Top 45+ QA automation Interview Questions and Answers
SAP Basis Interview Questions and Answers

45+ [REAL-TIME] QA automation Interview Questions and Answers

Last updated on 30th Apr 2024, Popular Course

About author

Tara (QA Automation Engineer )

Tara is an experienced QA Engineer that specializes in quality assurance and testing methodologies. She assures software dependability and functioning through her experience in test case creation and execution. Tara works well with cross-functional teams to produce high-quality goods, with a sharp eye for detail and a dedication to continual development.

20555 Ratings 1545

QA Automation entails the use of automated tools and frameworks to optimize and improve the software testing process. It involves the creation, implementation, and execution of automated test scripts to validate software functionality, performance, and security. QA Automation Engineers leverage their skills to develop efficient and dependable automated test suites, minimizing manual efforts and expanding test coverage. Through automation, organizations can expedite testing cycles, detect defects sooner, and elevate the overall quality of software. In essence, QA Automation is instrumental in guaranteeing the resilience and dependability of contemporary software applications.

1. What does automated testing entail?

Ans:

Software testing methods such as automation testing use scripts and specialized tools to automate the execution of test cases. Predefined test scripts are written for jobs that were previously completed manually in automation testing. Without the need for human intervention, these scripts mimic user activities with the software program, such as clicking buttons, entering text, and confirming results.

2. In comparison to manual testing, what are the benefits of automation testing?

Ans:

  • Time is saved and human effort is decreased with automation testing.
  • It makes testing more thorough by increasing test coverage.
  • Automation removes human mistakes and guarantees consistent test execution.
  • It makes parallel execution easier, which expedites the testing procedure.
  • Regression testing may be done often and with little effort thanks to automation.
  • It offers increased precision in load testing and performance measurement.

3. Describe the distinction between non-functional and functional testing?

Ans:

Aspect Functional Testing Non-Functional Testing
Focus Checks what the system does Evaluates how the system performs
Examples Unit, Integration, System, Acceptance Testing Performance, Load, Security, Usability Testing
Goal Validates if the system meets user needs Ensures the system meets quality attributes

4. Which automated testing tools are the most widely used ones on the market?

Ans:

  • Selenium
  • HP Unified Functional Testing (UFT)
  • IBM Rational Functional Tester (RFT)
  • TestComplete
  • Apache JMeter
  • SoapUI
  • Appium
  • Cucumber

5. Describe the layout of a normal framework for automated testing?

Ans:

Test scripts: Developed to automate test cases using a computer language (e.g., Python, Java).

Test data: The input information needed to run test cases.

Test runner: Completes test reports and runs test scripts.

Test libraries: Components or routines that can be reused in several test scripts.

Files for configuration: Save configurations and settings unique to your environment.

Tools for reporting: Create thorough test reports that include metrics and test outcomes.

6. What is the mineral selenium?

Ans:

Selenium, with the chemical symbol Se and atomic number 34, is a crucial element found in minerals, soils, and water sources. It is a vital micronutrient for various organisms, including humans. Renowned for its antioxidant properties, selenium plays an essential role in supporting the immune system and thyroid function.

7. Recognize the differences among Selenium Grid, Selenium WebDriver, and Selenium IDE.

Ans:

A Firefox browser plugin called Selenium IDE is used to record and replay test scenarios. Prototyping and learning Selenium are its main uses. One effective technology for automating web browser interactions is Selenium WebDriver. It offers an interface for programmers to write and run test scripts for many browsers.

Selenium Grid: A Selenium component that allows tests to run in parallel on several platforms and browsers. To cut down on test execution time, it enables the distribution of test execution across several machines.

8. Describe the distinction between Selenium’s Assert and Verify commands.

Ans:

Assert: During test execution, Selenium’s Assert commands are used to confirm expected circumstances. The test case is marked as failed and the test execution terminates if the assertion is not true.

Verify: If the verification is unsuccessful, the test execution will continue. Verify instructions also confirm the required circumstances. The test keeps running, and the failure is noted.

9. Which different kinds of locators in Selenium WebDriver are compatible with?

Ans:

  • ID
  • Name
  • Class Name
  • Tag Name
  • Link Text
  • Partial Link Text
  • CSS Selector
  • XPath

10. In Selenium WebDriver, how do you manage dynamic elements?

Ans:

Selenium Webdriver
  • Both implicit and explicit waits are used to hold off on making an element clickable or visible.
  • using CSS selectors or dynamic XPath selections based on distinct properties.
  • properly managing exceptions such as NoSuchElementException and StaleElementReferenceException.
  • If WebDriver instructions do not work, JavaScriptExecutor can be used to communicate with dynamic elements.

11. What does Selenium’s Page Object Model (POM) mean? Why is it advantageous?

Ans:

One design pattern used in Selenium automation testing is the Page Object Model (POM). For every web page in the program, a distinct class must be created, containing all of the page’s components and functions. The different items on the page, including buttons, text boxes, and dropdown menus, as well as the ways to interact with them, are represented by the page objects. Using the Page Object Model has the benefits of quicker test script maintenance, better code maintainability, and code reuse.

12. What are the benefits of using TestNG in Selenium as opposed to JUnit?

Ans:

  • TestNG provides benefits over JUnit when working with Selenium:
  • It offers a wider range of annotations for customization.
  • It provides more advanced options for test configuration.
  • It supports parallel execution by default.
  • It seamlessly integrates data-driven testing.
  • It generates detailed HTML reports.
  • It allows for extensibility through listeners and extensions.

