35+ LATEST Django [ Python ] Interview Questions & Answers
Django Interview Questions and Answers

35+ LATEST Django [ Python ] Interview Questions & Answers

Last updated on 03rd Jul 2020, Blog, Interview Questions

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Django is a free, open-source web framework written in the Python programming language and used by millions of programmers every year. Django is a high-level Python web framework that encourages rapid development and clean, pragmatic design. Its popularity is due to its friendliness to both beginners and advanced programmers. Django makes it easier to build better web apps quickly and with less code. Django is robust enough to be used by the largest websites in the world. Django was designed to handle two challenges: the intensive deadlines of a newsroom and the stringent requirements of the experienced Web developers

Preparing for a job interview in Django. I am sure you want to know the most common 2020 Django Interview Questions and answers that will help you crack the Interview with ease.

These top interview questions are divided into two parts are as follows. Some of the most important 2020 Django Interview Questions that are frequently asked in an interview are as follows:

1) Explain what is Django?

Ans:

Django is a web framework in python to develop a web application in python.

2) Mention what are the features available in Django?

Ans:

Features available in Django are

  • Admin Interface (CRUD)
  • Templating
  • Form handling
  • Internationalization
  • Session, user management, role-based permissions
  • Object-relational mapping (ORM)
  • Testing Framework
  • Fantastic Documentation

3) Mention the architecture of Django architecture?

Ans:

Django architecture consists of

  • Models: It describes your database schema and your data structure
  • Views: It controls what a user sees, the view retrieves data from appropriate models and execute any calculation made to the data and pass it to the template
  • Templates: It determines how the user sees it. It describes how the data received from the views should be changed or formatted for display on the page
  • Controller: The Django framework and URL parsing

4) Why Django should be used for web-development?

Ans:

  • It allows you to divide code modules into logical groups to make it flexible to change
  • To ease the website administration, it provides auto-generated web admin
  • It provides pre-packaged API for common user tasks
  • It gives you template system to define HTML template for your web page to avoid code duplication
  • It enables you to define what URL be for a given function
  • It enables you to separate business logic from the HTML
  • Everything is in python

5) Explain how you can create a project in Django?

Ans:

  To start a project in Django, you use command $ django-admin.py and then use the command

Project

  • _init_.py
  • manage.py
  • settings.py
  • urls.py
Django Interview Questions and Answers

6) Explain how you can set up the Database in Django?

Ans:

  1.   You can use the command edit mysite/setting.py , it is a normal python module with module level representing Django settings.
  1. Django uses SQLite by default; it is easy for Django users as such it won’t require any other type of installation. In the case your database choice is different that you have to the following keys in the DATABASE ‘default’ item to match your database connection settings
  • Engines: you can change database by using ‘django.db.backends.sqlite3’ , ‘django.db.backeneds.mysql’, ‘django.db.backends.postgresql_psycopg2’, ‘django.db.backends.oracle’ and so on
  • Name: The name of your database. In the case if you are using SQLite as your database, in that case database will be a file on your computer, Name should be a full absolute path, including file name of that file.

If you are not choosing SQLite as your database then setting like Password, Host, User, etc. must be added.

7) Give an example how you can write a VIEW in Django?

Ans:

  •   Views are Django functions that take a request and return a response.  To write a view in Django we take a simple example of “Guru99_home” which uses the template Guru99_home.html and uses the date-time module to tell us what the time is whenever the page is refreshed.  The file we required to edit is called view.py, and it will be inside mysite/myapp/
  • Copy the below code into it and save the file
  •        from datatime import datetime
  •       from django.shortcuts import render
  •      def home (request):
  • return render(request, ‘’, {‘right_now’: datetime.utcnow()})
  • Once you have determined the VIEW, you can uncomment this line in urls.py
  •       # url ( r ‘^$’ , ‘mysite.myapp.views.home’ , name ‘acte’),

The last step will reload your web app so that the changes are noticed by the web server.

