from non BI data source to BI without copying the data to BI structure. The data can be local or remote. This is used primarily for SEM application.
10) What is the use of Transformation and how the mapping is done in BW?
Transformation process is used to perform data consolidation, cleansing and data integration. When data is loaded from one BI object to other BI object, transformation is applied on the data. Transformation is used to convert a field of source into the target object format.
Transformation rules −Transformation rules are used to map source fields and target fields. Different rule types can be used for transformation.
11). How do perform real time data acquisition in BW system?
- Real time data acquisition is based on moving data to Business Warehouse in real time. Data is sent to delta queue or PSA table in real time.
- Real time data acquisition can be achieved in two scenarios −By using InfoPackage for real time data acquisition using Service API.
- Using Web Service to load data to Persistent Storage Area PSA and then by using real time DTP to move the data to DSO.
- Real time Data Acquisition Background Process −To process data to InfoPackage and data transfer process DTP at regular intervals, you can use a background process known as Daemon.
- Daemon process gets all the information from InfoPackage and DTP that which data is to be transferred and which PSA and Data sore objects to be loaded with data.
12) What is InfoObject catalog?
InfoObjects are created in Info Object catalog. It is possible that an Info Object can be assigned to different Info Catalog.
13) What is the use DSO in BW system? What kind of data is stored in DSOsWhat are the different components in DSO architecture?
To access data for reporting and analysis immediately after it is loaded,
14) What all data sources you have used to acquire data in Unix system?
- SAP systems (SAP Applications/SAP ECC)
- Relational Database (Oracle, SQL Server, etc.)
- Flat File (Excel, Notepad)
- Multidimensional Source systems (Universe using UDI connector)
- Web Services that transfer data to BI by means of push
15) When you are using Unix.x, you can load the data to which component?
In BW 3.5, you can load data in Persistence Staging Area and also in targets from source system but If you are using SAP BI 7.0 data load should be restricted to PSA only for latest versions.
16)What is an InfoPackage?
- An InfoPackage is used to specify how and when to load data to BI system from different data sources. An InfoPackage contains all the information how data is loaded from source system to a data source or PSA. InfoPackage consists of condition for requesting data from a source system.
- Note that using an InfoPackage in BW 3.5, you can load data in Persistence Staging Area and also in targets from source system but If you are using SAP BI 7.0 data load should be restricted to PSA only for latest versions.
17) What is extended Star schema? Which of the tables are inside and outside cube in an extended star schema?
In Extended Star schema, Fact tables are connected to Dimension tables and dimension table is connected to SID table and SID table is connected to master data tables. In Extended star schema you have Fact and Dimension tables are inside the cube however SID tables are outside cube. When you load the transactional data into Info cube, Dim Ids are generated based on SIDs and these Dim ids are used in fact tables.
18) How extended Star schema is different from Star schema?
- In Extended Star schema one fact table can connect to 16 dimensions tables and each dimension table is assigned with 248 maximum SID tables. SID tables are also called Characteristics and each characteristic can have master data tables like ATTR, Text, etc.
- In Star Schema, Each Dimension is joined to one single Fact table. Each Dimension is represented by only one dimension and is not further normalized.
- Dimension Table contains set of attribute that are used to analyze the data.
19) which Data store object is used?
DataStore object for direct update allows you to access data for reporting and analysis immediately after it is loaded. It is different from standard DSOs in the way how it processed the data. Data is stored in same format in which it was loaded to DataStore object for direct update by the application.
20) Explain the structure of direct update DSOs?
One table for active data and no change log area exists. Data is retrieved from external systems using APIs.
- Below APIs exists −RSDRI_ODSO_INSERT: These are used to insert new data.
- RSDRI_ODSO_INSERT_RFC: Similar to RSDRI_ODSO_INSERT and can be called up remotely.
- RSDRI_ODSO_MODIFY: This is used to insert data having new keys.For data with keys already in the system, the data is changed.
- RSDRI_ODSO_MODIFY_RFC: Similar to RSDRI_ODSO_MODIFY and can be called up remotely.
- RSDRI_ODSO_UPDATE: This API is used to update existing data.
- RSDRI_ODSO_UPDATE_RFC: This is similar to RSDRI_ODSO_UPDATE and can be called up remotely.
- RSDRI_ODSO_DELETE_RFC: This API is used to delete the data.
21) Can we perform Delta uploads in direct update DSOs?
