Top Ethical Hacking Interview Question & Answer [SCENARIO BASED]
Last updated on 08th Jun 2020, Blog, Interview Questions
Ethical hacking and ethical hacker are terms used to describe hacking performed by a company or individual to help identify potential threats on a computer or network. An ethical hacker attempts to bypass system security and search for any weak points that could be exploited by malicious hackers.Ethical hackers are hired by organizations to look into the vulnerabilities of their systems and networks and develop solutions to prevent data breaches.
1. What is the operating system that is commonly used for hacking?
- Parrot Security OS
- Samurai web testing framework
- DEFT Linux
- Network Security Toolkit
- Kali Linux
- Pentoo Linux
2. Who is a Hacker?
A hacker is a person who exploits the weakness and shortfalls in a computer system or network. This process can contain engaging in illegal activities like stealing private information, accessing and altering network configuration, sabotaging the user interface of the computer OS.
3. What is Ethical Hacking?
Ethical hacking is the process of intruding a network or a system to identify the threats or vulnerabilities present in them. This process enables us to fix the weaker areas of the systems or network in order to protect them from persons who try to attack them.
4. What are the different types of Hackers?
In the process of hacking, there are many types of hackers and ways of doing it. Below are some of them:
- White Hat Hackers
- Black Hat Hackers
- Grey Hat Hackers
- Blue Hat Hackers
- Elite Hackers
- Intelligence Agencies
- Organized Crime.
5. What are the steps performed by Hackers to hack a System or Network?
The steps performed by hackers to intrude systems or network are as follows:
- Reconnaissance: In this process, the hacker tries to gather user information and finds weak spots if present.
- Scanning and Enumeration: In this process, the hacker uses the gathered information to examine and test the network.
- Gaining Access: After successfully completing the first and second phases, the hacker has complete access to the System and Network.
- Maintaining the Access: As the hacker has breached your security access in the previous stage, he now tries to install some scripts and sees that he has total access to the computer in the future.
- Clearing Tracks: In this stage, the hacker tries to clear all the tracks and tries to escape from getting detected by security personnel.
6. What are the various sniffing tools available?
There are many sniffing tools available, all have their own features of gathering information and analyzing traffic. Some of the commonly used tools are listed below:
- MSN Sniffer
7. What is Spoofing?
Spoofing is the process of making communication by hiding the identity and acting as a trusted source. It is used to gain access to the target system and used to spread malware through harmful attachments or infected links. Spoofing can be done in many ways like:
- Phone calls
- IP address
- Domain Name System(DNS.
8. What is Phishing?
Phishing involves a process of contacting the target user by email, phone or text message and gathering sensitive information like credit card details, passwords, etc.
9. What is DDoS Attack?
“DDoS” or “Distributed Denial of Service” is explained as a malicious attempt to interrupt regular traffic of a targeted server or network by perfusing the target with a flood of internet traffic.
10. What are the types of DDoS attacks?
DDoS attacks are mainly of three types, they are:
- Application Layer Attacks
- Protocol Attacks
- Volumetric Attacks
11. What is SQL injection?
SQL injections is a web hacking technique used to destroy a database. It executes malicious SQL statements and controls a database server behind a web application. Hackers make use of these statements to bypass the security measures of the application.
12. What is the difference between Vulnerability Scanning and Penetration testing?
Both penetration testing and vulnerability scanning are powerful tools for monitoring and improving information security.
Let’s see the difference between them:
|Vulnerability scanning||Penetration Testing|
|This is an automated Test||This is an manual Test by a security professional|
|Detects and reports Vulnerabilities||Exploits Vulnerabilities and determines the type of access|
|Need to be done continously||Usually done once a year|
|This is an instructive method||This ia an non-instructive method|
13. What is Footprinting?
Footprinting is a process of gathering user data and finding ways to penetrate a target system. A hacker tries to collect all the information about the organization, host, network and people before intruding a network or a system.
14. What is Network Enumeration?
Extracting usernames, network resources, machine names and services from a system is known as Network Enumeration. This stage is crucial for an attacker to send direct queries and gain more information about the target by creating an active connection to the system.