8) Explain how you can setup static files in Django?

Ans:

There are three main things required to set up static files in Django

  • Set STATIC_ROOT in settings.py
  • run manage.py collectsatic
  • set up a Static Files entry on the PythonAnywhere web tab

9) Mention what does the Django templates consists of?

Ans:

The template is a simple text file.  It can create any text-based format like XML, CSV, HTML, etc.  A template contains variables that get replaced with values when the template is evaluated and tags (% tag %) that controls the logic of the template.

10) Explain the use of session framework in Django?

Ans:

In Django, the session framework enables you to store and retrieve arbitrary data on a per-site-visitor basis.  It stores data on the server side and abstracts the receiving and sending of cookies.  Session can be implemented through a piece of middleware.

11) How will you define Django programming Language?

Ans:

 Django is a web framework in python to develop a web application in python. Django is a free and open-source web application framework, written in Python. Django makes easier to build better web applications quickly and with less code.

12) Can you explain the different features of Django programming Language?

Ans:

 Below is the list of features offered by Django:

  • A free, rich API
  • Automatic database table creation
  • Admin Interface
  • Tempting
  • Form Handling
  • A dynamic admin interface generator
  • A syndication feed framework
  • A powerful cache framework for dynamic websites
  • A powerful built-in template system
  • Easy database migrations
  • Security features
  • Other helpful add-ons
  • Internationalization
  • Object Relational Mapping
  • Testing Framework
  • Session, user management, role-based permission
  • Elegant URL design
  • Cache System

13) Explain the architecture of Django?

Ans:

 Django architecture consists of:

  • Models: It describes your database schema and your data structure
  • Views: It controls what a user sees, the view retrieves data from appropriate models and execute any calculation made to the data and pass it to the template
  • Templates: It determines how the user sees it. It describes how the data received from the views should be changed or formatted for display on the page
  • Controller: It is the heart of the system. It handles requests and responses, setting up database connections and loading add-ons and specifies the Django framework and URL parsing.

14) Why should Django be used for web development?

Ans:

 Django should be used for web development because of the following reasons:

  • It allows dividing the code module into logical groups to make it flexible to change.
  • To easy the website administration, it provides an auto-generated web admin module.
  • It provides pre-packaged API for common user tasks.
  • It enables us to define what should be URL for a given function.
  • It enables to separate business logic from the HTML.
  • Everything is written in Python programming language.
  • It gives you template system to define HTML template for your web page to avoid code duplication

15) Is Django named after that Quentin Tarantino movie?

Ans:

No, Django is named after Django Reinhardt, a jazz guitarist from the 1930s to the early 1950s who is considered one of the best guitarists of all time.

16)  What are Django’s most prominent features?

Ans:

  Programmers like Django mostly for its convenient features like:

  • Optimized for SEO
  • Extremely fast
  • A loaded framework that features authentications, content administrations and RSS feeds
  • Exceptionally scalable to meet the heaviest traffic demand
  • Highly secure
  • Versatility, enabling you to create many different types of websites

17) Can you name some companies that use Django?

Ans:

Some of the more well-known companies that use Django include:

  • DISCUS
  • Instagram
  • Mozilla Firefox
  • Pinterest
  • Reddit
  • YouTube

18) Why do web developers prefer Django?

Ans:

Web developers use Django because it:

  • Allows code modules to be divided into logical groups, making them flexible to change
  • Provides an auto-generated web admin module to ease website administration
  • Provides a pre-packaged API for common user tasks
  • Enables developers to define a given function’s URL
  • Allows users to separate business logic from the HTML
  • Is written in Python, one of the most popular programming languages available today
  • Gives you a system to define the HTML template for your web page, avoiding code duplication

19)  What is CRUD?

Ans:

It has nothing to do with dirt or grime. It’s a handy acronym for Create, Read, Update, and Delete. It’s a mnemonic framework used to remind developers on how to construct usable models when building application programming interfaces (APIs).