As structure of this DSO contains one table for active data and no change log so this doesnt allow delta update to InfoProviders.
22) What is write optimized DSOs?
In Write optimized DSO, data that is loaded is available immediately for the further processing.
23) Where do we use Write optimized DSOs?
- Write optimized DSO provides a temporary storage area for large sets of data if you are executing complex transformations for this data before it is written to the DataStore object. The data can then be updated to further InfoProviders. You only have to create the complex transformations once for all data.
- Write-optimized DataStore objects are used as the EDW layer for saving data. Business rules are only applied when the data is updated to additional InfoProviders.
24) Explain the structure of Write optimized DSOs? How it is different from Standard DSOs?
It only contains table of active data and there is no need to activate the data as required with standard DSO. This allows you to process the data more quickly.
25) To perform a Join on dataset, what type of InfoProviders should be used?
Infosets are defined as special type of InfoProviders where data sources contains Join rule on DataStore objects, standard InfoCubes or InfoObject with master data characteristics. InfoSets are used to join data and that data is used in BI system.
26) What is a temporal join?
Temporal Joins: are used to map a period of time. At the time of reporting, other InfoProviders handle time-dependent master data in such a way that the record that is valid for a pre-defined unique key date is used each time. You can define Temporal join that contains atleast one time-dependent characteristic or a pseudo time-dependent InfoProvider.
27) Where do we use InfoSet in BI system?
- Infosets are used to analyze the data in multiple InfoProviders by combining master data charactertics, DataStore Objects, and InfoCubes.
- You can use temporal join with InfoSet to specify a particular point of time when you want to evaluate the data.
- You can use reporting using Business Explorer BEx on DSOs without enabling BEx indicator.
28) What are the different type of InfoSet joins?
- Inner Join
- Left Outer Join
- Temporal Join
- Self Join
29) What is the use of InfoCube in BW system?
- InfoCube is defined as multidimensional dataset which is used for analysis in a BEx query. An InfoCube consists of set of relational tables which are logically joined to implement star schema. A Fact table in star schema is joined with multiple dimension tables.
- You can add data from one or more InfoSource or InfoProviders to an InfoCube. They are available as InfoProviders for analysis and reporting purposes.
30) What is the structure of InfoCube?
- An InfoCube is used to store the data physically. It consists of a number of InfoObjects that are filled with data from staging. It has the structure of a star schema.
- In SAP BI, an Infocube contains Extended Star Schema as shown above.
- An InfoCube consists of a fact table which is surrounded by 16 dimension tables and master data that is lying outside the cube.
31) What is the use of real time InfoCube? How do you enter data in real time InfoCubes?
- Real time InfoCubes are used to support parallel write access. Real time InfoCubes are used in connection with the entry of planning data.
- You can enter the data in Real time InfoCubes in two different ways −
- Transaction for entering planning data
- BI Staging
32) How do you create a real time InfoCube in administrator workbench?
A real time InfoCube can be created using Real Time Indicator check box.
33) Can you make an InfoObject as info provider and why?
Yes, when you want to report on charactertics or master data, you can make them as InfoProvider.
34) Is it possible to convert a standard InfoCube to real time InfoCube?
To convert a standard InfoCube to real time InfoCube, you have two options −
- Convert with loss of Transactional data
- Conversion with Retention of Transaction Data
35) Can you convert an InfoPackage group into a Process chain?
Yes, Double Click on the info package grp → Process Chain Maintenance button and type in the name and description.
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36)When you define aggregates, what are the available options?
- H Hierarchy
- F fixed value
37)Can you setup InfoObjects as Virtual Providers?
38) To perform a Union operation on InfoProviders, which InfoProvider is uses?
39)Explain the different between Operation Data store, InfoCube and MultiProvider?
- ODS −They provide granular data, allows overwrite and data is in transparent tables, ideal for drilldown and RRI.
- InfoCube −This is used for star schema, we can only append data, ideal for primary reporting.
- MultiProvider −It contains a physical data and allow to access data from different InfoProviders.
40) What do you understand by Start and update routine?
- Start Routines − The start routine is run for each Data Package after the data has been written to the PSA and before the transfer rules have been executed. It allows complex computations for a key figure or a characteristic. It has no return value. Its purpose is to execute preliminary calculations and to store them in global Data Structures. This structure or table can be accessed in the other routines. The entire Data Package in the transfer structure format is used as a parameter for the routine.
