25+ Manual Testing Interview Questions & Answers [SURE SHOT]
Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers

25+ Manual Testing Interview Questions & Answers [SURE SHOT]

Last updated on 03rd Jul 2020, Blog, Interview Questions

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These Manual Testing Interview Questions have been designed specially to get you acquainted with the nature of questions you may encounter during your interview for the subject of Manual Testing . As per my experience good interviewers hardly plan to ask any particular question during your interview, normally questions start with some basic concept of the subject and later they continue based on further discussion and what you answer.we are going to cover top 100 Manual Testing  Interview questions along with their detailed answers. We will be covering Manual Testing  scenario based interview questions, Manual Testing  interview questions for freshers as well as Manual Testing  interview questions and answers for experienced. 

Q1. How does quality control differ from quality assurance?



    Quality control is a product-oriented approach of running a program to determine if it has any defects, as well as making sure that the software meets all of the requirements put forth by the stakeholders

Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach that focuses on making sure that the methods, techniques, and processes used to create quality deliverables are applied correctly.

Q2. What is Software Testing?


Software Testing is a process used to identify the correctness, completeness and the quality of developed software. It includes a series of activities conducted with the intent of finding errors in software so that it could be corrected before the product is released to the market.

Q3. Why is Software Testing Required?


Software testing is a mandatory process which guarantees that the software product is safe and good enough to be released to the market. Here are some compelling reasons to prove testing is needed:

It points out the defects and errors that were made during the development phases.

Reduces the coding cycles by identifying issues at the initial stage of the development.

Ensures that software application requires lower maintenance cost and results in more accurate, consistent and reliable results.

Testing ensures that the customer finds the organization reliable and their satisfaction in the application is maintained.

Makes sure that software is bug-free and quality of the product meets the market standard.

Ensures that the application doesnt result in any failures.

Q4. What are the two main categories of software testing?


      Software testing is a huge domain but it can be broadly categorized into two areas such as :

Manual Testing – Manual Testing is the oldest type of software testing where the testers manually execute test cases without using any test automation tools. It means the software application is tested manually by QA testers.

Automation Testing – Automation Testing is the process of using the assistance of tools, scripts, and software to perform test cases by repeating pre-defined actions. Test Automation focuses on replacing the manual human activity with systems or devices that enhance efficiency.

Q5. What exactly is quality control? Is it similar to Quality Assurance?


Quality control is a product-oriented approach of running a program to determine if it has any defects, as well as making sure that the software meets all of the requirements put forth by the stakeholders.

Q6. What different types of manual testing are there?


Different types of manual testing are;

  • Black Box Testing
  • White Box Testing
  • Unit Testing
  • System Testing
  • Integration Testing
  • Acceptance Testing

Q7. Explain the difference between alpha testing and beta testing.


Alpha Testing – It is a type of software testing performed to identify bugs before releasing the product to real users or to the public. Alpha Testing is a type of user acceptance testing.

Beta Testing – It is performed by real users of the software application in a real environment. Beta Testing is also a type of user acceptance testing.

Q8. What are the different levels of manual testing?


      Four levels of manual testing are:

  • Unit testing – It is a way of testing the smallest piece of code referred to as a unit that can be logically isolated in a system. It is mainly focused on the functional correctness of the standalone module.
  • Integration Testing – It is a level of software testing where individual units are combined and tested to verify if they are working as they intend to when integrated. The main aim here is to test the interface between the modules.
  • System Testing – In system testing all the components of the software are tested as a whole in order to ensure that the overall product meets the requirements specified. There are dozens of types of system testing, including usability testing, regression testing, and functional testing.

Q9. What is a testbed in manual testing?


The testbed is an environment configured for testing. It is an environment used for testing an application, including the hardware as well as any software needed to run the program to be tested. It consists of hardware, software, network configuration, an application under test, other related software.

Q10. Explain the procedure for manual testing?


The manual testing process comprises the following steps:

  • Planning and Control
  • Analysis and Design
  • Implementation and Execution
  • Evaluating exit criteria and Reporting
  • Test Closure activities

Q11. What is the test case?