The following are some advantages of TestNG over JUnit in Selenium:

Special Java annotations called TestNG annotations are used in TestNG to specify the behavior and flow of test cases. Methods within test classes are frequently marked with annotations like @Test, @BeforeMethod, @AfterMethod, @BeforeClass, @AfterClass, @BeforeSuite, and @AfterSuite to carry out particular tasks before or after test execution. TestNG annotations offer precise control over the setup, execution, and cleanup procedures.

13. Describe the meaning and notion of TestNG annotations.

Ans:

With Selenium Data-Driven Testing, test scripts and data are kept apart so that the same test script can run using several sets of data. It entails storing test data within the code in external sources like databases, CSV files, Excel sheets, and data providers. Then, Selenium scripts are made to read data from these sources and repeatedly run the same test logic using various inputs. Data-Driven Testing contributes to increased maintainability, decreased script duplication, and improved test coverage.

14. What does Selenium Data-Driven Testing entail? How is it put into practice?

Ans:

Use the techniques offered by WebDriver’s Alert interface for handling JavaScript alerts, confirmations, and prompts to handle pop-ups and notifications in Selenium WebDriver. In addition, you may handle mouse interactions to dismiss or work with pop-up windows using the Actions class. It might be necessary to use WebDriver’s switchTo() method to switch to the alert window in order to take action on more complicated pop-ups.

15. How do you deal with pop-ups and notifications in Selenium WebDriver?

Ans:

Managing pop-ups and notifications in Selenium WebDriver is essential for reliable test automation. The `Alert` interface can be used to manage JavaScript prompts, confirmations, and alerts. This allows for actions like accepting, dismissing, or dealing with text input. Browser-specific features can be used to either enable or suppress browser notifications, which are frequently annoying during testing. WebDriver attention can also be moved across distinct window handles to handle window pop-ups. Accurate validation of web application behavior and seamless test execution are guaranteed by adept handling of pop-ups.

16. What function does Selenium WebDriver’s Actions class serve?

Ans:

The Actions class of Selenium WebDriver:

A collection of methods for carrying out sophisticated user interactions, including mouse and keyboard commands, are available in Selenium WebDriver’s commands class. Hovering over elements, dragging and dropping elements, double- and right-clicking, and using keyboard shortcuts are some examples of these activities. When it comes to replicating intricate user interactions in web applications, including drag-and-drop functionality or context menus, the Actions class comes in handy.

17. Describe the meanings of Selenium’s implicit and explicit wait concepts.

Ans:

Implicit wait: When an element isn’t instantly present in the DOM, an implicit wait instructs the WebDriver to hold off on throwing a NoSuchElementException for a predetermined period of time. The WebDriver’s manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait() function can be used to set it, and it will apply globally to every element in the test script.

Explicit wait: When an explicit wait is used, the WebDriver is instructed to pause test script execution until a certain condition is met. Using the WebDriverWait and ExpectedConditions classes, it can be applied to particular components or circumstances and provides more control over waiting conditions. Explicit waits reduce needless delays and increase test effectiveness.

18. What are the benefits of utilizing CSS selectors in Selenium as opposed to XPath?

Ans:

  • When compared to XPath, CSS selectors perform generally faster.
  • Browser support for CSS selectors is greater.
  • Compared to XPath expressions, CSS selectors are frequently easier to read and understand.
  • Using CSS selectors, you may target elements more precisely by using their IDs, classes, and properties.
  • More versatility and specificity in identifying components inside the DOM are provided via CSS selectors.

19. How can you use Selenium WebDriver with numerous windows or tabs?

Ans:

Mineral selenium You can manage many windows or tabs with WebDriver’s techniques. WebDriver uses methods like getWindowHandles() to obtain all window handles and switchTo() to move the attention to the newly opened window or tab when one opens while a test is running.use getWindowHandle() to retrieve the handle of the active window and window() to move between windows.

20. What are the functions of the Selenium GeckoDriver, ChromeDriver, and IE Driver?

Ans:

Firefox browser interaction is achieved with GeckoDriver. The Gecko rendering engine of the Firefox browser and the Selenium WebDriver are connected by this bridge. The Google Chrome browser can be controlled and interacted with by Selenium WebDriver thanks to ChromeDriver. Task automation in Chrome is made easier by it. Internet Explorer Driver, sometimes known as the IE Driver, is a Selenium WebDriver plugin that automates common Internet Explorer browser tasks. With instances of the IE browser, it permits interaction.

    Subscribe For Free Demo

    [custom_views_post_title]

    21. How does Selenium WebDriver handle frames?

    Ans:

    The switchTo().frame() method in WebDriver is used to manage frames. You can locate the frame element or use its name or index to switch to a different frame. After switching to the frame, the WebDriver context will be present inside it, enabling interaction with its constituent parts.

    22. Describe the Selenium cross-browser testing idea?

    Ans:

    To verify application compatibility and consistency, Selenium cross-browser testing entails executing test cases in many web browsers. This aids in confirming that the online application functions as anticipated in a variety of browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and others. Test results are consistent because Selenium WebDriver enables test scripts to be written once and run in many browsers.

    23. What distinguishes Selenium’s quit() and close() methods from one another?

    Ans:

    • The quit() method ends the WebDriver session and dismisses all browser windows. It releases every resource linked to the instance of WebDriver. In order to tidy up and end the WebDriver session, quit() is often used at the conclusion of the test script.
    • close() function: The open window or tab in the browser is closed using the close() method. The browser session will end if there is just one active window. It only closes the active window when there are several open windows. It does not completely terminate the WebDriver session, in contrast to quit(), so any tabs or other browser windows that the WebDriver instance has opened will stay open.

