25+ Agile Interview Questions and Answers [BEST & NEW]-2020
Agile Interview Questions and Answers

25+ Agile Interview Questions and Answers [BEST & NEW]

Last updated on 23rd Jun 2020, Blog, Interview Questions

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Agile software development refers to  software development methodologies centered round the idea of iterative development, where requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing cross-functional teams. The ultimate value in Agile development is that it enables teams to deliver value faster, with greater quality and predictability, and greater aptitude to respond to change. Scrum and Kanban are two of the most widely used Agile methodologies. Below are the most frequently asked questions around Agile and Scrum, answered by our experts.

1. What is the duration of a scrum sprint?

Ans:

Generally, the duration of a scrum sprint (scrum cycle) depends upon the size of project and team working on it. The team size may vary from 3-9 members. In general, a scrum script completes in 3-4 weeks. Thus, on an average, the duration of a scrum sprint (scrum cycle) is 4 weeks. This type of sprint-based Agile scrum interview questions is very common in an agile or scrum master interview.

2. What is Velocity?

Ans:

Velocity question is generally posed to understand if you have done some real work and are familiar with the term. Its definition “Velocity is the rate at which a team progresses print by sprint” should be enough. You can also add saying the important feature of velocity that it can’t be compared to two different scrum teams.

3. What do you know about impediments in Scrum? Give some examples of impediments.

Ans:

Impediments are the obstacles or issues faced by scrum teams which slow down their speed of work. If something is trying to block the scrum team from their getting work “Done” then it is an impediment. Impediments can come in any form. Some of the impediments are given as –

  • Resource missing or sick team member
  • Technical, operational, organizational problems
  • Lack of management supportive system
  • Business problems
  • External issues such as weather, war etc
  • Lack of skill or knowledge

While answering impediments related agile scrum interview questions remember that you may be asked the way to remove any of the mentioned impediment.

4. What is the difference and similarity between Agile and Scrum?

Ans:

  • Difference between Agile and Scrum – Agile is a broad spectrum, it is a methodology used for project management while Scrum is just a form of the Agile that describes the process and its steps more concisely. Agile is a practice whereas scrum is a procedure to pursue this practice.
  • The similarity between Agile and Scrum – The Agile involves completing projects in steps or incrementally. The Agile methodology is considered to be iterative in nature. Being a form of Agile, Scrum is the same as that of Agile. It is also incremental and iterative.

5. What is the increment? Explain.

Ans:

This is one of the commonly asked agile scrum interview questions and a quick answer can be given this way. An increment is the total of all the product backlogs items completed during a sprint. Each increment includes all the previous sprint increment values as it is cumulative. It must be in the available mode in the subsequent release as it is a step to reach your goal.

6. What is the “build-breaker”?

Ans:

The build-breaker is a situation that arises when there is a bug in the software. Due to this sudden unexpected bug, the compilation process stops or execution fails or a warning is generated. The responsibility of the tester is then to get the software back to the normal working stage removing the bug.

7. What do you understand by Daily Stand-Up?

Ans:

You may surely get an interview question about daily stand-up. So, what should be the answer to this question? The daily stand-up is an everyday meeting (most preferably held in the morning) in which the whole team meets for almost 15 minutes to find answer to the following three questions –

  • What was done yesterday?
  • What is your plan for today?
  • Is there any impediment or block that restricts you from completing your task?

The daily stand-up is an effective way to motivate the team and make them set a goal for the day.

8. What do you know about Scrum ban?

Ans:

Scrum-ban is a Scrum and Kanban-based model for software development. This model is specifically used for the projects that need continuous maintenance, have various programming errors or have some sudden changes. This model promotes the completion of a project in minimum time for a programming error or user story.

9. State some of the Agile quality strategies.

Ans:

Some of the Agile quality strategies are

  • Iteration
  • Re-factoring
  • Dynamic code analysis
  • Short feedback cycles
  • Reviews and inspection
  • Standards and guidelines
  • Milestone reviews

10. Do you know about Agile Manifesto & its Principles? Explain in brief.

Ans:

This is the theory which most agile/scrum roles aspirants should be on tips. Four manifesto values and 12 principles should be explained as much as possible as part of this question. Even if it’s not explained in 100% accurate manner it should be fine but intentions of values and principles should come out e.g.

  • Working Software should be demonstrated at regular intervals
  • Individuals & interaction – self-organization, self-motivating should be encouraged
  • Customer collaboration
  • Welcoming change at any point in time in the project

11. Is there any drawback of the Agile model? If yes, explain.

Ans:

Yes, there are some drawbacks of the Agile model, some of them are as follows

  • It is not easy to make a prediction about the effort required to complete a task. It becomes more problematic in case of large projects as it becomes difficult to get an idea of the total effort required.
  • At sometimes, it’s not possible to properly focus on the design and documentation of the project
  • In case the requirements of the client are not understood properly, the final project will not meet the customer requirements. Thus, it will lead to customer dissatisfaction.
  • Only the leader who has considerable experience in Agile methodologies is capable of taking important decisions. The team members with little or no experience are not involved in decision-making, thus they don’t get a chance to advance their knowledge.

It’s not always the case that you will be asked the questions about the characteristics and advantages of the agile and scrum in an agile scrum interview. So, just prepare yourself for the drawbacks and disadvantages related agile scrum interview questions.