A test case is a document which has a set of conditions or actions that are performed on the software application in order to verify the expected functionality of the feature.

Test cases describe a specific idea that is to be tested, without detailing the exact steps to be taken or data to be used. For example, in a test case, you document something like Test if coupons can be applied on actual price.

Q12. What is API testing?


API testing is a type of software testing where application programming interfaces (APIs) are tested to determine if they meet expectations for functionality, reliability, performance, and security. In simple terms, API testing is intended to reveal bugs, inconsistencies or deviations from the expected behavior of an API.

Q13. Whats the difference between verification and validation in testing?


It is a static analysis technique. Here, testing is done without executing the code. Examples include – Reviews, Inspection, and walkthrough.

It is a dynamic analysis technique where testing is done by executing the code. Examples include functional and non-functional testing techniques.

Q14. Whats the difference between a bug and a defect?


A bug is a just fault in the software thats detected during testing time. A defect is a variance between expected results and actual results, detected by the developer after the product goes live.

Q15.What are the advantages of manual testing?


Merits of manual testing are:

  • It is a cheaper way of testing when compared to automated testing
  • Analysis of product from the point of view of the end-user is possible only with manual testing
  • GUI testing can be done more accurately with the help of manual testing as visual accessibility and preferences are difficult to automate
  • East to learn for new people who have just entered into testing
  • It is highly suitable for short-term projects when test-scripts are not going to be repeated and reused for thousands of times
  • Best suited when the project is at early stages of its development
  • Highly reliable, since automated tests can contain errors and missed bugs

Q16.What are the drawbacks of manual testing?


De-merits of manual testing are:

  • Highly susceptible to human error and are risky
  • Test types like load testing and performance testing are not possible manually
  • Regression tests are really time-consuming if they are done manually
  • Scope of manual testing is very limited when compared to automation testing
  • Not suitable in very large organizations and time-bounded projects

Q17. Whats the role of documentation in Manual Testing?


Documentation – Manual Testing Interview Questions – EdurekaDocumentation plays a critical role in achieving effective software testing. Details like requirement specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports, configurations, code changes, test plans, test cases, bug reports, user manuals, etc. should all be documented.

Documenting the test cases will facilitate you to estimate the testing effort you will need along with test coverage and tracking and tracing requirement. Some commonly applied documentation artifacts associated with software testing are:

  • Test Plan
  • Test Scenario
  • Test Case
  • Traceability Matrix

Q18. What is the difference between manual testing and automation testing?


      In manual testing, the accuracy, and reliability of test cases are low, as manual tests are more prone to human error.Automated testing, on the other hand, is more reliable as tools and scripts are used to perform tests.

The time required for manual testing is high as human resources perform all the tasks.

The time required is comparatively low as software tool execute the tests

In manual testing investment cost is low, but Return of Investment(ROI) is low as well.

In automation testing investment cost and Return of Investment, both are high.

Manual testing is preferred when the test cases are run once or twice. You can use test automation for Regression Testing, Performance Testing, Load Testing or highly repeatable functional test cases

Allows for human observation to find out any glitches. Therefore manual testing helps in improving the customer experience.

As there is no human observation involved, there is no guarantee of positive customer experience.

Q19. When should you opt for manual testing over automation testing?


There are a lot of cases when manual testing is best suited over automation testing, like:

  • Short-time projects: Automated tests are aimed at saving time and resources yet it takes time and resources to design and maintain them. For example, if you are building a small promotional website, it can be much more efficient to rely on manual testing.
  • Ad-hoc Testing: In ad-hoc testing, there is no specific approach. Ad-hoc testing is a totally unplanned method of testing where the understanding and insight of the tester is the only important factor. This can be achieved using manual testing.
  • Exploratory Test: This type of testing requires the testers knowledge, experience, analytical, logical skills, creativity, and intuition. So human involvement is important in exploratory testing.
  • Usability Testing: When performing usability testing, the tester needs to measure how user-friendly, efficient, or convenient the software or product is for the end-users. Human observation is the most important factor, so manual testing sounds seems more appropriate.