    24. In Selenium WebDriver, how are SSL certificate failures handled?

    Ans:

    By building a bespoke ‘TrustManager’ or ‘SSLSocketFactory’ to circumvent SSL certificate validation, Selenium WebDriver users can handle SSL certificate failures. The “setAcceptInsecureCerts”(true) method in WebDriver’s “ChromeOptions,” “FirefoxOptions,” or “EdgeOptions” classes allows you to accept insecure certificates.

    25. How do you define Apache POI? How is it applied to Selenium data-driven testing?

    Ans:

    Microsoft Office file types, including Word documents, PowerPoint presentations, and Excel spreadsheets, may be read and written using the open-source Java package Apache POI (Poor Obfuscation Implementation). Apache POI can be used in Selenium data-driven testing to read test data from Excel sheets and utilize it to dynamically drive the test scripts.

    26. Describe TestNG’s parallel execution concept?

    Ans:

    To speed up execution, TestNG enables you to execute test classes and methods concurrently. Multiple levels of parallel execution are possible: methods, classes, and suites. To regulate the parallel execution behavior, TestNG offers parallel characteristics (‘parallel’, ‘thread-count’, etc.) in the XML configuration file.

    27. How can one log using Selenium WebDriver?

    Ans:

    Java’s built-in ‘java.util.logging’ package or other logging frameworks such as Log4j can be used to log in Selenium WebDriver. To trace the execution flow and troubleshoot difficulties, developers can log information such as test steps, errors, warnings, and debug messages.

    28. How is continuous integration using Jenkins and Selenium integrated?

    Ans:

    • For the purpose of creating, deploying, and automating projects, Jenkins is an open-source automation server.
    • Jenkins tasks are configured to automatically launch Selenium test scripts upon code commits as part of Continuous Integration (CI) using Jenkins and Selenium. Tests are then run across several environments, and reports are produced.

    29. Describe the distinctions between the automation testing of UI and API?

    Ans:

    • In ordTo create, deployer to mimic user activities and verify intended functionality, UI automation tests interact with the application’s user interface elements (such as buttons and forms).
    • Without displaying user interface elements, API automation tests communicate directly and submit queries to the application’s backend services, confirming replies.
    • Compared to API tests, which are quicker, more dependable, and provide greater coverage of backend operations, user interface (UI) tests are typically slower and more brittle.

    30. What benefits does REST Assured offer when it comes to API automation testing?

    Ans:

    • REST Assured is a Java package designed specifically for RESTful API testing.
    • For creating API tests, it offers a clear and expressive domain-specific language (DSL).
    • REST Assured simplifies the management of HTTP requests, authentication, response validation, and error handling.
    • It integrates well with popular testing frameworks like JUnit and TestNG.

    31. In REST Assured, how are API queries authenticated?

    Ans:

    • To authenticate API requests in REST Assured, a number of methods can be employed, such as Basic Authentication, OAuth, JWT (JSON Web Tokens), API keys, and unique authentication procedures.
    • To submit authentication credentials, the auth() method can be used, or headers can be supplied to the request.

    32. Behavior-Driven Development (BDD): What is it? How is it put into practice in Selenium?

    Ans:

    • BDD is a software development process that promotes cooperation in the definition and implementation of software features amongst developers, testers, and business stakeholders.
    • BDD focuses on creating scenarios that are readable by humans by use natural language constructions to represent the intended behavior of the system.
    • Cucumber, a tool that enables writing feature files in Gherkin syntax and mapping them to automated test stages, is one example of how Selenium uses BDD.

    33. Describe the idea behind Gherkin and Cucumber syntax?

    Ans:

    • Gherkin is a domain-specific language that is used to provide human-readable descriptions of software activities.
    • A BDD tool called Cucumber reads Gherkin syntax and runs automated tests using pre-established step definitions.
    • To organize feature files and specify test scenarios, Gherkin syntax uses keywords like ‘Feature’, ‘Scenario’, ‘Given’, ‘When’, ‘Then’, ‘and’ And.
    • Cucumber allows test scenarios provided in Gherkin files to be automated by mapping Gherkin steps to comparable Java methods using regular expressions or annotations.

    34. What distinguishes a TestNG soft assertion from a hard assertion?

    Ans:

    Hard Assertion: When a hard assertion fails, the test is instantly stopped and marked as unsuccessful. Assert.assertEquals(), Assert.assertTrue(), and other examples are available. A soft assertion is one that, in the event of an assertion failure, permits the test to proceed and collects any assertion failures that occur during the test. Soft assertions are made using TestNG’s SoftAssert class. If any soft assertions fail after you’ve finished all of the assertions, you can run assertAll() to declare the test failed.

    35. How is synchronization in Selenium WebDriver handled?

    Ans:

    • In order to prevent synchronization problems such as element not found or stale element exceptions, synchronization makes sure that WebDriver waits for specific requirements to be met before acting on elements.
    • Synchronization strategies include fluent waits, WebDriverWait explicit waits, implicit waits, and Thread.sleep() (though the latter is generally discouraged because of its static nature).

    36. What role does reporting play in automated testing?

    Ans:

    • Test Result Communication
    • Defect Detection
    • Progress Tracking
    • Decision Making

    37. Describe TestNG’s listeners’ job?

    Ans:

    The TestNG framework’s behavior during test execution can be customized by users through interfaces called TestNG listeners. Listeners give users the ability to run code or take actions at different points during the test lifecycle. Tasks that TestNG listeners frequently complete include:

    • Test Execution Monitoring: Test runs, test suites, or test methods can all be seen by listeners. Events like test start, test finish, test failure, test skipped, etc. can be recorded by them.
    • Manipulation of Test Results: Listeners offer hooks to dynamically alter test results. Listeners have the ability to intercept test failures and do tasks like sending notifications, taking screenshots, or logging.
    • Configuring Test Suites: Listeners let users set up test suites in real time according to predefined standards.