15. What are the different types of penetration testing tools?
Accessing the security of IT systems is carried out by penetration testing. Here are some of the important tools to perform it:
- Burp Suite
16. Why do hackers use a keylogger?
Keylogger is a basic tool used by software companies to troubleshoot and check if there are any technical problems on their network or systems. But, hackers use these keyloggers to track the keystrokes of the user and gain access to their sensitive information.
17. What is RAnsomware?
RAnsomware is a type of malware, which restricts users from accessing their personal files or system and demands a ransom to regain access to them. Depending on the severity of the attack ransomware is categorized into three types, they are:
- Screen lockers
- Encrypting ransomware
18. What is Cryptojacking?
Malicious crypto mining or Cryptojacking is a type of online threat which uses the machine resources to mine forms of digital money known as cryptocurrency. This process can be carried out on a mobile device or on a computer.
19. How to protect yourself from getting hacked?
There are many ways to protect your personal computer from getting hacked, some of the important ones are listed below:
- Try to update your OS frequently for security updates to stay protected from hackers.
- Format all the devices which you plan to sell as there is a chance of information getting into other hands.
- Secure your wifi with a password and do not let it be open to others.
- Choose your security Answer Wars creatively.
- Choose a smart way of emailing as the phishing campaigns are still live.
- Keep your sensitive information away from the cloud.
20. What is Adware?
Adware is a type of unwanted software created to show advertisements automatically onto your desktop or mobile screens. These appear mostly while using a web browser on a computer system or a mobile.
21. What is Data Breach?
Data breach comes under the process of a Cyberattack that enables cybercriminals to get unauthorized entry to a computer or a network. This allows them to steal private, confidential, sensitive and financial data of customers or existing users.
Most common attacks followed by cybercriminals are:
- Misconfigured or Broken access controls.
22. What is MIB?
Management Information Base(MIB. is a group of network objects which are manageable. These objects are a logical form of Physical networking components which are Simple Network Management Protocol(SNMP)Enabled. MIB’s store information about software versions, available storage disk space, IP address or port number.
23. What are different types of password cracking techniques?
There are mainly five types of password cracking techniques, they are:
- Hybrid attack
- Rainbow table attack
- Brute Force attack
- Syllable attack
- Rule attack
24. What are the different types of spoofing?
Different types of Spoofing attacks are:
- IP Spoofing Attack.
- DNS Spoofing Attack.
- Media Access Control (MAC.
- ARP Spoofing Attack.
25. What is Cowpatty?
Cowpatty is reliant on C-language which is used to run a brute-force dictionary attack against protected wi-fi protocols such as WPA-PSK and audit pre-shared WPA keys.
26. What are the best programming languages for Hacking?
Best programming languages useful for ethical hacking are:
- C- language
27. What is a Script kiddie?
A script kiddie is someone who lacks basic skills of programming knowledge and makes use of simple software to perform an attack on a computer.
28. What is XSS or Cross-Site Scripting?
29. What are an SSL session and SSL connection?
Secured Socket Layer(SSL. is a peer to peer communication system in which each connection is related to one SSL session. Whereas, an SSL session is defined as a link between the client and server basically created by the handshake protocol.
30. List some components used in SSL?
SSL is used for providing secure connection between server and a browser. Here are some of the components used in SSL:
- Change Cipher Spec
- Handshake protocol
- SSL record protocol
- Encryption Algorithms.
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31. Define Virus.
It is a malicious program which can copy itself and cause some destruction to the user, such as corrupting the system or destroying data.
32. What is meant by Malware?
All forms of viruses are referred with a generic term Malware which is malicious which executes without proper consent of the user or administrator.
33. What do you mean by SNMP?
SNMP Stands for Simple Network Management Protocol and Simple Transmission Control or Internet protocol. It’s used for managing routers, hosts, other network devices, and also for remote monitoring.
34. Define Spyware.
Spyware is a type of malware that will be used to spy an individual or an organization by the way of accessing the whole system, specific files from the file system, camera, voice or keylogging.
35. Define Worms.
A worm is a self-replicating malware that keeps on replicating inside the system as well as in a network.
36. What is meant by Vulnerability?
A vulnerability is a hole or threat in a system or software which allows a hacker to exploit and steal information or affect business continuity.
37. Define Exploit.
The act of taking advantage of the vulnerability and successfully hacking or compromising a vulnerable system or network and gaining its access or files.