Q20. What are the phases involved in Software Testing Life Cycle?


The different phases involved in the software testing life cycle are:

Phases   Explanation

Requirement Analysis   QA team understands the requirement in terms of what we will testing &figure out the testable requirements.

Test Planning   In this phase, the test strategy is defined. Objective &the scope of the project is determined.

Test Case Development   Here, detailed test cases are defined and developed. The testing team also prepares the test data for testing.

Test Environment Setup   It is a setup of software and hardware for the testing teams to execute test cases.

Test Execution    It is the process of executing the code and comparing the expected and actual results.

Test Cycle Closure   It involves calling out the testing team member meeting &evaluating cycle completion criteria based on test coverage, quality, cost, time, critical business objectives, and software.

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    Q21. What is the difference between a bug, a defect and an error?


    Bug – A bug is a fault in the software thats detected during testing time. They occur because of some coding error and leads a program to malfunction. They may also lead to a functional issue in the product. These are fatal errors that could block a functionality, results in a crash, or cause performance bottlenecks

    Defect – A defect is a variance between expected results and actual results, detected by the developer after the product goes live. Defect is an error found AFTER the application goes into production. In simple terms, it refers to several troubles with the software products, with its external behavior or with its internal features.

    Error – An error is a mistake, misunderstanding, or misconception, on the part of a software developer. The category of developer includes software engineers, programmers, analysts, and testers. For example, a developer may misunderstand a design notation, or a programmer might type a variable name incorrectly – leads to an error. An error normally arises in software, it leads to change the functionality of the program.

    Q22. What makes a good test engineer?


    A software test engineer is a professional who determines how to create a process that would best test a particular product in the software industry. 

    A good test engineer should have a test to breakattitude, an ability to take the point of view of the customer

    Strong desire for quality and attention to minute details

    Tact and diplomacy to maintain a cooperative relationship with developers

    Ability to communicate with both technical (developers) and non-technical (customers, management) people 

    Prior experience in the software development industry is always a plus

    Ability to judge the situations and make important decisions to test high-risk areas of an application when time is limited

    Q23.What is regression testing? When to apply it?


    Testing of a previously tested program to ensure that defects have not been introduced or uncovered in unchanged areas of the software, as a result of the changes made is called Regression Testing.

    Regression Testing Process – What is regression testing – Edureka

    A regression test is a system-wide test whose main purpose is to ensure that a small change in one part of the system does not break existing functionality elsewhere in the system. It is recommended to perform regression testing on the occurrence of the following events:

    When new functionalities are added

    In case of change requirements

    When there is a defect fix

    When there are performance issues

    In case of environment changes

    When there is a patch fix

    Q24. What is the difference between system testing and integration testing?


    System Testing    Integration Testing

    System Testing tests the software application as a whole to check if the system is compliant with the user requirements

    Integration testing tests the interface between modules of the software application

    Involves both functional and non-functional testings like sanity, usability, performance, stress an load

    Only functional testing is performed to check whether the two modules when combined give the right outcome

     It is high-level testing performed after integration testing

    It is low-level testing performed after unit testing

    Q25. Explain the defect life cycle.


    A defect life cycle is a process in which a defect goes through various phases during its whole lifetime. The cycle starts when a defect is found and ends when a defect is closed, after ensuring its not reproduced. Bug or defect life cycle includes the steps as shown in the below figure.

    Bug life cycle – Manual testing interview questions – Edureka

    If you wish to learn in-depth about Bug Life Cycle then you can refer this article on Software Testing Tutorial.

    Q26. What is the test harness?


    A test harness is the gathering of software and test information arranged to test a program unit by running it under changing conditions like stress, load, data-driven, and monitoring its behavior and outputs. Test Harness contains two main parts:

    • A Test Execution Engine
    • Test script repository

    Q27. What is test closure?


    Test Closure is a document which gives a summary of all the tests conducted during the software development life cycle and also gives a detailed analysis of the bugs removed and errors found. This memo contains the aggregate no. of experiments, total no. of experiments executed, total no. of imperfections discovered, add total no. of imperfections settled, total no. of bugs not settled, total no of bugs rejected and so forth.