    38. How is file uploading handled with Selenium WebDriver?

    Ans:

    Using Selenium WebDriver, uploading files is normally done by using the `findElement()` method to locate the file input element on the webpage, which is typically a {\input type=”file”>} element. The path of the file to be uploaded is supplied using the `sendKeys()` method after it has been located. By simulating user interaction, this action successfully inserts the file path into the file input field and starts the upload process. To ensure a flawless file upload procedure during automated testing, WebDriver can handle file uploads that cause a file dialog window to open. It can accomplish this by interacting with the dialog using the same commands it uses for managing alarms and pop-ups.

    39. What is TestNG XML? In TestNG XML, how are test suites created and utilized?

    Ans:

    The TestNG testing framework uses TestNG XML as a configuration file, which allows users to construct test suites, set test parameters, and provide information about how the tests will be executed. Test cases are represented by one or more `} tags within `} tags, which organize test suites. These XML files are used by TestNG to arrange and run tests according to the configurations that are supplied, which makes test administration and execution more efficient.

    40. What is the process for taking screenshots in Selenium WebDriver?

    Ans:

    Casting the WebDriver instance to the `TakesScreenshot` interface in Selenium WebDriver allows you to take a snapshot by using the `getScreenshotAs()` function to record the current state of the browser window. The screenshot is returned as a {File} object by this method. Afterwards, this file can be saved to a system location with file handling tools such as Apache Commons `FileUtils` or `java.io.File`. This makes it possible for testers to easily incorporate screenshot functionality into their test scripts, which makes it easier to debug and report test failures with visual proof.

    Course Curriculum

    Get JOB QA Automation Training for Beginners By MNC Experts

    • Instructor-led Sessions
    • Real-life Case Studies
    • Assignments
    Explore Curriculum

    41. What are the best ways to write test scripts for automation?

    Ans:

    It’s important to follow best practices while writing automated test scripts to guarantee scalability, maintainability, and dependability. Modularization is essential because it makes scripts easier to maintain and update by dividing them into reusable modules. By separating test code from page-specific elements, the Page Object Model (POM) design pattern improves readability and lowers maintenance work. Scripts may run with a variety of input datasets thanks to data-driven testing, which improves test flexibility and coverage. To provide stable automation, explicit waits synchronize test execution with the state of the application. Sturdy error-handling systems improve test stability by gently mitigating failures. Debugging and analysis are facilitated by the inclusion of logging and reporting systems. The implementation of version control systems promotes cooperation and guarantees change traceability. Compatibility across many environments is ensured through cross-browser and cross-platform testing.

    42. Describe the Selenium object repository idea?

    Ans:

    A design pattern used in test automation to centralize the administration of web elements or page objects is the Selenium object repository. Instead of hard-coding locators and element identifiers into test scripts, it entails storing them all in a single repository. The repository’s decoupling of element locators from test scripts facilitates scalability, maintainability, and reuse. The difficulties of locating elements on web sites are abstracted away by test scripts, which use logical names or identifiers to reference elements from the repository. Because adjustments to element locators can be done centrally in the repository without requiring changes to test scripts, this method makes updating them easier. By implementing the Selenium object repository, test automation becomes more dependable and efficient by improving readability of test scripts, minimizing code duplication, and streamlining maintenance procedures.

    43. In Selenium WebDriver, how are JavaScript alarms handled?

    Ans:

    The `Alert` interface in Selenium WebDriver is used to manage JavaScript notifications, which are alarms, prompts, and confirmations. WebDriver uses the `switchTo().alert()} method to shift the focus to the alert when a JavaScript alert is triggered during test execution. Once the alert is in focus, you can interact with it in a number of ways. For instance, the `accept()` function clicks the “OK” button to accept the alert, whereas the `getText()` method obtains the text that is presented in the alert. As an alternative, you can click the “Cancel” button by using {dismiss()}. JavaScript alarms can be handled with flexibility by WebDriver, allowing testers to efficiently handle them in their automation scripts. This feature guarantees that alarms are interacted with seamlessly during test execution, enabling thorough test coverage and precise validation of the behavior of the application.

    44. What are axes in XPath? How are they applied in Selenium?

    Ans:

    Axes in XPath are used to navigate the HTML or XML document structure with respect to the currently selected node. XPath offers the following axes: descendant, ancestor, sibling, child, parent, and attribute axes. These axes offer an effective way to choose elements according to how they relate to other elements in the document hierarchy. XPath axes are frequently used in Selenium to locate web components more accurately and effectively. To discover immediate child elements of a parent element, for instance, use the child axis ({/}); to locate all descendant elements, regardless of depth in the document tree, use the descendant axis ({//}). 

    45. What does TestNG’s “@DataProvider” annotation mean?

    Ans:

    Test automation using TestNG’s `@DataProvider} annotation to dynamically give test data to test functions. Annotating a test method with {@DataProvider` denotes that the method is in charge of supplying data to the related test method. Usually, the test data is returned by the `@DataProvider} method as a {Iterator` or two-dimensional array. A set of input parameters for a single test invocation is represented by each row of the array or each item in the iterator. TestNG repeatedly calls the `@Test` method throughout test execution, providing distinct input data from the {@DataProvider{ each time. 