20) Does Django have any drawbacks?

Ans:

 Django’s disadvantages include:

  • Its monolithic size makes it unsuitable for smaller projects
  • Everything hinges on Django’s ORM (Object-Relational Mapping)
  • Everything must be explicitly defined due to a lack of convention

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    21) What does Django architecture look like?

    Ans:

     Django architecture consists of:

    • Models. Describes the database schema and data structure
    • Views. Controls what a user sees. The view retrieves data from appropriate models, executes any calculations made, and passes it on to the template
    • Templates. Controls how the user sees the pages. It describes how the data received from the views needs to be altered or formatted to display on the page
    • Controller. Made up of the Django framework and URL parsing
    1. After going through some of the basic Django interview questions and answers, it is time we increase the difficulty level with the intermediate Django interview questions and answers.
    1. Now let’s increase the difficulty factor and explore some tougher Django interview question and answer combinations.

    22) In Django’s context, what’s the difference between a project and an app?

    Ans:

     The project covers the entire application, while an app is a module or application within the project that deals with one dedicated requirement. So, a project consists of several apps, while an app features in multiple projects.

    23) What’s a model in Django?

    Ans:

    A model consists of all the necessary fields and attributes of your stored data. They are a single, definitive source of information regarding your data.

    24) What are Django’s templates?

    Ans:

     Django templates render information in a designer-friendly format to present to the user. Using the Django Template Language (DTL), a user can generate HTML dynamically. Django templates consist of simple text files that can create any text-based format such as XML, CSV, and HTML.

    25)  Discuss Django’s Request/Response Cycle.

    Ans:

    Starting the process off, the Django server receives a request. The server then looks for a matching URL in the URL patterns defined for the project. If the server can’t find a matching URL, it produces a 404-status code. If the URL matches, it executes the corresponding code in the view file associated with the URL and sends a response.

    26) What is the difference between Flask and Django?

    Ans:

    Comparison Factor Django Flask
    Project Type Supports large projects Built for smaller projects
    Templates,Admin and ORM Built-in Requires installation
    Ease of Learning Requires more learning and practice Easy to learn
    Flexibility

    Allows complete web development without the need for third-party tools

    More flexible as the user can select any third-party tools according to their choice and requirements
    Visual Debugging Does not support Visual Debug Supports Visual Debug
    Type of framework Batteries included Simple, lightweight
    Bootstrapping-tool Built-it Not available

    27) Name some companies that make use of Django?

    Ans:

    Some of the companies that make use of Django are Instagram, DISCUS, Mozilla Firefox, YouTube, Pinterest, Reddit, etc.

    28. What are the features of Django? 

    Ans:

    • SEO Optimized
    • Extremely fast
    • Fully loaded framework that comes along with authentications, content administrations, RSS feeds, etc
    • Very secure thereby helping developers avoid common security mistakes such as cross-site request forgery (csrf), clickjacking, cross-site scripting, etc
    • It is exceptionally scalable which in turn helps meet the heaviest traffic demands
    • Immensely versatile which allows you to develop any kind of websites

    29) How do you check for the version of Django installed on your system?

    Ans:

    To check for the version of Django installed on your system, you can open the command prompt and enter the following command:

    • python -m django –version

    You can also try to import Django and use the get_version() method as follows:

    • import djangoprint(django.get_version())

    30)  What are the advantages of using Django?

    Ans:

    • Django’s stack is loosely coupled with tight cohesion
    • The Django apps make use of very less code
    • Allows quick development of websites
    • Follows the DRY or the Don’t Repeat Yourself Principle which means, one concept or a piece of data should live in just one place
    • Consistent at low as well as high levels
    • Behaviors are not implicitly assumed, they are rather explicitly specified
    • SQL statements are not executed too many times and are optimized internally
    • Can easily drop into raw SQL whenever required
    • Flexibility while using URL’s
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    31)  Explain Django architecture.