    Q28. What is the difference between Positive and Negative Testing?


    Positive testing determines that your application works as expected. If an error is encountered during positive testing, the test fails

    Negative testing ensures that your application can gracefully handle invalid input or unexpected user behavior

    In this testing, tester always check for an only valid set of values 

    Testers apply as much creativity as possible and validating the application against invalid data

    Q29. Define what is a critical bug.


    A critical bug is a bug that has got the tendency to affect a majority of the functionality of the given application. It means a large piece of functionality or major system component is completely broken and there is no workaround to move further. Application cannot be distributed to the end client unless the critical bug is addressed.

    Q30. What is pesticide paradox? How to overcome it?


    According to pesticide paradox, if the same tests are repeated over and over again, eventually the same test cases will no longer find new bugs. Developers will be extra careful in those places where testers found more defects and might not look into other areas. Methods to prevent pesticide paradox:

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    Q31. What is Defect Cascading in Software Testing?


    Defect Cascading is the process of triggering other defects in the application. When a defect goes unnoticed while testing, it invokes other defects. As a result, multiple defects crop up in the later stages of development. If defect cascading continues to affect other features in the application, identifying the affected feature becomes challenging. You may make different test cases to solve this issue, even then it is difficult and time-consuming.

    Q32. What is the term qualitymean when testing?


    In general, quality software is reasonably bug-free, delivered on time and within budget, meets requirements and/or expectations, and is maintainable. But again qualityis a subjective term. It will depend on who the customeris and their overall influence in the scheme of things. For example, each type of customerwill have their own slant on quality– the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free.

    Q33. What is black box testing, and what are the various techniques?


    Black-Box Testing, also known as specification-based testing, analyses the functionality of a software/application without knowing much about the internal structure/design of the item. The purpose of this testing is to check the functionality of the system as a whole to make sure that it works correctly and meets user demands. Various black-box testing techniques are:

    • Equivalence Partitioning
    • Boundary Value Analysis
    • Decision Table Based Technique
    • Cause-effect Graphing
    • Use Case Testing

    Q34. What is white box testing, and what are the various techniques?


    White-Box Testing also known as structure-based testing, requires a profound knowledge of the code as it includes testing of some structural part of the application. The purpose of this testing is to enhance security, check the flow of inputs/outputs through application and to improve design and usability. Various white-box testing techniques are:

    • Statement Coverage
    • Decision Coverage
    • Condition Coverage
    • Multiple Condition Coverage

    Q35. What are the Experience-based testing techniques?


    Experienced-based testing is all about discovery, investigation, and learning. The tester constantly studies and analyzes the product and accordingly applies his skills, traits, and experience to develop test strategy and test cases to perform necessary testing. Various experience-based testing techniques are:

    Exploratory Testing

    Error Guessing

    Q36.What is a top-down and bottom-up approach in testing?


    Top-Down – Testing happens from top to bottom. That is, high-level modules are tested first and after that low-level modules. Lastly, the low-level modules are incorporated into a high-level state to guarantee the framework is working as it is expected to.

    Bottom-Up – Testing happens from base levels to high-up levels. The lowest level modules are tested first and afterward high-level state modules. Lastly, the high-level state modules are coordinated to a low level to guarantee the framework is filling in as it has been proposed to.

    Q37. What is the difference between smoke testing and sanity testing?


    Tests are executed on initial builds of software product   Tests are done on builds that have passed smoke tests &rounds of regression tests 

    Motive of Testing

    To measure the stability of the newly created build to face off more rigorous testing   To evaluate rationality &originality of the functionalities of software builds

    Is a subset of acceptance testing   Is a subset of regression testing


    Involves documentation and scripting work   Doesnt emphasize any sort of documentation

    Test Coverage

    Q38. What is the difference between static testing and dynamic testing?


    Static Testing is a white box testing technique, it includes the process of exploring the records to recognize the imperfections in the very early stages of SDLC.