12. What is the use of burn-up and burn-down charts?

Ans:

The burn-up chart illustrates the amount of completed work in a project whereas the burn-down chart depicts the amount of work remained to complete a project. Thus, the burn-up and burn-down charts are used to trace the progress of a project.

13. Define Zero Sprint and Spike in Agile.

Ans:

To answer this question, describe Zero Sprint and Agile in detail, as follows

  • Zero sprint – Zero Sprint can be defined as the preparation step of the first sprint in Agile. There are some activities that are required to be done before actually starting the project. These activities are considered as the Zero sprint; the examples of such activities are – setting the environment for development, preparation of backlogs etc.
  • Spike – Spike is the type of story that can be taken between the sprints. Spikes are commonly used for the activities related to the design or technical issues such as research, design, prototyping, and exploration. There are two types of spikes – functional spikes and technical spikes.

14. What is the role of the Scrum Master?

Ans:

Here’s how you can answer Scrum Master interview questions like this

The scrum master is the leader as well as coach of the Scrum team. The scrum master is responsible to serve and protect his team from any kind of distractions that could affect their performance. The main role of the scrum master is to motivate his team to achieve the sprint goal. He is focused to build a self-organized and motivated team where each member is familiar with the implementation of Agile and Scrum principles and applications. The scrum master keeps a proper check on the scrum team if they are executing committed tasks properly. He is also responsible to increase the efficiency and productivity of the team so that they can achieve the sprint goal effectively.

15. What do you know about a story point in Scrum?

Ans:

A story point in Scrum is the unit for the estimation of total efforts that are required to perform or complete a particular task. So, here is how you can answer such agile scrum interview questions on a single line.

16. What is the role of Sashimi in Scrum methodology?

Ans:

Sashimi plays an important role in Scrum methodology. Sashimi is a technique used by Scrum to check the completion of all the functions created by the developers. Using this technique, all the requirements such as analysis, designing, coding, testing and documentation that are used in the constitution of a product are checked and only after that the product is displayed.

17. What are the different roles in Scrum?

Ans:

The three scrum roles i.e. Scrum Master, Product Owner and Team should be explained with the details of a few primary responsibilities of each role. You can add more details as mentioned below for a particular depending on the role you are getting interviewed for.

Product owner – A product owner is actually the stakeholder of the project. He represents the project requirements before the team. He is responsible to have a vision of what to build and convey his detailed vision to the team. He is the starting point of an agile scrum software development project.

Scrum team – Scrum team is formed by the collective contribution of individuals who perform for the accomplishment of a particular project. The team is bound to work for the timely delivery of the requested product.

Scrum master – Scrum master is the leader and the coach for the scrum team who checks whether the scrum team is executing committed tasks properly. He is also responsible to increase the efficiency and productivity of the team so that they can achieve the sprint goal effectively.

18. What are the responsibilities of a Scrum Master?

Ans:

Key responsibilities of a Scrum Master involves:

  • Tracking and monitoring
  • Understanding requirements properly
  • Work to reach the project goal
  • Process checking master and quality master
  • Protect the team from detachments
  • Improving the performance of the team
  • Lead the meetings and resolve issues
  • Resolution of conflicts and impediments
  • Communication and reporting

19. What are different ceremonies and their importance in Scrum?

Ans:

Scrum planning, Scrum – Daily stand up, Scrum review & scrum retrospective ceremonies should be clearly expressed with the purpose of the ceremony. It’s important to remember the time-boxing of the ceremonies for a standard 4 weeks of Sprint or as per the Sprint you have used in your projects.

20. What do you understand by the term Agile testing?

Ans:

Agile testing is a software testing practice that is fully based on the agile principles of software development. It is an iterative methodology where the requirements are the outcome of collaboration between the product owner and team. The agile principles and applications are applied to meet the customer requirements by successful completion of the project.

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    21. State some major principles of Agile testing.

    Ans:

    Some major principles of Agile testing are

    • Customer satisfaction
    • Face to face communication
    • Sustainable development
    • Quick respond to changes
    • Continuous feedback
    • Successive improvement
    • Self-organized
    • Focus on essence
    • Error-free clean node
    •  Collective work

    22. What are the skills of a good Agile Tester?

    Ans:

    An agile tester is one who implements agile software development principles for software testing. Followings are the skills of a good agile tester

    • Required to be familiar with the concepts and principles of Agile
    • Should have an excellent communication to communicate with the team and the clients
    • Ability to set priority for the tasks according to the requirements
    • Should be able to understand the requirements properly
    • Understanding of the risks involved with a project due to changing requirements

    23. What do you understand by the term “Scrum of Scrums”?

    Ans:

    This is one of the commonly asked scrum master interview questions. Consider a case to understand the meaning of the term scrum of the scrums. Let us assume an active project on which seven teams are currently working. The number of members of each team is also seven. Each team is responsible to lead its own scrum meeting. But, in order to coordinate and communicate with different teams, it is required to organize a separate scrum meeting. The scrum meeting organized to hold a coordination between scrum teams is known as the scrum of scrums. There is one team leader from every team, known as ambassador, who is responsible to represent his team in the scrum of scrums.