    46. How does Selenium WebDriver manage cookies from browsers?

    Ans:

    Mineral Selenium Through techniques including adding, removing, retrieving, and altering cookies during test automation, WebDriver controls cookies in web browsers. WebDriver allows testers to mimic different scenarios pertaining to cookie-based functionalities in online applications, as well as create and remove cookies. With this feature, testers may guarantee the dependability and efficiency of online applications in a variety of cookie-related circumstances.

    47. What distinguishes the Selenium driver.quit() and driver.close() methods from one another?

    Ans:

    While `driver.close()} closes only the active browser window or tab without ending the WebDriver session, leaving other windows or tabs open for additional testing, `driver.quit()} in Selenium WebDriver terminates the WebDriver session entirely by closing all browser windows associated with it and ending the WebDriver process running in the background. Comprehending this differentiation is crucial for effectively handling browser instances via automated testing scripts.

    48. How is database testing carried out with Selenium WebDriver?

    Ans:

    Although Selenium WebDriver doesn’t communicate with databases directly, it can be used in conjunction with JDBC libraries or database testing tools to verify data that is stored in databases and accessed through web applications. This usually entails executing commands in the web application using Selenium WebDriver, querying the database, and then confirming that the user interface of the application appropriately reflects the modifications made to the database.

    49. Describe what headless browser testing ?

    Ans:

    When online tests are conducted without a graphical user interface (GUI), or while there isn’t a visible browser window during test execution, this is referred to as headless browser testing. Rather, the browser runs in a headless mode that enables programmatic interaction between web pages and automated tests. Since there is no overhead associated with producing images, this method has various benefits, such as faster test execution, increased scalability, and better resource utilization. For continuous integration and deployment pipelines, where quick and effective test execution is essential, headless browser testing is very helpful.

    50. What are Selenium WebDriver’s limitations?

    Ans:

    Although Selenium WebDriver is an effective tool for online automation testing, users should be aware of its limitations. One important drawback is that WebDriver is particularly meant for web browser automation; it cannot handle non-web-based applications, such desktop or mobile apps. Furthermore, Selenium WebDriver has trouble automating some web element types, particularly those that are enclosed in iframes or shadow DOMs. This can occasionally cause problems when attempting to locate and interact with elements. The inability to handle CAPTCHA problems natively is another drawback that may impede automated testing procedures. Moreover, WebDriver’s functionality may change between browsers and operating systems, which could cause irregularities in the speed and stability of test execution. 

    51. Why are the annotations “@BeforeSuite” and “@AfterSuite” used in TestNG?

    Ans:

    TestNG annotations {@BeforeSuite} and `@AfterSuite} are used to identify methods that run before and after the whole test suite, respectively. They are employed for duties related to setup and teardown at the suite level, guaranteeing uniformity in the initialization and cleanup of test environments for every test in the suite.

    52. In Selenium WebDriver, how is JavaScript code executed?

    Ans:

    `executeScript()` is the method used in Selenium WebDriver to execute JavaScript code. Via the use of a string argument, this technique enables testers to execute JavaScript code in the context of the browser. The flexibility it offers allows you to handle dynamic information, manipulate the DOM, and interact with elements—tasks that WebDriver’s native capabilities might not always be able to accomplish. Test automation can now more effectively handle a wider range of testing scenarios thanks to WebDriver’s ability to execute JavaScript.

    53. What function does a TestNG listener serve in the automation of Selenium?

    Ans:

    TestNG listeners offer hooks to interrupt and alter the test execution process in Selenium automation. They conduct tasks including keeping an eye on how tests are being executed, recording test results, acting on test results, and dynamically constructing test environments. Testers may now incorporate additional functionality like parallel execution, dynamic test configuration, and retrying failed tests thanks to listeners. TestNG listeners, in general, improve the adaptability and personalization of Selenium automation testing procedures.

    54. How is synchronization in Selenium WebDriver handled?

    Ans:

    Time Alignment in Selenium Errors are prevented via WebDriver, which makes sure automation scripts only interact with web elements when they’re in the desired state. WebDriver provides waits that are implicit, explicit, and fluid. Explicit waits provide more precise control by waiting for predefined situations, whereas implicit waits establish a global timeout. With variable polling intervals and exception handling, fluid waits offer flexibility. Test stability is improved by these strategies, which provide consistent and dependable interaction with site elements.

    55. What benefits come with automating testing with TestNG?

    Ans:

    Strong assertion capabilities for reliable validations, support for parallel test execution to cut down on test time, comprehensive reporting for insights into test results, and smooth integration with build and CI/CD tools for streamlined automation workflows are just a few advantages of automating testing with TestNG. All things considered, TestNG improves software quality, test coverage, and efficiency.

    56. How can logging be configured in Selenium WebDriver?

    Ans:

    Log4j or java.util.logging are two logging frameworks that can be integrated into the project’s dependencies to configure logging in Selenium WebDriver. An XML file or a properties file (such as log4j.properties) can be used to customize logging levels, appenders, and formats after integration. Then, to record information like test steps, errors, and warnings, log statements can be included at pertinent places throughout the test script. Together with improving teamwork, this makes it possible to debug, analyze, and report test results more effectively.

    57. What distinguishes Selenium’s findElement() and findElements() functions from one another?

    Ans:

    Using the designated locator technique, the Selenium WebDriver `findElement()` function locates a single web element on a page and returns the first element that matches. On the other hand, the `findElements()` function finds several web elements that meet the locator strategy and provides a list of all the items on the page that match. Because of this behavioral variation, testers can handle one or more elements appropriately in their automation scripts.