    Dynamic testing includes the process of execution of code and is done at the later stage of the software development lifecycle. It validates and approves the output with the expected results.

    Static Testing is implemented at the verification stage.

    Dynamic testing starts during the validation stage.

    Static testing is performed before the code deployment.

    Dynamic testing is performed after the code deployment

    The code error detection and execution of the program is not a concern in this type of testing.

    Execution of code is necessary for dynamic testing.

    Q39. How will you determine when to stop testing?


    Deciding when to stop testing can be quite difficult. Many modern software applications are so complex and run in such an interdependent environment, that complete testing can never be done. Some common factors in deciding when to stop testing are: 

    Deadlines (release deadlines, testing deadlines, etc.)

    Test cases completed with certain percentage passed

    When the test budget is depleted

    Coverage of code or functionality or requirements reaches a specified point

    Bug rate falls below a certain level

    When Beta or alpha testing period ends

    Q40. What if the software is so buggy it cant really be tested at all? 


    Often testers encounter a bug that cant be resolved at all. In such situations, the best bet is for testers to go through the process of reporting whatever bugs or blocking-type problems initially show up, with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can cause severe problems such as insufficient unit testing or insufficient integration testing, poor design, improper build or release procedures, etc managers should be notified and provided with some documentation as evidence of the problem.

    Q41. How you test a product if the requirements are yet to freeze?


    Its possible that a requirement stack is not available for a piece of product. It might take serious effort to determine if an application has significant unexpected functionality, and it would indicate deeper problems in the software development process. If the functionality isnt necessary to the purpose of the application, it should be removed. Else, create a test plan based on the assumptions made about the product. But make sure you get all assumptions well documented in the test plan.

    Q42. What if an organization is growing so fast that fixed testing processes are impossible? What to do in such situations?


    This is a very common problem in the software industry, especially considering the new technologies that are being incorporated when developing the product. There is no easy solution in this situation, you could:

    • Hire good and skilled people 
    • Management should ruthlessly prioritizequality issues and maintain focus on the customer 
    • Everyone in the organization should be clear on what qualitymeans to the end-user

    Q43. How do you know the code has met specifications? 


    Good codeis code that works, that is bug-free, and is readable and maintainable. Most organizations have coding standardsthat all developers are supposed to adhere to, but everyone has different ideas about whats best, or what is too many or too few rules. There are a lot of tools like traceability matrix which ensures the requirements are mapped to the test cases. And when the execution of all test cases finishes with a success, it indicates that the code has met the requirement.

    Q44. What are the cases when youll consider to choose automated testing over manual testing? 


    Automated testing can be considered over manual testing during the following situations:

    When tests require periodic execution

    Tests include repetitive steps

    Tests need to be executed in a standard runtime environment

    When you have less time to complete the testing phase

    When there is a lot of code that needs to be repeatedly tested

    Reports are required for every execution

    Q45. What is configuration management?


    Every high-functioning organization has a master planthat details how they are supposed to operate and accomplish tasks. Software development and testing are no different. Software configuration management (SCM) is a set of processes, policies, and tools that organize, control, coordinate, and track:

    • code
    • documentation
    • problems
    • change requests
    • designs and tools
    • compilers and libraries

    Q46. Is it true that we can do system testing at any stage?


    In system testing, all the components of the software are tested as a whole in order to ensure that the overall product meets the requirements specified. So, no. The system testing must start only if all units are in place and are working properly. System testing usually happens before the UAT (User Acceptance Testing).

    Q47. What are some best practices that you should follow when writing test cases?


    Few guidelines that you need to follow while writing test cases are:

    Prioritize which test cases to write based on the project timelines and the risk factors of your application.

    Remember the 80/20 rule. To achieve the best coverage, 20% of your tests should cover 80% of your application.

    Dont try to test cases in one attempt instead improvise them as you progress.

    List down your test cases and classify them based on business scenarios and functionality.

    Make sure test cases are modular and test case steps are as granular as possible.

    Write test cases in such a way that others can understand them easily &modify if required.

    Always keep end-usersrequirements in the back of your mind because ultimately the software designed is for the customer

    Actively use a test management tool to manage stable release cycle.