38. What is a Threat?
A threat is a potential risk or danger that can exploit a vulnerability existing in the system or network.
39. Define Attack.
Attack is the act of scanning the vulnerability and exploiting it to gain access to the target system/software/file.
40. What is meant by Back door?
Back door is the act of creating and maintaining unauthorized access to the compromised systems.
41. What is a Bot?
A bot is a script/program/software created to attack faster than humans.
42. What is meant by Botnet?
A botnet is a network of Bots (compromised targets of a hacker. which will be used as a source for Dos or DDos attacks.
43. Define Brute force attack.
A brute force attack is normally used to guess username or password by the way of trying all the possible combinations of alphabets, numbers and special characters.
44. Define Buffer Overflow attack.
Buffer Overflow is an error which occurs when the size of data injected to the buffer is greater than the allocated buffer size.
45. Who is a Cracker?
A cracker is a hacker who modifies the software to gain access to some or all of the features which are available in different paid/licensed versions leading to software piracy.
46. What is meant by Denial of service attack (DoS.?
This attack is an offensive attempt to make a server or a network device to deny its service (say HTTP/HTTPS. to the legitimate users, by flooding a huge wave of traffic to it.
47. What is Mac Flooding?
Mac Flooding is a technique where the security of a given network switch is compromised. In Mac flooding the hacker or attacker floods the switch with a large number of frames, then what a switch can handle. This makes the switch behave as a hub and transmits all packets at all the ports. Taking the advantage of this the attacker will try to send his packet inside the network to steal the sensitive information.
48. What is a Firewall?
Firewall is a software program or a hardware device that basically acts as a filter to configure rules which allows or denies the desired traffic by way of protecting the organizations perimeter from outside attacks.
49. What is meant by Social engineering?
Social engineering is the practice of tricking someone with the determination of gaining personal and sensitive information, like usernames and passwords or credit card details.
50. What is a Spam?
A Spam is unintended information or Ads or marketing messages which are sent as email or SMS to a large number of users without their consent.
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51. Explain what a Brute Force Hack is?
52. What is meant by SQL Injection?
SQL injection is a technique or attack which uses malicious inputs to bypass a query which can be username or password or any input which uses SQL statements to query the database.
53. Define Cross-site Scripting.
Cross-site scripting (XSS. is a type of web applications vulnerability which makes the attackers to inject client-side script into a compromised website viewed by the users.
54. Define Trojan.
A Trojan, or Trojan Horse is malware injected or modified inside a legitimate program or software which are available in unauthorized internet sources.
55. What is a Backdoor Trojan?
These Trojans create a backdoor on a computer. This allows an attacker to gain access to the computer and operate it remotely. The data can be uploaded from the target host to any public sites or sold in black markets. Or more malware can be uploaded to your device.
56. What is meant by Fake AV Trojan?
These Trojans behave like antivirus software and request users to pay money to detect and remove viruses which may be real or fake.
57. What is a Game-thief Trojan?
The target of these Trojans may be online gamers. These Trojans steal the account information and payment card information of the fellow gamers.
58. Define Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS. Trojans.
This Trojan executes DDoS attacks. The aim is to bring down a network or system or service by flooding it with a large amount of traffic which cannot be handled by the target from different Trojan sources.
59. What is a Remote Access Trojan?
These types of Trojans enable the attacker to gain elevated access to the compromised targets to control it remotely and to spy using it.
60. What is an Infostealer Trojan?
These Trojans are used to steal personal and valuable information from the compromised hosts.
61. What is a Ransom Trojan?
This Trojan is designed in such a way that it locks or encrypts important or all the files available in the file system and demands a ransom of money to unlock or decrypt it.
62. What is a Mailfinder Trojan?
This Trojan finds and steals the emails stored anywhere in your computer even though the keyloggers. They are intended to sell those email ids to digital marketers or spammers.
63. What is a Downloader Trojan?
This type of Trojans target compromised or infected computers to download and install new malware or updates of the already available malware and adware with their newer versions.
64. What is meant by scanning?
Scanning is the process of identifying IPs of Hosts in the network, it’s corresponding open TCP/UDP ports, protocol version, OS details etc., using some tools.