    Ans:

    Django follows the MVT or Model View Template architecture whcih is based on the MVC or Model View Controller architecture. The main difference between these two is that Django itself takes care of the controller part.

    Django Interview Questions and Answers
    • According to Django, the ‘view’ basically describes the data presented to the user. It does not deal with how the data looks but rather what the data actually is. Views are basically callback functions for the specified URL’s and these callback functions describe which data is presented.
    • The ‘templates’ on the other hand deal with the presentation of data, thereby, separating the content from its presentation. In Django, views delegate to the templates to present the data.
    • The ‘controller’ here is Django itself which sends the request to the appropriate view in accordance with the specified URL. This is why Django is referred to as MTV rather than MVC architecture.

    32) Give a brief about ‘django-admin’.

    Ans:

    django-admin is the command-line utility of Django for administrative tasks. Using the django-admin you can perform a number of tasks some of which are listed out in the following table:

    Task Command
    To display the usage information and the list of the commands provided by each application django-admin help
    To display the list of available commands django-admin help –command
    To display the description of a given command and the list of its available options django-admin help <command>
    Determining the version of Django django-admin version
    Creating new migrations based on the changes made in models django-admin makemigrations
    Synchronizing the database state with the current set of models and migrations django-admin migrate
    Starting the development server django-admin runserver
    Sending a test email in order to confirm the email sending through Django is working django-admin sendtestemail
    To start the Python interactive interpreter django-admin shell
    To show all the migrations in your project django-admin showmigrations

    33) How do you connect your Django project to the database?

    Ans:

    Django comes with a default database which is SQLite. To connect your project to this database, use the following commands:

    1. python manage.py migrate (migrate command looks at the INSTALLED_APPS settings and creates database tables accordingly)
    2. python manage.py makemigrations (tells Django you have created/ changed your models)
    3. python manage.py sqlmigrate <name of the app followed by the generated id> (sqlmigrate takes the migration names and returns their SQL)

    34) What are the various files that are created when you create a Django Project?

    Ans:

     Explain briefly.

    When you create a project using the startproject command, the following files will be created:

    File Name Description
    manage.py A command-line utility that allows you to interact with your Django project
    __init__.py An empty file that tells Python that the current directory should be considered as a Python package
    settings.py Consists of the settings for the current project
    urls.py Contains the URL’s for the current project
    wsgi.py This is an entry-point for the web servers to serve the project you have created

    35) What are ‘Models’?

    Ans:

    • Models are a single and definitive source for information about your data. It consists of all the essential fields and behaviors of the data you have stored. Often, each model will map to a single specific database table.
    • In Django, models serve as the abstraction layer that is used for structuring and manipulating your data. Django models are a subclass of the django.db.models.Model class and the attributes in the models represent database fields.

    36) What are ‘views’?

    Ans:

    • Django views serve the purpose of encapsulation. They encapsulate the logic liable for processing a user’s request and for returning
    • the response back to the user. Views in Django either return an HttpResponse or raise an exception such as Http404. HttpResponse contains the objects that consist of the content that is to be rendered to the user. Views can also be used to perform tasks such as read records from the database, delegate to the templates, generate a PDF file, etc.

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    37)  What are ‘templates’?

    Ans:

    • Django’s template layer renders the information to be presented to the user in a designer-friendly format. Using templates, you can generate HTML dynamically. The HTML consists of both static as well as dynamic parts of the content. You can have any number of templates depending on the requirement of your project. It is also fine to have none of them.
    • Django has its own template system called the Django template language (DTL). Regardless of the backend, you can also load and render templates using Django’s standard admin.

    38) What is the difference between a Project and an App?

    Ans:

    An app is basically a Web Application that is created to do something for example, a database of employee records. A project, on the other hand, is a collection of apps of some particular website. Therefore, a single project can consist of ‘n’ number of apps and a single app can be in multiple projects.

    39)  What are the different inheritance styles in Django?