    Monitor your test cases regularly. Write unique test cases and remove irrelevant &duplicate test cases.

    Q48. Why is it that the boundary value analysis provides good test cases?


    The reason why boundary value analysis provides good test cases is that usually, a greater number of errors occur at the boundaries rather than in the center of the input domain for a test.

     In boundary value analysis technique test cases are designed to include values at the boundaries. If the input is within the boundary value, it is considered Positive testing.If the input is outside of the boundary value, it is considered Negative testing.It includes maximum, minimum, inside or outside edge, typical values or error values.

    Q49.Why is it impossible to test a program thoroughly or in other terms 100% bug-free?


    It is impossible to build a software product which is 100% bug-free. You can just minimize the error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result.

    Here are the two principal reasons that make it impossible to test a program entirely.

    Software specifications can be subjective and can lead to different interpretations.

    A software program might require too many inputs, too many outputs, and too many path combinations to test.

    Q50. Can automation testing replace manual testing?


    Automation testing isnt a replacement for manual testing. No matter how good automated tests are, you cannot automate everything. Manual tests play an important role in software development and come in handy whenever you have a case where you cannot use automation. Automated and manual testing each have their own strengths and weaknesses. Manual testing helps us to understand the entire problem and explore other angles of tests with more flexibility. On the other hand, automated testing helps save time in the long run by accomplishing a large number of surface-level tests in a short time.

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    Q51. What is configuration management?


    Configuration management (CM) is a process of systems engineering to maintain system resources, computer systems, servers, software, and products performance in a consistent state. It helps to record all the changes made in the system and ensures that the system performs as expected even though changes are made over time.

    Q52.Name some popular configuration management tools?


    Some of the popular configuration management tools are Ansible, Chef, Puppet, Terraform, Saltstack, etc.

    Q53. What are Quality Assurance and Quality Control?   


    Quality Assurance: Quality Assurance involves in process-oriented activities. It ensures the prevention of defects in the process used to make Software Application. So the defects dont arise when the Software Application is being developed.

    Quality Control: Quality Control involves in product-oriented activities. It executes the program or code to identify the defects in the Software Application.

    Q54. What is Verification in software testing?


    Verification is the process, to ensure that whether we are building the product right i.e., to verify the requirements which we have and to verify whether we are developing the product accordingly or not. Activities involved here are Inspections, Reviews, Walk-throughs. 

    Q55. What is Validation in software testing?


    Validation is the process, whether we are building the right product i.e., to validate the product which we have developed is right or not. Activities involved in this is Testing the software application. 

    Q56. What is Static Testing?


    Static Testing involves in reviewing the documents to identify the defects in the early stages of SDLC.

    Q57. What is Dynamic Testing?


    Dynamic testing involves in the execution of code. It validates the output with the expected outcome.

    Q58. What is White Box Testing?


    White Box Testing is also called as Glass Box, Clear Box, and Structural Testing. It is based on applications internal code structure. In white-box testing, an internal perspective of the system, as well as programming skills, are used to design test cases. This testing usually was done at the unit level.

    • Various white-box testing techniques are:
    • Statement Coverage
    • Decision Coverage
    • Condition Coverage
    • Multiple Condition Coverage

    Q59. What is Black Box Testing?


    Black Box Testing is a software testing method in which testers evaluate the functionality of the software under test without looking at the internal code structure. This can be applied to every level of software testing such as Unit, Integration, System and Acceptance Testing. Click here for more details. 

    Q60. What is Grey Box Testing?


    Grey box is the combination of both White Box and Black Box Testing. The tester who works on this type of testing needs to have access to design documents. This helps to create better test cases in this process.

    Q61. What is Positive and Negative Testing?


    Positive Testing: It is to determine what system supposed to do. It helps to check whether the application is justifying the requirements or not.

    Negative Testing: It is to determine what system not supposed to do. It helps to find the defects from the software.

    Q62. What is Test Strategy?