    58. How does Selenium WebDriver handle multiple frames?

    Ans:

    The `switchTo().frame()` method in Selenium WebDriver facilitates the handling of numerous frames by enabling users to shift the WebDriver’s focus to distinct frames. Testers can browse among nested frames inside a web page using this function, which accepts a number of parameters, including frame index, frame name, or frame WebElement. After being switched to a particular frame, WebDriver acts as though the context were inside that frame, enabling interaction with its elements. By guaranteeing appropriate element display and interaction within each frame, this feature makes it possible to test web pages using frames in an efficient manner.

    59. What benefits does TestNG offer in comparison to JUnit?

    Ans:

    • Flexible Test Configuration: TestNG gives testers a great deal of flexibility in configuring test behavior and execution by using listeners, XML files, and annotations.
    • Support for Parallel Execution: TestNG comes with built-in support for parallel test case execution, which speeds up test execution and makes better use of available resources.
    • TestNG comes with built-in support for data-driven testing via data providers, which makes it simple for testers to parameterize test methods and run them using various input data sets.
    • Dependent Test Execution: TestNG gives you more control over the test flow by enabling you to run test methods in a predetermined order or according to dependencies between test methods.
    • Rich Reporting: To help with result analysis and troubleshooting, TestNG provides extensive HTML reports that include specific information about test execution, including test results, logs, and screenshots.

    60. With Selenium WebDriver, how do you use the Actions class to execute mouse actions?

    Ans:

    • The WebDriver instance is passed as a parameter to create an instance of the Actions class.
    • To conduct mouse operations, use the different methods that the operations class provides, such as “moveToElement(),” “click(),” “doubleClick(),” “contextClick(),” etc.
    • If necessary, chain several actions together to carry out intricate interactions.
    • To combine all of the actions into a single composite action, use the build() method.
    • Lastly, to carry out the composite operation, utilize the perform() method.
    Course Curriculum

    Develop Your Skills with QA Automation Certification Training

    Weekday / Weekend BatchesSee Batch Details

    61. Why are the annotations “@BeforeMethod” and “@AfterMethod” used in TestNG?

    Ans:

    TestNG allows you to annotate methods that should run before and after each test method within a test class with the “@BeforeMethod” and “@AfterMethod” annotations, respectively. With the help of these annotations, test methods can be executed with preconditions (e.g., initializing test data, opening the browser) and post-execution cleanups (e.g., shutting the browser, releasing resources) carried out afterwards.

    62. In Selenium WebDriver, how are SSL certificate failures handled?

    Ans:

    By utilizing the setAcceptInsecureCerts(true) method to configure the WebDriver instance to accept insecure certificates, Selenium WebDriver users can handle SSL certificate failures. This enables WebDriver to operate on websites with faulty or self-signed SSL certificates by avoiding SSL certificate validation issues.

    63. Which kinds of waits are possible in Selenium WebDriver?

    Ans:

    • Implicit Waits: When set using the ‘implicitlyWait()’ function, implicit waits tell WebDriver not to raise an exception until after a predetermined length of time has passed and all elements have been found.
    • Explicit Waits: WebDriver can wait for a certain condition to be satisfied before executing a test thanks to the implementation of WebDriverWait and ExpectedConditions.
    • Fluent Waits: By specifying polling intervals and disregarding particular exceptions during the wait period, fluid waits offer greater flexibility when waiting for items.

    64. In Selenium WebDriver, how are dynamic web elements handled?

    Ans:

    Explicit waits are usually used in Selenium WebDriver to manage dynamic web components. WebDriverWait is a feature of WebDriver that lets you pause test execution until a certain condition is satisfied. WebDriver makes sure the test script waits until the element becomes available before acting on it by letting you specify the criteria to wait for (for example, an element must be visible, clickable, or present).

    65. What does Selenium WebDriver’s WebElement mean?

    Ans:

    Selenium’s WebElement A single element on a web page is represented by a WebDriver. It’s an interface that lets you do things like click, transmit keys, get text, and more to interact with web objects. WebDriver’s findElement() method is used to retrieve instances of WebElements by providing a locator strategy (such as ID, class name, or XPath) that uniquely identifies the element on the page.

    66. How can drag and drop actions be executed in Selenium using the Actions class?

    Ans:

    You can use the activities class in Selenium WebDriver to perform drag and drop activities. Make an instance of the Actions class first, then utilize its dragAndDrop() function with the source and target items specified. As an alternative, you can click on the source element using clickAndHold(), move to the destination element using moveToElement(), then release the mouse button using release(). By combining these techniques, Selenium WebDriver’s drag and drop functionality is enhanced, making it possible for testers to automate interactions with web page elements.

    67. Why are the annotations “@BeforeClass” and “@AfterClass” used in TestNG?

    Ans:

    In TestNG, the annotations @BeforeClass and @AfterClass are used to indicate which methods should be executed first and which should come last among all the test methods in a test class. The @BeforeClass-annotated method, which is usually used for setup chores like initializing resources, executes once before any of the test methods in the class. On the other hand, the method marked with @AfterClass, which is usually used for teardown operations like releasing resources or cutting connections, executes once after all test methods in the class have completed.

    68. How is keyboard input handled in Selenium WebDriver?

    Ans:

    Managing Keyboard Input in Selenium WebDriver: The Actions class, which offers methods for carrying out keyboard actions including key presses, key releases, and key combinations, can be used to manage keyboard input in Selenium WebDriver. The Actions class’s sendKeys() function can be used to carry out these operations by providing the required keyboard key combinations as inputs.