65. What are the types of Scanning?
- Network Scanning
- Port Scanning
- Vulnerability Scanning
66. List any tools used for hacking?
- Burp Suite
67. List common DoS Attacks?
- SYN Flooding
- ICMP Flooding
- Buffer Overflow
- Smurf Attack
68. What are the different types of spoofing attacks?
- ARP Spoofing
- IP Spoofing
- DNS Spoofing
69. What is a crypto miner?
Cryptominer is a malware which mines cryptocurrency. It is a malware which is created to use or steal a computer’s hardware resources of the target or infected system for cryptocurrency mining without any prior knowledge of the user.
70. What do you mean by Port scanning in ethical hacking?
Port scanning is one of the techniques used in reconnaissance. It’s used to identify the vulnerabilities and threats which are exploited by hackers.
71. Difference Between Vulnerability and Exploit?
Vulnerability is the weakness in the system, Exploit is successful attack using the vulnerability
72. What is Encryption?
Process of converting human-readable content to unreadable junk values using special keys
73. What is Encoding?
Process of converting human-readable content to unreadable junk values using a special algorithm
74. What are the steps in hacking?
- Information gathering
- Covering Tracks
75. What is a DOS attack?
This attack is used to make the network/system resource not available to the service provider or user
76. Explain what is DHCP Rogue Server?
A Rogue DHCP server is DHCP server on a network which is not under the control of administration of network staff. Rogue DHCP Server can be a router or modem. It will offer users IP addresses , default gateway, WINS servers as soon as user’s logged in. Rogue server can sniff into all the traffic sent by client to all other networks.
77. What is sniffing?
Sniffing a process of monitoring the network traffic without the knowledge of the actual user
78. What is the difference between encryption and hashing?
|Encryption is reversible||Hashing is irreversible|
|Encryption ensures confidentiality||Hashing ensures integrity|
79. What is the CIA Triangle?
- Confidentiality : Keeping the information secret.
- Integrity : Keeping the information unaltered.
- Availability: Information is available to the authorized parties at all times
80. How can you avoid or prevent ARP poisoning?
ARP poisoning is a form of network attack that can be mitigated through the following methods:
- Use packet filtering: Packet filters can filter out and block packets with conflicting source address information.
- Avoid trust relationships: Organizations should develop a protocol that relies on trust relationships as little as possible.
- Use ARP spoofing detection software: Some programs inspect and certify data before it is transmitted and blocks data that is spoofed.
- Use cryptographic network protocols: ARP spoofing attacks can be mitigated by the use of secure protocols such as SSH, TLS and HTTPS which send data encrypted before transmission and after reception.
81. What are SQL injection and its types?
- Blind SQL injection
- Time-based SQL injection
- Error-based SQL injection
- ARP Spoofing Attack.
- DNS Spoofing Attack.
- IP Spoofing Attack.
82. What is PGP?
PGP is pretty good privacy used for email security
83. What is port 20, 21 used for?
File Transfer Protocol (FTP.
84. What is STRIDE?
Spoofing, Tampering, Reputation, Information Disclosure, Denial of Service, Elevation of Privilege.
85. What is a Sniffing attack?
Sniffing is a procedure used by hackers to monitor and capture all the network packets with the help of sniffing tools. For example, this process is similar to tapping a phone call and listening to the ongoing conversation.
85. What are the benefits and drawbacks of hacking?
- Used for foiling the security attacks.
- It helps to prevent any type of data theft.
- Easy to plug the loopholes and bugs.
- It prevents any type of malicious attack.
- A lot of massive security issues are created.
- It includes stealing valuable and private information from users.
- You have to violate a lot of privacy regulations to perform hacking.
- Accessing the system in an unauthorized way.
86. Mention a few of the cyber attacks?
- Denial of Service attacks
- Drive-by downloads
- Rogue software
- Password attacks
- Main in the Middle
87. How can you stay protected from hackers?
There are some steps you can take for protecting your network or system from hacking. Some of them include:
- Formatting your device or system that you are going to sell.
- Making use of tough and memorable security answers
- By not keeping the sensitive and valuable data on the cloud.
- Updating each time your operating system when there are new security updates.
- Having a strong password for your Wi-Fi
- Every time you make use of the trusted source when emailing or replying them.