    Test Strategy is a high-level document (static document) and usually developed by project manager. It is a document which captures the approach on how we go about testing the product and achieve the goals. It is normally derived from the Business Requirement Specification (BRS). Documents like Test Plan are prepared by keeping this document as a base. Click here for more details.

    Q63. What is Test Plan and contents available in a Test Plan?


    Test plan document is a document which contains the plan for all the testing activities to be done to deliver a quality product. Test Plan document is derived from the Product Description, SRS, or Use Case documents for all future activities of the project. It is usually prepared by the Test Lead or Test Manager.

    Q64. What is Test Suite?


    Test Suite is a collection of test cases. The test cases which are intended to test an application.

    Q65. What is Test Scenario?


    Test Scenario gives the idea of what we have to test. Test Scenario is like a high-level test case.

    Q66. What is Test Case?


    Test cases are the set of positive and negative executable steps of a test scenario which has a set of pre-conditions, test data, expected result, post-conditions and actual results. Click here for more details.

    Q67. What is Test Bed?


    An environment configured for testing. Test bed consists of hardware, software, network configuration, an application under test, other related software.

    Q68. What is Test Environment?


    •  Test Environment is the combination of hardware and software on which Test Team performs testing.
    • Example:
    • Application Type: Web Application
    • OS: Windows
    • Web Server: IIS
    • Web Page Design: Dot Net
    • Client Side Validation: JavaScript
    • Server Side Scripting: ASP Dot Net
    • Database: MS SQL Server
    • Browser: IE/FireFox/Chrome

    Q69. What is Test Data?


    Test data is the data that is used by the testers to run the test cases. Whilst running the test cases, testers need to enter some input data. To do so, testers prepare test data. It can be prepared manually and also by using tools.

    For example, To test a basic login functionality having a user id, password fields. We need to enter some data in the user id and password fields. So we need to collect some test data.

    Q70. What is Test Harness?


    A test harness is the collection of software and test data configured to test a program unit by running it under varying conditions which involves monitoring the output with the expected output.

    It contains the Test Execution Engine &Test Script Repository

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    Q71. What are the tasks of Test Closure activities in Software Testing?


    Test Closure activities fall into four major groups.

          Test Completion Check: To ensure all tests should be either run or deliberately skipped and all known defects should be either fixed, deferred for a future release or accepted as a permanent restriction.

    Test Artifacts handover: Tests and test environments should be handed over to those responsible for maintenance testing. Known defects accepted or deferred should be documented and communicated to those who will use and support the use of the system.

    Lessons learned: Analyzing lessons learned to determine changes needed for future releases and projects. In retrospective meetings, plans are established to ensure that good

    practices can be repeated and poor practices are not repeated

    Archiving results, logs, reports, and other documents and work products in the CMS (configuration management system).

    Q72. What is test coverage?


    Test coverage helps in measuring the amount of testing performed by a set of tests.

    Test coverage can be done on both functional and non-functional activities. It assists testers to create tests that cover areas which are missing.

    Q73. What is Code coverage?


    Code coverage is different from Test coverage. Code coverage is about unit testing practices that must target all areas of the code at least once. It is usually done by developers or unit testers.

    Refer Test Metrics.

    Q74. List out Test Deliverables?


    • Test Strategy
    • Test Plan
    • Effort Estimation Report
    • Test Scenarios
    • Test Cases/Scripts
    • Test Data
    • Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM)
    • Defect Report/Bug Report
    • Test Execution Report
    • Graphs and Metrics
    • Test summary report
    • Test incident report
    • Test closure report
    • Release Note
    • Installation/configuration guide
    • User guide
    • Test status report
    • Weekly status report (Project manager to client)

    Q75. What is Unit Testing?


    Unit Testing is also called as Module Testing or Component Testing. It is done to check whether the individual unit or module of the source code is working properly. It is done by the developers in the developers environment.

    Q76. What is Integration Testing?


    Integration Testing is the process of testing the interface between the two software units. Integration testing is done by three ways. Big Bang Approach, Top-Down Approach, Bottom-Up Approach

    Q77. What is System Testing?