    24. Scrum is an Agile framework, right? Name a few other Agile frameworks.

    Ans:

    Yes, Scrum is an Agile framework. Few other Agile frameworks are

    • Feature Driven Development
    • Test Driven Development
    • Kanban

    While answering this type of Agile Scrum interview questions please note that name the frameworks you are familiar with or have followed.

    25. Explain some common metrics for Agile.

    Ans:

    You may definitely come across agile scrum interview questions regarding agile metrics. The question may be related to a particular agile matric or explaining all the metrics. So, the detailed description of some common metrics for Agile is as follows:

    • Velocity – Velocity is the average number of points from the last 3-4 sprints. It is measured by the summation of the all approved estimates of the stories. It gives an idea of the capacity, progress etc.
    • Cumulative Flow Diagram – With the help of a cumulative flow diagram, an inspection is done over the uniform workflow. In this diagram/graph, the x-axis represents time whereas the y-axis represents the number of efforts.
    • Work Category Allocation – Work category allocation is an important factor that gives a quick information of the time investment i.e. where the time is being invested and which task should be given priority as a factor of time.
    • Time Coverage – It is the time that is given to a code during testing. It is calculated in percentage as a factor of the number of lines of code called by the test suite and the total number of relative lines of code.
    • Business Value Delivered – It is a term which denotes the working efficiency of the team. The business objectives are assigned numerical values 1,2,3.. and so on, as per the level of priority, complexity, and ROI.
    • Defect Removal Awareness – It is the factor that helps the team to deliver a quality product. The identification of an active number of defects, their awareness, and removal plays an important role in delivering a high-quality product.
    • Defect Resolution Time – It is a procedure through which the team members detect the defects (bugs) and set a priority for the defect resolution. The procedure of fixing errors/bugs or defect resolution comprises multiple processes such as clearing the picture of defect, schedule defect fixation, completing defect fixation, generation, and handling of resolution report.
    • Sprint BurnDown Matrix – The sprint burndown chart is a graph to represent the number of non-implemented or implemented sprints during a Scrum cycle. This matric helps to track the work completed with the sprint.

    26. Is it ever suggested to use waterfall over Scrum? If yes, explain when.

    Ans:

    Yes, sometimes it is suggested to use a waterfall model over Scrum. It is done when the customer requirements are simple, well-defined, fully understood, predictable, and are not subjected to change until the completion of the project. It may be the case that you would haven’t ever used waterfall over Scrum but you need to prepare for such Agile Scrum interview questions.

    27. Why does Scrum encourage the use of automated testing for projects?

    Ans:

    Scrum encourages the use of automated (automated performance or automated regression) testing to make the fastest possible delivery of the project. While answering this question, you may explain some tools that you have used for automated testing.

    28. What do you know about “Planning Poker” technique?

    Ans:

    Planning poker, also known as Scrum Poker, is a card-based agile technique that is used for planning and estimation. To start a session of planning poker technique, the agile user story is read by the product owner. The steps performed in the poker planning technique are –

    • Each estimator has a deck of poker cards with the values such as 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, and so on, to denote story points, ideal days or something else that the team uses for estimation.
    • Each estimator has a discussion with the product owner and then privately selects a card on the basis of their independent estimation.
    • If the cards with the same value are selected by all estimators, it is considered as an estimate. If not, the estimator discusses the high and low value of their estimates.
    • Then again, each estimator privately selects a card and reveals. This process of poker planning is repeated to reach a general agreement.

    29. Name some methodologies and development where you have used the Agile model.

    Ans:

    While answering this type of agile scrum interview questions, keep in mind to mention those methodologies that are familiar with. Some of the methodologies and development where the Agile model can be used are

    • Crystal methodologies
    • Lean software development
    • Dynamic development
    • Feature-driven development

    30. Share your experience as a Scrum Master/Product Owner/Agile team member and what were your primary responsibilities?

    Ans:

    Here you have to explain your project details where you worked in the Scrum team and define your role with the responsibilities you held. The trick in this question is whether while explaining you are showing a self-organizing and self-motivational team. Also, the interviewer will try to judge how in depth you have worked in the agile/scrum environment based on your explanation.

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    31. What was the length of sprints/iterations in your project?

    Ans:

    This is probably the most common question asked in agile interviews. The idea here is to judge in which kind of environment you have worked. There will be definitely follow up questions like was this length fixed in the beginning and never changed? Have you tried with more than this length or less than that?

    32. How have you done user story mapping & estimation of stories in your projects?

    Ans:

    This question is to under how you have done story writing, mapping, and estimation. Have you used any estimation technique like planning poker, t-shirt, sizing etc? Whatever technique you used in your project just mention it very clearly.

    33. What is the biggest challenge you faced in your project while handling the Scrum team members?

    Ans:

    This question is pure to judge your experience. The better you articulate your challenges working in agile, the better it will be. Challenges generally faced in the initial stages of scrum are stabilizing the velocity, team members conflicts, sticking to time-boxing etc..

    34. Have you ever performed the removal of impediments as a scrum master on behalf of a scrum team?

    Ans:

    As the scrum master acts as a coach for his team, he should motivate his team to perform every task. Although he can remove impediments on behalf of the scrum team, he should not do this. It is recommended for a scrum master not to over pamper nor overrule the team. There may be something when the team can face failure, at that time the scrum master should help them. He should guide them with an appropriate method t0 get out of the problem. Scrum master should prompt his team members to become independent enough to face problems and take a decision by themselves. This is one of the frequently asked scrum master interview questions, so prepare now and get ready to answer.