- Update Routines −They are defined at the InfoObject level. It is like the Start Routine. It is independent of the DataSource. We can use this to define Global Data and Global Checks.
- When you are using x, you can load the data to which component?
- In BW 3.5, you can load data in Persistence Staging Area and also in targets from source system but If you are using SAP BI 7.0 data load should be restricted to PSA only for latest versions.
41) What is Unix? What is the purpose of Unix?
Unix stands for Business Information Warehouse, also known as business intelligence. For any business, data reporting, analyses and interpretation of business data is very crucial for running business smoothly and making decision. Unix manage the data and enables to react quickly and in line with the market. It enables the user to analyze data from operative Unix applications as well as from other business.
42). What are the main areas and activities in Unix?
a) Data Warehouse: Integrating, collecting and managing entire companys data.
b) Analyzing and Planning: Using the data stored in data warehouse.
c) Broad cast publishing: To send the information to the employees using email, fax etc.
d) Reporting: BI provides the tools for reporting in web-browser, excel etc
43) What is BEx Map in Unix?
BEx Map is BW’s Geographical Information System (GIS). BEx Map is one of the characteristics for SAP BI, and it gives the geographical information like customer, customer sales region and country.
44) What is Unix statistics and how it is used?
The sets of cubes delivered by Unix are used to measure performance for query, loading data etc. B/W statistics as the name suggests is useful in showing data about the costs associated with the B/W queries, OLAP, aggregative data etc. It is useful to measure the performance of how quickly the queries are calculated or how quickly the data is loaded into BW.
45)What is table partition?
- Table partition is done to manage the huge data to improve the efficiency of the applications. The partition is based on 0CALMONTH and 0FISCPER. There are two type of partitioning that is done
- Database partitioning
- Logical partitioning
46) What are the features of multi provider?
a) It doesnt contain any type of data.
b) The data comes completely from the information which is provided.
c) By union operations the info providers are connected.
Data flows from a transactional system to the analytical system (BW). DS ( Data Service) on the transactional system needs to be replicated on BW side and attached to info source and update rules respectively.
47) What is ODS (Operational Data Store)?
‘Operational Data Store’ or ‘ODS’ is used for detailed storage of data. It is a BW architectural component that appears between PSA ( Persistent Staging Area) and infocubes, it allows BEX (Business Explorer) reporting. It is primarily used for detail reporting rather than dimensional analysis, and it is not based on the star schema. ODS (Operational Data Store) objects do not aggregate data as infocubes do. To load the data into an IDS object, new records are inserted, existing records are updated, or old records are deleted as specified by RECORDMODE value.
48) What is an InfoObject and why it is used in SAP BI?
- Info Objects are known as smallest unit in SAP BI and are used in Info Providers, DSOs, Multi providers, etc. Each Info Provider contains multiple Info Objects.
- InfoObjects are used in reports to analyze the data stored and to provide information to decision makers.
49) What are the transaction codes for process chain?
a) RSPC: Process Chain Maintenance
b) RSPC1: Process Chain Display
c) RSPCM: Monitor daily process chains
d) RZ20: To see log for process chains
50) Explain what is the T.code for Data Archival and what is the advantage?
SARA is the T.code,and its advantage is minimizes space, query performance and load performance.
51) What is UD connect in SAP BW system? How does it allow reporting in BI system?
- Universal data UD connect allows you to access Relational and multidimensional data sources and transfer the data in form of flat data. Multidimensional data is converted to flat format when Universal Data Connect is used for data transfer.
- UD uses J2EE connector to allow reporting on SAP and non-SAP data. Different BI Java connectors are available for various drivers, protocols as resource adapters −
- BI ODBO Connector
- BI JDBC Connector
- BI SAP Query Connector
- XMLA Connector
52)What is the difference between ODS and Info-cubes?
- The difference between ODS and Info-cubes are
- ODS has a key while Info-cubes does not have any key
- ODS contains detailed level data while Info-cube contains refined data
- Info-cube follows Star Schema (16 dimensions) while ODS is a flat file structure
- There can be two or more ODS under a cube, so cube can contain combined data or data that is derived from other fields in the ODS
53) How many data types are there in characteristics info object?
There are 4 data types:
54) What are the T-codes for Info-cubes?