88. Explain what is Pharming and Defacement?
- Pharming: In this technique the attacker compromises the DNS ( Domain Name System) servers or on the user computer so that traffic is directed to a malicious site
- Defacement: In this technique the attacker replaces the organization website with a different page. It contains the hackers name, images and may even include messages and background music
89. Mention some of the hacking types in detail?
There are different types of hacking namely:
- Network hacking: In this type of hacking, hackers gather data about computers or networks with the help of tools like ping, Telnet, etc. They harm the operations of the system or networks and then block its operations.
- Password hacking: In this hacking, the hackers recover all secret passwords from the information stored in the network or computer.
- Website hacking: the hackers access the web servicer, their interfaces, databases, and other relevant software in an unauthorized way and make few changes to the data.
- Computer hacking: In this type of hacking, hackers access the network or system in an unauthorized way and steal the computer ID, password, and other data through different hacking techniques.
- Email hacking: In this type of hacking, hackers access the email account of the owner in an unauthorized way.
90. What are the stages of hacking?
There are five phases in the hacking process namely
- Reconnaissance: The primary process in which the hackers try to gather all data about the targeted system or network.
- Scanning: The data collected during the primary phase is used to identify and examine the targeted network or system. The hacker makes use of automated tools like vulnerability scanners, mappers, and port scanners in this scanning phase.
- Obtaining access: The phase of real hacking is gaining access. The hackers try to identify the vulnerabilities determined in the primary phase and scanning phase to acquire access.
- Maintaining access: Once the access is obtained, the hackers store them for future exploitation. They use trojans, rootkits, and backdoors to secure their access.
- Covering tracks: after gaining and maintaining access, the hackers carefully cover their traces and tracks to avoid finding them. It enables them to avoid legal actions and continue using the hacked system.
91. What is scanning?
Scanning is a collection of procedures for detecting the services, ports, and hosts attached to a system or network. It is one of the important components for gathering data. It enables the hacker to make a profile on the organization’s website to be hacked. There are three different types of scanning namely
92. Mention the difference between Mac and IP addresses?
- MAC address: MAC stands for Machine Access Control, it’s one of the serial numbers provided to all interfaces in a network on every device. The serial number stays unique for each device. It can be compared to your physical mailbox.
- IP address: Every device is allocated with an IP address so that it’s easy to locate them on any network. Ip address is compared to the postal address.
93. What do you mean by footprinting?
Footprinting means uncovering or collecting all data about the targeted system or network before trying to acquire access.
94. Mention the hacking techniques used in footprinting?
- Open source foot printing: in this type of technique, the hackers search for the contact information of the admin. It’s used later for identifying the right passwords in social engineering.
- Network enumeration: In this type of technique, the hacker tries to find out the network blocks and domain names of the targeted system or network.
- Scanning: once the network is identified, the hacker spy on the targeted network or system active IP address.
- Stack Fingerprinting: The last foot printing technique which is used once the host and port are mapped with each other.
95. How can a network sniffing be used for ethical and unethical purposes?
The network administrator makes use of the sniffers as an analysis and network monitoring tool. When it comes to unethical usage, it’s used by cybercriminals for identifying the targeted computer or system email, usurpation, and for sensitive data hijacking.
96. What do you mean by the DOS attack?
DOS stands for Denial of Service, it’s a malicious network conducted on a system or network. It’s executed by network flooding with tons of traffic that is of no use. The attack is not a serious threat to security breaches or information but it can cost a large amount of time and money to the website owner.
97. What are the different forms of DOS attacks?
The DOS attack can be a:
- SYN attack
- Smurf attack
- Buffer overflow attack
- Teardrop attack
98. Explain what is NTP?
To synchronize clocks of networked computers, NTP (Network Time Protocol) is used. For its primary means of communication UDP port 123 is used. Over the public internet NTP can maintain time to within 10 milliseconds.
99. What are the programs used for hacking?
- Metasploit by Rapid7
- Cain and Abel hacking software
- Hydra hacking software
- Nessus vulnerability scanner
- Kali Linux penetration software.
100. Mention different hacking attack types?
- Denial of Service
- Fake WAP
- Clickjacking attacks
- Waterhole attacks
- Virus, Trojan, and more.