    35. What is the difference between the agile & traditional way of working?

    Ans:

    This question is to judge whether one is aware of the environment of the agile way of working. Here the answer is expected to cover few or all of below:

    • The traditional way is sequential where design->Development->Testing etc. happens one after another whereas in agile all of this is done in every iteration/sprint
    • Changes are welcomed in agile as Scope is flexible whereas in traditional manner scope is fixed in the beginning due to which changes have to follow change request path
    • Progress is measured with % completion traditionally whereas working software is the measure of progress in agile
    • Project Manager as a central controlling authority is traditionally driving the project whereas Self-motivated and self-organizing teams drive the projects in agile

    36. What is the difference between Sprint Planning Meeting and Sprint Retrospective Meeting?

    Ans:

    The difference between Sprint Planning Meeting and Sprint Retrospective Meeting is as follows:

    • Sprint Planning Meeting – A meeting in which all the Scrum roles (product owner, scrum team, and scrum master) have a discussion about the team’s priority features and product backlog items is known as sprint planning meeting. This meeting is held every week and lasts for almost 1 hour.
    • Sprint Retrospective Meeting – A meeting in which all the Scrum roles (product owner, scrum team, and scrum master) have a discussion about the good part of the sprint, the bad part of the sprint, and the sprint improvements is known as sprint retrospective meeting. This meeting is held at the sprint review meeting or at the end of the sprint; it lasts for 2-3 hours.

    This is one of the frequently asked Agile Scrum interview questions. You may be asked to define the above terms separately or the difference between these two.

    37. How is an agile testing methodology different from other testing methodologies?

    Ans:

    Agile scrum interview questions may include a number of questions from agile testing. Let’s understand how you can answer such questions.

    • The agile testing methodology involves the division of the whole testing process into multiple small segments of codes. In every step, these segments of codes undergo testing.
    • There are a number of additional processes involved in agile testing methodologies such as team communication, strategic modifications for optimal results and many others.

    38. What are the pros and cons of Agile Methodology?

    Ans:

    This is one of the most frequently asked agile interview questions.

    Pros of the agile methodology:

    • Speedy and continuous delivery of the software ensures customer satisfaction.
    • All the stakeholders (customers, developers, and testers) are involved in the process which leads to technical excellence and good design.
    • It facilitates close interaction between business people and developers.
    • Its flexibility ensures the adaptation to changing circumstances. Changes added at the last moment or at a later stage of development can be incorporated without any problem.

    However, it does have some disadvantages too:

    • Sometimes when software deliverables are large ones, it is tough to determine the effort level required at the beginning of the software development lifecycle.
    • In agile methodology, documentation and designing take a back seat.
    • The decision making crucial for the development process comes with seniority and experience. Hence, freshers can hardly manage to find a place in the agile software development process.

    39. Do you have a Scrum Master certification?

    Ans:

    This question may seem awkward to you but it is one of the most popular Agile Scrum interview questions. If an interviewer asks this question, it doesn’t mean that a certification is necessary for the job position. Just be confident while answering whether you have a scrum master certification or not. If you are a certified scrum master, just share the details of your certification like certification exam, score obtained, and the year of passing the certification exam. In case you don’t have a certification, mention and highlight your experience in the particular field. Also, let the interviewer know if you are planning to invest in the certification in the near future.

    40. Do you hold any agile certification? Why did you choose this certification?

    Ans:

    Agile and scrum certifications are hot in the market and organizations are expecting the candidates to hold one or more out of it. Certifications generally looked by organizations are:

    • ACP (Agile Certified Practitioner)
    • ASM (Agile Scrum Master)
    • CSM (Certified Scrum Master)
    • PSM (Professional Scrum Master)
    • Safe Agilist

    If you have any of these certifications, showcase it here in a big manner. Due to the many options available in the market, organizations also have started asking why you have chosen one. It’s recommended that for your certification you know a few good points as its advantages are handy with you so that it can be mentioned once asked.

    41. When can you say your story is ready to develop/groom enough to deliver?

    Ans:

    Ready is a stable state of Scrum that is linked to a user story. As per the Definition of Ready (DoR), a user story has to satisfy some conditions before picking it up for a sprint i.e. to be in the ready state. So, the conditions that are essential for the development/grooming of a user story specify if the user story is ready to develop/groom enough to deliver or not.

    42. How do you manage if the story is high priority and resources left before the last day of sprint completion?

    Ans:

    The answer to this question will fully depend on the number of resources left.

    If one or two members leave the story just before a day of the sprint completion, a scrum master can handle the situation as described below

    • First, analyze the pending tasks and the impact on the overall sprint. According to that, try to find an alternative solution around to manage the situation. As a leader, you can decide to work for some extra hours to complete the sprint and can also ask (remember to ask, not to tell) other team members to do so. And this way, you can do the sprint completion on time.

    In case, more or all the members leave just before a day of the sprint completion, then the situation can be handled as

    Analyze the amount of pending work and its impact on the overall sprint.