The T-codes for Info-Cubes are
a) LISTSCHEMA: Show InfoCube schema
b) LISTCUBE: List viewer for InfoCubes
c) RSDCUBE, RSDCUBED, RSDCUBEM: Start InfoCube editing
55)Write the types of Multi-providers?
- The types of Multi-providers are: Heterogeneous Multi providers: These info-providers only have a few number of characteristics and key figures. It can be used for the modelling of scenarios by dividing them into sub-scenarios. Each sub-scenario is represented by its own info-provider.
- Homogeneous Multi providers: It consists of technically identical info-providers, such as infocubes with exactly the same characteristics and key figures.
56) What do you understand by data target administration task?
Data target administration task includes
a) Complete deletion of data target
b) Construct database statistics
c) Generate Index
d) Delete Index
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57) What is B/W statistics and how it is used?
The sets of cubes delivered by SAP are used to measure performance for query, loading data etc. B/W statistics as the name suggests is useful in showing data about the costs associated with the B/W queries, OLAP, aggregative data etc. It is useful to measure the performance of how quickly the queries are calculated or how quickly the data is loaded into BW
58) What is the content of a fact table?
a) The key figures for a combination of characteristic SID values of the dimensions are stored in the fact table.
b) Changes to master data tables are only possible if new dimension keys are created in the fact table.
c) Both cumulative values and also key figures for non-cumulative values can be contained in the fact table.
59) What is the dimension in BW? How would you optimize the dimensions?
A dimension in BW is a collection of reference information about a measurable event in data warehousing. In this context, events are known as “facts”. For example, a customer dimension’s attributes could include first and last name, gender, birth date etc. To optimize the dimensions, do not add most dynamic characteristics into the same dimension and make the dimension smaller. Also, define as many dimensions as possible, and the dimension should not exceed 20% of the fact table size.
60) What are info objects?
Characteristics and key figures will be called as info objects. ‘Info-objects’ are similar to fields of the source system, data based on which we organize data in different info provider in BW.
61) What is modelling?
Designing of data base is done by using modelling. The design of DB (Data Base) depends on the schema, and schema is defined as the representation of tables and their relationship.
63) What are the extractors and mention their types?
To extract data from the system program is used which is known as Extractor. The types of extractors in BW are:
a) Application Specific: BW content FI, HR, CO, SAP CRM, LO cockpit
b) Customer-Generated Extractors: LIS, FI-SL, CO-PA
c) Cross Application (Generic Extractors) : DB View,Infoset, Function Module
64) What is a ‘Fact Table’?
Fact table is the collection of facts and relations that mean foreign keys with the dimension. Actually fact table holds transactional data.
65) What are the data types for the characteristics info object?
There are 4 types
66) What is the use of the process chain?
The use of the process chain is to automate the data load process. It automates the process like Data load, Indices creation, Deletion, Cube compression etc. Process chains are only to load your data’s.
67) What are the transaction codes or T-codes for Info-objects?
The T-codes for Info-Cubes are
a) LISTCUBE: List viewer for InfoCubes
b) LISTSCHEMA: Show InfoCube schema
c) RSDCUBE, RSDCUBED, RSDCUBEM: Start InfoCube editing
68) What is the maximum number of key figures and characteristics?
The maximum number of key figures is 233 and characteristics are 248.
69) How can you convert an info package group into the process chain?
You can convert package group into a process chain by double clicking on the info package group, then you have to click on the ‘ Process Chain Maint ‘ button where you have to type the name and description, this will insert individual info packages automatically.
70)Can an Info-object be an Info-provider?
Yes, info-object can be an info-provider. In order to do this, you have to right click on the Info Area and select “Insert characteristics as data target”.
71) What is multi-provider in SAP BI ? What are the features of Multiproviders?
Multi-provider is a type of info-provider that contains data from a number of info-providers and makes it available for reporting purposes.
- Multi-provider does not contain any data.
- The data comes entirely from the info providers on which it is based.
- The info-providers are connected to one another by union operations.
- Info-providers and Multi-providers are the objects or views relevant for reporting.
- A multi-provider allows you to run reports using several info-providers that are, it is used for creating reports for one or more than one info-provider at a time.
72) What is Conversion Routine?
Conversion routine is used to convert data types from internal format to external format or display format.
73) Explain the difference between the Start routine and Conversion routine?
In the ‘start routine’, you can modify the data packages, when data is loading. While conversion of routine, usually refers to routines bound to info objects for conversion of internal and display format.
74) How to un-lock objects in Transport Organizer?