    69. What are the benefits of running tests with TestNG?

    Ans:

    • Flexible Test Configuration: Using XML configuration files or annotations, TestNG enables flexible configuration of test methods, test suites, dependencies, and parallel execution settings.
    • Comprehensive Assertions: TestNG makes it simpler to create reliable test scripts by offering a large variety of assertion techniques for confirming test results.
    • Test priority: TestNG facilitates test method priority, allowing important tests to be run first for quicker feedback.
    • TestNG facilitates the execution of tests in parallel across several threads or processes, which speeds up test execution and lowers the total test execution time.
    • Reporting and Logging: TestNG creates thorough test reports and logs that offer insights into the outcomes of test execution and facilitate the prompt identification of problems.
    • Integration with Other Tools: TestNG improves the entire testing ecosystem by integrating easily with reporting frameworks like ExtentReports and build automation tools like Maven and Jenkins.

    70. In TestNG, how do you carry out assertion?

    Ans:

    In TestNG, assertions are executed via the `Assert` class’s assertion methods. Using these techniques, testers can confirm expected conditions while running tests. `assertEquals()}, `assertTrue()}, `assertFalse()}, `assertNotNull()}, and other examples are among them.

    71. How can you use TestNG to run several test cases simultaneously?

    Ans:

    TestNG’s parallel execution configuration enables the execution of many test cases concurrently. This can be done by parallelizing test classes or methods using annotations like `@DataProvider} and `@Factory}, or by setting the `parallel} attribute in the TestNG XML configuration file.

    72. Why are the annotations “@BeforeTest” and “@AfterTest” used in TestNG?

    Ans:

    Within a {} tag in the TestNG XML configuration file, setup and takedown procedures that run before and after executing all test methods are defined using the `@BeforeTest` and `@AfterTest` annotations in TestNG. Pre-test initialization (e.g., configuring test data, initializing resources) and post-test cleanup (e.g., releasing resources, disconnecting connections) can be accomplished with the help of these annotations.

    73. What is the process for taking screenshots in Selenium WebDriver?

    Ans:

    The ‘getScreenshotAs()’ function offered by the ‘TakesScreenshot’ interface can be used to take screenshots in Selenium WebDriver. Using this technique, the browser window’s current state is saved as a file. Then, using file handling libraries, you store this file to a designated destination. Taking screenshots can be useful for producing test reports and debugging.

    74. What function does Selenium WebDriver’s JavaScriptExecutor serve?

    Ans:

    JavaScriptExecutor Function: JavaScript code can be executed in the context of the open browser window using Selenium WebDriver’s ‘JavaScriptExecutor’ interface. Interaction with web elements that might not be immediately accessible through WebDriver’s built-in methods is made possible with this functionality. It is frequently used to do custom JavaScript functions, handle dynamic content, set attribute values, and scroll.

    75. How can the existence of an element in Selenium WebDriver be confirmed?

    Ans:

    Annotation of @DataProvider by TestNG: Test methods in TestNG are fed test data via the @DataProvider annotation. It lets you create a method for the data provider that returns test data as an Iterator or as a two-dimensional array. Test methods that include the annotation @Test(dataProvider = “dataProviderMethodName”) get data from the designated data provider method and run repeatedly, using distinct test data sets each time.

    76. How does Selenium WebDriver manage multiple windows?

    Ans:

    Managing Synchronization: Both implicit and explicit waits are used in Selenium WebDriver to control synchronization. WebDriver is instructed to wait for a predetermined amount of time before throwing a ‘NoSuchElementException’ by implicit waits, which establish a timeout for the duration of the session. When using explicit waits, conditions like “ExpectedConditions” are used to wait for a set of requirements to be fulfilled before starting the test. 

    77. What does TestNG’s “@DataProvider” annotation mean?

    Ans:

    Using the Actions class in Selenium WebDriver to Execute Keyboard Commands: The Actions class is used in Selenium WebDriver to carry out sophisticated user interactions like clicks, mouse movements, and keyboard commands. You can use the Actions classes sendKeys()’ method to execute keyboard commands by giving the desired keyboard keys as inputs. This makes it possible to “simulate” keyboard input activities including entering text, hitting keys, and using shortcut keys.

    78. How is synchronization in Selenium WebDriver handled?

    Ans:

    Managing JavaScript alarms: The Alert interface in Selenium WebDriver can be used to manage JavaScript alarms. WebDriver uses’switchTo()’ to move the focus to the alert.’alert()’ and offers functions to deal with the alert according to its type (alert, prompt, or confirmation), such as ‘getText()’, ‘accept()’, and ‘dismiss()’. This makes it possible for testers to gracefully handle JavaScript notifications while running tests.

    79. In Selenium WebDriver, how do you use the Actions class to execute keyboard commands?

    Ans:

    Using the Actions class in Selenium WebDriver to Execute Keyboard Commands: The Actions class is used in Selenium WebDriver to carry out sophisticated user interactions like clicks, mouse movements, and keyboard commands. You can use the Actions classessendKeys()’ method to execute keyboard commands by giving the desired keyboard keys as inputs. This makes it possible to “simulate” keyboard input activities including entering text, hitting keys, and using shortcut keys.

    80. In Selenium WebDriver, how are JavaScript alarms handled?

    Ans:

    Managing JavaScript alarms: The Alert interface in Selenium WebDriver can be used to manage JavaScript alarms. WebDriver uses’switchTo()’ to move the focus to the alert.’alert()’ and offers functions to deal with the alert according to its type (alert, prompt, or confirmation), such as ‘getText()’, ‘accept()’, and ‘dismiss()’. This makes it possible for testers to gracefully handle JavaScript notifications while running tests.