    • Check if you can manage the situation and finish the task by yourself or try to get some other resources to work. (Although this won’t be feasible as you will have to first explain everything about the sprint and task done to the new team; of course it won’t be possible in a day.) So, if you can’t manage to complete the sprint by yourself, it’s better to tell this to your product owner. You can ask him to give some more time to complete the sprint, so you can get a new team or get it done by yourself by working extra hours.

    43. As a scrum project manager, what are your responsibilities?

    Ans:

    Firstly, I would like to correct the question as there is no project manager role in scrum i.e. Scrum Project Manager is not a defined role. The responsibilities of a project manager are split between the scrum master, product owner, and the development team.

    Scrum Master is a facilitator who is responsible to manage the development teams working on Agile methodology. He is an intermediate between the product owner and the development team to work for the achievement of the final goal. The scrum master role is similar to the project manager in a few cases, and the responsibilities of a scrum master are:

    • Performing Sprint planning
    • To schedule the daily Scrum meeting
    • Management of responsibilities of the Scrum process
    • Assisting Scrum teams to follow Scrum practices
    • Work to remove barriers to allow the team focus on work
    • Providing assistance with the Product Backlog
    • Coordinating with Product Owner to design Product Backlog items for the upcoming Sprint
    • Motivating team not to be distracted by the external factors
    • Helping team to improve the dynamics to reach the goal

    44. How (What are the parameters) to choose the number of resources required to your scrum team?

    Ans:

    The team members are the resources to build a scrum team. And the scrum guide recommends that the development team size should be between 3 and 9 (7 +/- 2) without giving any context or reasons for this.

    Obviously, one common range can’t define the optimal size of the team for everyone. So, there are some factors that should be considered while determining the number of resources required to form a scrum team. These are not just the factors but the need for the development of the scrum team, let’s have a look.

    • The broad set of skills required to build the team
    • The consistency in team membership for a long period of time
    • Dedication of team members to one and only one team
    • Diversity and variety in thought and background I.e. a broad set of ideas and experience for more creativity

    The scrum guide also states the issues faced by the teams with over 9 members in terms of concerns instead of failing points. However, you can even have 15 members in the scrum team.

    In that case, two teams will be formed according to the nexus Guide for scaling Scrum.

    But having a larger team won’t be that effective. In that case, there will be no room for error as going off the tangent will affect large team more. Remember that the events depend on sprint length, not on the team size. So, just follow scrum guide along with the consideration of some factors while determining team size.

    45. How long does the Scrum cycle last?

    Ans:

    Basically, the Scrum cycle depends on the project size and team size. Team size may vary from 3 members to 9 members.  Normally, it takes 3 to 4 weeks to complete a Scrum sprint. On an average, a scrum sprint ends in 4 weeks.

    46.  What kind of projects are suitable for Agile Methodology?

    Ans:

    The traditional methodology is suited for projects with predefined, clearly stated requirements while agile development methodology is suitable for projects with dynamic requirements where frequent changes in the product come up on a regular basis.

    47. What is Sashimi?

    Ans:

    • Sashimi is a Japanese word that means a pierced body. Basically, it is a Japanese dish that consists of fresh meat or fish, sliced into thin pieces. Each piece is similar in taste when compared with the other pieces.
    • Sashimi in scrum methodology means every phase of the software development cycle in a sprint which includes requirement analysis, planning &  design, development, testing, documentation is complete or not and the product is ready to be displayed, etc.

    48. What are impediments?

    Ans:

    Any hindrance which prevents the smooth flow of work or due to which the team is not able to perform its task in a better way is what we call ‘impediments’.

    49.  What are the different types of Agile Methodologies?

    Ans:

    An agile interview question and answers guide will not complete without this question. There are several types of agile development methodology. Scrum is one of the most popular and widely used agile methods. Other types of agile development methodology are; development like Crystal Methodology, DSDM(Dynamic Software Development Method), Feature-driven development(FDD), Lean software development and Extreme Programming(XP).

    50. What are the disadvantages of the agile model?

    Ans:

    Some of the disadvantages of using the agile model are as follows:

    • Not easy to predict: When you encounter a large project, it is not easy to get an idea of how much effort will it require.
    • If the guidelines given by the customers are not properly grasped, then final outcome of the project is not as per customer satisfaction.
    • Sometimes focusing on design and documentation is not proper
    • High-level decisions are under the hand of Veterans, if not combined with non-experienced ones, freshers have little scope to grasp proper knowledge.

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    51. When to use the agile model?

    Ans:

    There are some development and methodologies where you can use agile like feature-driven development, lean software development, crystal methodologies, dynamic development.

    52. What is the Release candidate?

    Ans:

    The release candidate is a code /version /build released to make sure that during the last development period, no critical problem is left behind. It is used for testing and is equivalent to the final build.

    53. In what way does agile testing(development) methodology differ from the other testing(development) methodologies?

    Ans:

    In Agile methodology, the code is broken into small parts and at a time, only that particular code is worked or tested. Continuous communication on the particular code part is done by a team so that the focus is only on that particular code. This makes the agile process more flexible and focused.

    54. Can agile methodology also be applied in other than software testing and development projects?

    Ans:

    There are several places where agile methodology can be applied in the field of biochemistry, biophysics, bio-medical or at the place where there is insufficient data, where the project needs to be completed in a small team, where to work in unknown and there are several areas.