To unlock the objects in transport organizer, go to SE03à Request TaskàUnlock objects. When you enter your request and select unlock and execute, it will unlock the request.
75) What is update or transfer routine?
The update routine is used to define Global Data and Global Checks. They are defined as the object level. It is like the Start Routine.
76) What are the types of Multi-providers?
The types of Multi-providers are
a) Homogeneous Multiproviders: It consists of technically identical info-providers, such as infocubes with exactly the same characteristics and key figures.
b) Heterogeneous Multiproviders: These info-providers only have a certain number of characteristics and key figures. It can be used for the modelling of scenarios by dividing them into sub-scenarios. Each sub-scenario is represented by its own info-provider.
77)What is Transport Organizer?
transport organizer, go to SE03à Request TaskàUnlock objects. When you enter your request and select unlock and execute, it will unlock the request.
78) What tools do you use as a manager to plan your activities as well as that of your team?
From meetings to project management programs and everything in between, there’s an endless list of tools and processes that project managers use to stay organized. Be sure to list as many tools as you can think of that you’re familiar with to demonstrate your knowledge of project management software and other tools.
Proactive Decision Making
- A project manager needs to be able to identify and prevent issues from impacting the project adversely. It is important that the candidate demonstrates the ability to take proactive steps, avoid procrastination, and not shy away from making tough decisions. Thus, candidates are often asked to share examples and real-life scenarios from their projects and life where they made proactive decisions. Here are a few such questions:
79) Give a few examples of proactive decision-making in your past projects and your life in general.
It’s always important to take the initiative as a project manager, and your interviewer wants to see just how you do that. Think of specific project examples that included a lot of proactive decision-making, but don’t also be afraid to include examples that don’t include the workplace.
80) Can you give me a few examples of a time when you made a tough decision, and it backfired?
This question is a tough one for candidates to handle as it tells the interviewer how honest you are with yourself and compels you to talk about an instance when you failed. Your interviewer wants to see how you handle setbacks because no matter how good you are at your job, they will happen. Most importantly, they want to know that you learned from these experiences. When you give your examples, explain how you used those setbacks to improve as a project manager overall.
81) What are some of the tools and resources you’ve used to develop your team?
This is your chance to show your knowledge on some of the many different technologies that project managers use these days. Be sure to name any software programs, online tools, and other things that you’ve used to complete your daily tasks. Be sure also to explain that you are always open and eager to learn new tools or programs.
82) What is your delegation style?
This is a question that is designed to ask about leadership skills. Explain what has been best for you and use examples of how your delegation style has worked well in the past. Even if you’ve never technically led a team before, it’s important to find an example of how you might’ve delegated in the past.
83) How easily do you delegate responsibility?
Ans:Easily delegating responsibility is an essential quality of any project manager. Be sure to discuss a relevant example that assures the interviewer that delegating responsibility comes naturally to you.
84) How do you monitor and review the delegated responsibilities?
As a project manager, it’s important to routinely stay on top of your team members’ tasks and responsibilities. Discuss how you do this with specific examples—whether it’s by scheduling brief meetings, using project management software, and so on.
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- Goal Focus
85). What are your career and project goals for the next six months?
Be honest about any short-term project goals you have currently, as this shows the interviewer that you are enthusiastic about your projects and that you’re goal-oriented. When it comes to discussing your career goals, be sure to include the company you’re interviewing with as part of your goals. If you’re interviewing with a recruiter for job placement, you may not have a specific company in mind, and that’s okay—just be sure to be clear about what type of role you see yourself working in.
86)How do you control changes to your project?
- Some level of change is inevitable, but as a project manager, it’s important to adapt to those changes quickly. Explain to your interviewer how you continue to keep your team on track whenever any project changes pop up.
Prioritizing and Time Management
- A project manager must tackle multiple tasks and issues. To be a successful project manager, you have to choose your battles wisely. Since resources are always limited, they need to be prioritized. Time is a valuable resource for the project because once lost; it cannot be recovered easily. As a result, Project time management is one of the key skills for any project manager. The following questions are asked to assess whether you are capable of taking up the responsibility for creating efficient ways to execute tasks:
87) How do you ensure that your project is always on track?
Your interviewer wants to understand your work process and see that you’re detail-oriented. Explain how you check in with your team throughout a project. For example, you may want to point out that you believe effective and regular communication is key to ensuring that a project stays on track.