    QA Automation Sample Resumes! Download & Edit, Get Noticed by Top Employers! Download

    81. What benefits does TestNG offer in comparison to JUnit?

    Ans:

    TestNG is superior to JUnit in a number of ways. These include support for parameterized tests, the ability to manage dependencies between test methods, the ability to group test methods, the ability to execute test cases in parallel, and the ability to configure tests in a flexible way using XML files. Many organizations favor TestNG for test automation because of its built-in features, which include listeners, data sources, and reporting capabilities.

    82. In Selenium WebDriver, how are test reports generated?

    Ans:

    Creating Test Reports: Testing frameworks with integrated reporting features, such as TestNG or JUnit, are commonly used to generate test reports for Selenium WebDriver. By default, TestNG provides HTML reports that include comprehensive details about the execution of the test, such as the test methods, status (pass/fail/skip), execution time, and exceptions. For more sophisticated and configurable reporting options, you may also combine TestNG with additional tools like ExtentReports or Allure.

    83. What distinguishes the Selenium driver.quit() and driver.close() methods from one another?

    Ans:

    In Selenium WebDriver, there are two distinct uses for the driver.quit() and driver.close() functions. To end the current browser session, including all windows and tabs that the WebDriver instance has opened, use the driver.quit() function. It essentially ends the automation session by closing the WebDriver session and releasing all related resources. However, other windows or tabs opened by the WebDriver instance remain open when driver.close() is used to close the browser window or tab that is presently focused. It ends the active browsing context but leaves the WebDriver session open so that you can continue interacting with any open windows or tabs.

    84. How are dropdowns handled in Selenium WebDriver?

    Ans:

    The Select class in Selenium WebDriver is used to handle dropdowns, and the findElement() function in WebDriver is used to locate the element. The located element is then passed as an argument when a Select class instance is constructed. Finally, selectByVisibleText(), selectByValue(), and selectByIndex() can be used to choose dropdown items.

    85. Why are the annotations “@BeforeMethod” and “@AfterMethod” used in TestNG?

    Ans:

    TestNG allows you to write setup and takedown methods that run before and after each test method within a test class using the @BeforeMethod and @AfterMethod annotations. These annotations make sure that the setup procedures are carried out prior to the execution of each test method and that the teardown procedures are carried out following the completion of each test method’s execution. Test independence and repeatability can be ensured by doing cleanup tasks after each test method and initializing resources and conditions beforehand.

    86. In Selenium WebDriver, how are SSL certificate failures handled?

    Ans:

    You can configure the Selenium WebDriver instance to accept insecure SSL certificates in order to resolve SSL certificate problems. This can be done by configuring the appropriate behavior using browser-specific options or capabilities. For instance, you can utilize ChromeOptions in ChromeDriver to enable the WebDriver instance to overcome SSL certificate validation problems by setting the acceptInsecureCerts capability to true.

    87. Which kinds of waits are possible in Selenium WebDriver?

    Ans:

    Driver is used to set implicit waits.timeouts() in manage().It tells WebDriver to wait a predetermined length of time before delivering a NoSuchElementException implicitlyWait().

    Explicit Waits: WebDriver can wait for a specific condition to be satisfied before moving on to the next stage when this feature is implemented using WebDriverWait. The ExpectedConditions class can be used to define conditions.

    Fluent Waits: FluentWait is a more flexible alternative to explicit waits, allowing users to specify the polling frequency and exceptions to be ignored throughout the wait time.

    Thread.sleep(): This script introduces a static wait by stopping the execution for a predetermined period of time, although it is not advised because of its static nature.

    88. What are the steps involved in automating security testing with tools such as OWASP ZAP?

    Ans:

    The process of automating security testing with tools like OWASP ZAP typically unfolds through a series of steps:

    • You prepare the testing environment and configure the tool to scan the target web application.
    • You delineate the test’s scope, specifying the URLs to be scanned and the specific security checks to be executed. Subsequently, you initiate the automated scan, during which OWASP ZAP scrutinizes the application for diverse security vulnerabilities. 
    • Upon completion, you review the scan results, identifying any detected issues and prioritizing them for remediation.
    • You may need to adjust the tool’s settings iteratively and rerun the scan to ensure thorough coverage.

    89. Can you elaborate on the typical security weaknesses assessed through automation?

    Ans:

    Automated security testing tools such as OWASP ZAP are adept at uncovering a broad spectrum of security weaknesses in web applications. These encompass prevalent vulnerabilities like SQL injection, cross-site scripting (XSS), insecure direct object references, security misconfigurations, sensitive data exposure, as well as flaws in authentication and session management. By automating the testing process, these tools efficiently pinpoint these vulnerabilities by emulating various attack scenarios and analyzing the application’s responses.

    90. Could you outline some recommended approaches for automating security testing within web applications?

    Ans:

    • Adhering to best practices is paramount for achieving effective outcomes in automating security testing for web applications. Firstly, formulate a robust testing strategy by delineating clear objectives, defining the testing scope, and selecting appropriate tools. 
    • Secondly, integrate security testing seamlessly into the software development lifecycle (SDLC) to detect vulnerabilities early on and continually bolster security measures. Thirdly, prioritize vulnerabilities based on their severity and potential impact on the application’s security posture. 

    Are you looking training with Right Jobs?

    Contact Us
    Get Training Quote for Free