    55. How do you know if you are using agile development?

    Ans:

    Whenever you are using certain things like test-driven development, time-boxed task board, class responsibilities collaborators, daily stand up meeting, pair programming, continuous integration, reviews and much more, you will get to know that you are using agile development

    56. Explain what is a story point in the scrum?

    Ans:

    It can be considered as a unit to estimate the total efforts required to complete or to do the particular task or implementing a backlog.

    57. What are the main roles in the scrum?

    Ans:

    • Scrum Team: Scrum team is made by an individual person who works collectively to achieve a particular task. The team works in a bond to deliver committed and requested products.
    • Scrum Master: Scrum Master is responsible for the proper execution or working of the scrum team. Being a servant – leader and a coach, he ensures the proper productivity of a team towards scrum sprint goal.
    • Product Owner: The product owner has the responsibility to deliver a complete picture of what to build and to convey that idea to the team.

    58. What is a product burndown chart?

    Ans:

    A description in the form of the graph which shows implemented and not – implemented product backlog is called the burndown chart.

    59.  Can you explain the lean methodology in detail?

    Ans:

    Lean software development method follows the principle of “Just in time production”. It aims at increasing the speed of software development and decreasing cost.

    The basic idea of lean is to reduce non-value-added activities (known as “wastes”) in order to increase customer value. The agile process itself is a lean method for software development lifecycle. However, activities like backlog grooming (when team review items on the backlog to ensure the appropriate items are in the backlog, that they are prioritized well, and that the items at the top of the backlog are ready for delivery) code refactoring (process of restructuring existing computer code – changing the factoring — without changing its external behavior) fits agile methodology more in tune with lean principles.

    60. What is the Release burndown chart?

    Ans:

    The graph used to depict the pending release which was earlier planned is called Release burn down the chart.

    61. What is the defect burndown chart?

    Ans:

    The number of defects identified and removed is represented by the defect burndown chart.

    62. Is there any difference between incremental and iterative development?

    Ans:

    Yes, the iterative methodology is a process of software development without any interruption. In this method, software development cycles consisting of sprint and release are repeated until the final product is obtained. Whereas, the incremental model is a process of software development where the product is designed, implemented and tested incrementally until the product is finished. It involves both development and maintenance.

    63.  Can you explain pair programming and its benefits?

    Ans:

    The combined effort in the team where one programmer writes the code and the other one reviews it is called pair programming. There are several benefits of pair programming, it not only improves the quality of code but also facilitates the knowledge transfer. It reduces the chance of mistakes as two people are simultaneously working on a code.

    64. According to you what are some qualities that a good agile tester must have?

    Ans:

    A competent agile tester must possess the following qualities:

    • They should be capable of understanding the requirements quickly.
    • An agile tester should be aware of all the agile principles and concepts and values as listed down in an agile manifesto.
    • They should be able to prioritize the work based on the requirements.
    • They should have excellent communication skills as continuous communication between business associates, developers and tester is a backbone of the agile development process.

    65. Tell me something about Kanban?

    Ans:

    • Kanban is a tool that helps the team to overlook the work ie., its progress. Progress, as well as the status of your current development story, is perfectly described using kanban and more accurately it is done by the ‘Kanban board’.
    • Kanban board allows you to write the whole scenario of your project at a single place so that you can get a perfect picture of the bottleneck, a task done, workflow progress or basically the complete status of your project.

    66. Describe the places where ‘Scrum’ and ‘Kanban’ are used?

    Ans:

    ‘Scrum’ is used when you need to shift towards a more appropriate or more prominent process while if you want improvement in running the process without much changes in the whole scenario, you should use ‘Kanban’.

    67. Why aren’t user stories simply estimated in man-hours?

    Ans:

    Estimation of user stories on the basis of man-hours can be done but preferably not. You won’t be able to concentrate on the quality product to be delivered to the customer. Moreover, you will concentrate on the cost and budget of the management while using man-hours.

    Instead of that, one can use story points, as it provides the complete idea about both the complexity of work and required efforts

    68. Can you list some responsibilities that a scrum team has to undertake?

    Ans:

    This is one of the important agile interview questions. Major responsibilities that a scrum team has to include:

    • Breaking down the requirements, creating tasks, estimating and distributing the created tasks. To put simply they are in charge of creating sprint backlogs.
    • They have to arrange daily sprint meetings.
    • It is a responsibility of the team to ensure that every functional feature is delivered on time. They have to create a sprint burndown diagram to know to get the exact estimate of work done and the work that needs to be done.

    69. Should scrum master remove impediments on behalf of the scrum team?

    Ans:

    Scrum master can do that, but he should not. The scrum master should neither over-rule nor pamper his/her team. Initially, there may be chances of failure, unplanned excursions or dead-end where the team can trap, here scrum master should support them and show the proper way of getting out of it. A scrum team should be independent to take its own decision.

    70. How does agile testing (development) methodology differ from another testing (development) methodologies?

    Ans:

    In agile testing methodology, the entire testing process is broken into a small segment of codes and in each step, these codes are tested. There are several processes or plans involved in this methodology like communication with the team, short strategic changes to get the optimal result, etc.

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    71. How would master recommend following-up on action items?

    Ans:

    The best way of doing that is by setting a follow-up of the task/list to be done by the member pick at team retrospective. The scrum master should collect the information or status of the action items from the previous retrospective before moving further with the new one and if any of the action items remain uncovered or untreated, the cause or the reason should be known to avoid it’s further happening.