    Testing the fully integrated application to evaluate the systems compliance with its specified requirements is called System Testing AKA End to End testing. Verifying the completed system to ensure that the application works as intended or not.

    Q78 What is Big Bang Approach?


    Combining all the modules once and verifying the functionality after completion of individual module testing.

    Top down and bottom up are carried out by using dummy modules known as Stubs and Drivers. These Stubs and Drivers are used to stand-in for missing components to simulate data communication between modules.

    Q79. What is Top-Down Approach?


    Testing takes place from top to bottom. High-level modules are tested first and then low-level modules and finally integrating the low-level modules to a high level to ensure the system is working as intended. Stubs are used as a temporary module if a module is not ready for integration testing.

    Q80. What is Bottom-Up Approach?


    It is a reciprocate of the Top-Down Approach. Testing takes place from bottom to up. Lowest level modules are tested first and then high-level modules and finally integrating the high-level modules to a low level to ensure the system is working as intended. Drivers are used as a temporary module for integration testing.

    Q81. What is Functional Testing?


    In simple words, what the system actually does is functional testing. To verify that each function of the software application behaves as specified in the requirement document. Testing all the functionalities by providing appropriate input to verify whether the actual output is matching the expected output or not. It falls within the scope of black box testing and the testers need not concern about the source code of the application.

    Q82. What is Non-Functional Testing?


    In simple words, how well the system performs is non-functionality testing. Non-functional testing refers to various aspects of the software such as performance, load, stress, scalability, security, compatibility etc., Main focus is to improve the user experience on how fast the system responds to a request.

    Q85. What is Acceptance Testing?


    It is also known as pre-production testing. This is done by the end users along with the testers to validate the functionality of the application. After successful acceptance testing. Formal testing conducted to determine whether an application is developed as per the requirement. It allows the customer to accept or reject the application. Types of acceptance testing are Alpha, Beta &Gamma.

    Q86. What is Alpha Testing?


    Alpha testing is done by the in-house developers (who developed the software) and testers. Sometimes alpha testing is done by the client or outsourcing team with the presence of developers or testers.

    Q87. What is Beta Testing?


    Beta testing is done by a limited number of end users before delivery. Usually, it is done in the client place.

    Q88. What is Gamma Testing?


    Gamma testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements. It is done at the client place. It is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.

    Q89. What is Smoke Testing?


    or not. It is also called as Day 0check. It is done at the build level. It helps not to waste the testing time to simply testing the whole application when the key features dont work or the key bugs have not been fixed yet.

    Q90. What is Sanity Testing?


    Sanity Testing is done during the release phase to check for the main functionalities of the application without going deeper. It is also called as a subset of Regression testing. It is done at the release level. At times due to release time constraints rigorous regression testing cant be done to the build, sanity testing does that part by checking main functionalities.

    Q91. What is Retesting?


    To ensure that the defects which were found and posted in the earlier build were fixed or not in the current build. Say, Build 1.0 was released. Test team found some defects (Defect Id 1.0.1, 1.0.2) and posted. Build 1.1 was released, now testing the defects 1.0.1 and 1.0.2 in this build is retesting.

    Complete Guide: Retesting

    Q92. What is GUI Testing?


    Graphical User Interface Testing is to test the interface between the application and the end user.

    Q93. What is Recovery Testing?


    Recovery testing is performed in order to determine how quickly the system can recover after the system crash or hardware failure. It comes under the type of non-functional testing.

    Q94. What is Globalization Testing?


    Globalization is a process of designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without any changes.

    Q95. What is Localization Testing (L10N Testing)?


    Localization is a process of adapting globalization software for a specific region or language by adding local specific components.

    Q96. What is Installation Testing?


    It is to check whether the application is successfully installed and it is working as expected after installation.

    Q97. What is Formal Testing?


    It is a process where the testers test the application by having pre-planned procedures and proper documentation.

    Q98. What is Risk Based Testing?


    Identify the modules or functionalities which are most likely cause failures and then testing those functionalities.

    Q99. What is Compatibility Testing?


    It is to deploy and check whether the application is working as expected in a different combination of environmental components.

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