    72. Which are the top agile matrices?

    Ans:

    • Velocity: Tracking your velocity gives you a clear idea about your progress, capacity, etc. Measurement can be done by the sum of all approved estimates of the stories.
    • Work category allocation: This factor provides us a clear idea about where we are investing our time or where to set priority.
    • Defect removal awareness: Quality product can be delivered by active members and their awareness
    • Cumulative flow diagram: With the help of this flow diagram, the uniform workflow can be checked, where X-axis shows time and Y-axis shows no. of efforts.
    • Sprint burndown matric: Tracking on the completion of work along with the sprint is done.
    • A business value delivered: Business value delivered is an entity that shows the team’s working efficiency. This method is used to measure, in which around 100 points are associated with each project. Business objectives are given value from 1,2,3,5 and so on according to complexity, urgency, and ROI.
    • Defect resolution time: It’s a process where team member detects the bug and priority intention by the removal of the error.

    A series of process is involved in fixing the bug:

    • Clearing the picture of a bug
    • Schedule fix
    • Fixation of Defect is done
    • Report of resolution is handed
    • Time coverage: Amount of time given to code in question in testing. It is measured by the ratio of no. of the line of code called by test suite by total no. of the relative lines of code (in percentage).

    73. Explain what is refactoring?

    Ans:

    To improve the performance, the existing code is modified; this is refactoring. During refactoring the code functionality remains same

    74. Explain how you can measure the velocity of the sprint with varying team capacity?

    Ans:

    When planning a sprint usually, the velocity of the sprint is measured on the basis of professional judgement based on historical data. However, the mathematical formula used to measure the velocity of the sprint are,

    • first – completed story points X team capacity: If you measure capacity as a percentage of a 40 hours weeks
    • Second – completed story points / team capacity: If you measure capacity in man-hours

    For our scenario a second method is applicable.

    75. Mention the key difference between sprint backlog and product backlog?

    Ans:

    • Product backlog: It contains a list of all desired features and is owned by the product owner.
    • Sprint backlog: It is a subset of the product backlog owned by the development team and commits to deliver it in a sprint. It is created in Sprint Planning Meeting

    76. In Agile, mention what is the difference between the Incremental and Iterative development?

    Ans:

    Iterative: Iterative method is a continuous process of software development where the software development cycles are repeated (Sprint & Releases) till the final product is achieved.

    • Release 1: Sprint 1, 2… n
    • Release n: Sprint 1, 2….n

    Incremental: Incremental development segregates the system functionality into increments or portions. In each increment, each segment of functionality is delivered through cross-discipline work, from the requirements to the deployment.

    77. Explain what Spike and Zero sprint is in Agile? What is the purpose of it?

    Ans:

    • Sprint Zero: It is introduced to perform some research before initiating the first sprint. Usually this sprint is used during the start of the project for activities like setting development environment, preparing product backlog and so on.
    • Spikes: Spikes are types of stories that are used for activities like research, exploration, design and even prototyping. In between sprints, you can take spikes for the work related to any technical or design issue. Spikes are of two types Technical Spikes and Functional Spikes.

    78. What is test driven development?

    Ans:

    Test driven development or TDD is also known as test-driven design. In this method, the developer first writes an automated test case which describes new function or improvement and then creates small codes to pass that test, and later re-factors the new code to meet the acceptable standards.

    79. Prototypes and Wireframes are widely used as part of?

    Ans:

    Prototypes and Wireframes are prototypes that are widely used as part of Empirical Design.

    80. Explain what an Application Binary Interface is?

    Ans:

    Across different system platforms and environments a specification defining requirements for portability of applications in binary form is known as Application Binary Interface.

    81. Explain in Agile, burn-up and burn-down chart?

    Ans:

    To track the project progress burnup and burn down, charts are used.

    • Burnup Chart: It shows the progress of stories done over time.
    • Burndown Chart: It shows how much work was left to do overtime.

    82. What are the crucial Agile Matrices? 

    Ans:

    Some of the essential Agile Matrices are:

    • Velocity – It is essential to keep track of the project’s velocity so that the Agile team can have a clear understanding of your progress, capacity, and other metrics. 
    • Work category allocation – Allocating separate work categories provides a clear idea about where different team members are investing their time and what is the order of priority of the various tasks in a project. 
    • Defect removal awareness – When team members work proactively and correct the errors simultaneously as they develop and test a product, the quality of the end product improves significantly.
    • Cumulative flow diagram – It represents a workflow in which the x-axis represents time, and the y-axis depicts the effort of members. 
    • Sprint burn-down matric – This allows the Agile team to track and monitor the completion of the work along with the sprint.
    • Deliver business value – It is primarily concerned with the overall work efficiency of the Agile team. Only when all the team members are productive that the Agile team can deliver business value to their clients. 
    • Time coverage – The time required to develop and test each iteration is measured using the ratio between the number of lines in a code (test suite) and the number of relative lines of codes.
    • Defect resolution time – As the name suggests, it pertains to the time required to detect and fix bugs and issues. This is an elaborate process that requires the Agile team to collaborate and deliver improved results in the most productive manner possible.

    83. What are story points/efforts/ scales?

    Ans:

    It is used to discuss the difficulty of the story without assigning actual hours. The most common scale used is a Fibonacci sequence ( 1,2,3,5,8,13,….100) although some teams use linear scale (1,2,3,4….), Powers of 2 (1,2,4,8……) and cloth size (XS, S ,M,L, XL).

    84. Explain what a tracer bullet?

    Ans:

    The tracer bullet is a spike with the current architecture, the current set of best practices, current technology set which results in production quality code. It is not a throw away code but might just be a narrow implementation of the functionality.

    85. What is a test stub?

    Ans:

    A test stub is a small code that replaces an undeveloped or fully developed component within a system being tested. Test stub is designed in such a way that it mimics the actual component by generating specifically known outputs and substitute the actual component.

    86. Why Continuous Integration is important for Agile?

    Ans:

    Continuous Integration is important for Agile for the following reasons.

    • It helps to maintain release schedule on time by detecting bugs or integration errors
    • Due to frequent agile code delivery usually every sprint of 2-3 weeks, stable quality of build is a must and continuous integration ensures that
    • In helps to maintain the quality and bug free state of code-base
    • Continuous integration helps to check the impact of work on branches to the main trunk if development work is going on branches using automatic building and merging function

    87. What testing is done during Agile?

    Ans:

    • The primary testing activities during Agile is automated unit testing and exploratory testing.
    • Though, depending on project requirements, a tester may execute Functional and Non-functional tests on the Application Under Test (AUT).

    88. When should you use Waterfall over Scrum?

    Ans:

    Use waterfall if the requirements are simple, predictable, fully defined and understood, and will not change.

    89. What are the qualities a good Agile tester should have?

    Ans:

    A good Agile tester should have following qualities

    • It should be able to understand the requirements quickly
    • Agile tester should know Agile principles and concepts well
    • As requirements keep changing, tester should understand the risk involved in it
    • Based on the requirements Agile tester should be able to prioritize the work
    • Continue communication between business associates, developers and tester is must

    90. Who are all involved in the Agile team?

    Ans:

    In agile the two main leads are

    • Scrum Masters: It coordinates most of the inputs and outputs required for an agile program
    • Development Managers: They hire right people and develop them with the team

    91. Mention in detail what are the roles of Scrum Master?

    Ans:

    Scrum Master key responsibilities involves

    • Understand the requirements and turn them into working software
    • Monitoring and Tracking
    • Reporting and Communication
    • Process Check Master
    • Quality Master
    • Resolve Impediments
    • Resolve Conflicts
    • Shield the team and performance feedback
    • Lead all the meetings and resolve obstacles

    92. Would you recommend automated testing for your project?

    Ans:

    Scrum encourages the use of automated performance or regression testing so that you can continuously deliver software as quickly as possible. Offer examples of any automated testing tools that your team may have used.

    93. Mention what are the Tools that can be useful for screenshots while working on Agile projects?

    Ans:

    While working on Agile projects you can use tools like

    • BugDigger
    • BugShooting
    • qTrace
    • Snagit
    • Bonfire
    • Usersnap

    94. Mention what are the advantages of maintaining consistent iteration length throughout the project?

    Ans:

    The advantages are

    • It helps team to objectively measure progress
    • It provides a consistent means of measuring team velocity
    • It helps to establish a consistent pattern of delivery

    95. If a timebox plan needs to be reprioritized who should re-prioritise it?

    Ans:

    If a timebox plan needs to be reprioritized it should include the whole team, product owner, and developers.

    96. Mention what a burndown chart should highlight?

    Ans:

    The burn-down chart shows the remaining work to complete before the timebox (iteration) ends.

    97. What is retrospective?

    Ans:

    A retrospective is a meeting to inspect and adapt the process. This Agile methodology interview question is looking for the many ways to conduct a retrospective—so be ready to explain one or two formats.

    98. Mention what are the challenges involved in AGILE software development?

    Ans:

    Challenges involved in Agile Software development includes

    • It requires more testing and customers involvement
    • It impacts management more than developers
    • Each feature needs to be completed before moving on to the next
    • All the code has to work fine to ensure application is in working state
    • More planning is required

    99. When not to use Agile?

    Ans:

    Before using Agile methodology, you must ask following questions

    • Is functionality split-able
    • Is customer available
    • Are requirements flexible
    • Is it really time constrained
    • Is team skilled enough

    100. Explain how you can implement scrum in an easy way to your project?

    Ans:

    These are the tips which can be helpful to implement scrum in your project.

    • Get your backlog in order
    • Get an idea of the size of your product backlog items
    • Clarify sprint requirement and duration to complete the sprint backlog
    • Calculate the team sprint budget and then break requirements into tasks
    • Collaborate workspace- a center of all team discussion, which includes plans, roadmaps, key dates, sketches of functionality, issues, log, status reports, etc.
    • Sprint- Make sure you complete one feature at a time before moving on to the next. A sprint should not be abort unless if there is no other option
    • Attend a daily stand-up meeting: In meeting you need to mention, what have been achieved since the last meeting, what will they achieve before the next meeting and is anything holding up their progress
    • Use burndown charts to track daily progress. From the burndown chart, you can estimate whether you are on track, or you are running behind
    • Complete each features well before moving on to the next
    • At the end of the sprint- hold a sprint review meeting, mention what is achieved or delivered in the sprint

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