    Ans:

    Django has three possible inheritance styles:

    Inheritance style

    Description

    Abstract base classes

    Used when you want to use the parent class to hold information that you don’t want to type for each child model.Here, the parent class is never used in solitude

    Multi-table inheritance

    Used when you have to subclass an existing model and want eachmodel to have its own database table
    Proxy models Used if you only want to modify the Python-level behavior of a model, without changing the ‘models’ fields in any way

    40)  What are static files?

    Ans:

    Static files in Django are those files that serve the purpose of additional files such as the CSS, images or JavaScript files. These files are managed by django.contrib.staticfiles. These files are created within the project app directory by creating a subdirectory named as static.

    41) What are ‘signals’?

    Ans:

    Django consists of a signal dispatcher that helps allow decoupled applications to get notified when actions occur elsewhere in the framework. Django provides a set of built-in signals that basically allow senders to notify a set of receivers when some action is executed. Some of the signals are as follows:

    Signal Description
    django.db.models.signals.pre_savedjango.db.models.signals.post_save Sent before or after a model’s save() method is called
    django.db.models.signals.pre_deletedjango.db.models.signals.post_delete Sent before or after a model’s delete() method or queryset’s delete() method is called
    django.db.models.signals.m2m_changed Sent when Django starts or finishes an HTTP request

    42) Briefly explain Django Field Class.

    Ans:

    ‘Field’ is basically an abstract class that actually represents a column in the database table. The Field class, is in turn, a subclass of  RegisterLookupMixin. In Django, these fields are used to create database tables (db_type()) which are used to map Python types to the database using get_prep_value() and vice versa using from_db_value() method. Therefore, fields are fundamental pieces in different Django APIs such as models and querysets.

    43)How to do you create a Django project?

    Ans:

    To create a Django project, cd into the directory where you would like to create your project and type the following command:

    • django-admin startproject xyz

    44) What is mixin?

    Ans:

    • Mixin is a type of multiple inheritance wherein you can combine behaviors and attributes of more than one parent class. Mixins provide an excellent way to reuse code from multiple classes. For example, generic class-based views consist of a mixin called TemplateResponseMixin whose purpose is to define render_to_response() method. When this is combined with a class present in the View, the result will be a TemplateView class.
    • One drawback of using these mixins is that it becomes difficult to analyze what a child class is doing and which methods to override in case of its code being too scattered between multiple classes.

    45)  What is Django? Elaborate some technical features.

    Ans:

    Django is a high-level web application framework based on Python. This framework is one of the best in the industry for rapid development, pragmatic design without compromising on features.

    Some of the technical features of Django include:

    • Admin Interface
    • Code Reusability
    • CDN Integration
    • Security Features
    • ORM
    • A huge number of third-party applications

    There are many features which Django community has been developing over the years and therefore it’s called “Batteries-Included” framework, as it has lots of features built-in which otherwise would be time-consuming and expensive to make.

    46) What is Django Admin Interface?

    Ans:

    •   Django Admin is the preloaded interface made to fulfill the need of web developers as they won’t need to make another admin panel which is time-consuming and expensive.
    • Django Admin is application imported from django.contrib packages. It is meant to be operated by the organization itself and therefore doesn’t need the extensive frontend.
    • Django’s Admin interface has its own user authentication and most of the general features. It also offers lots of advanced features like authorization access, managing different models, CMS (Content Management System), etc.

    47) How is Django’s code reusability feature different from other frameworks?

    Ans:

    • Django framework offers more code-reusability then other frameworks out there. As Django Project is a collection of different applications like login application, signup application. These applications can be just copied from one directory to another with some tweaks to settings.py file and you won’t need to write new signup application from scratch.
    • That’s why Django is a rapid development framework and this level of code reusability is not there in other frameworks.

    48)  Explain the file structure of a typical Django project?

    Ans:

    A Django project is a collection of web-applications which coordinate together to serve the request of the user. These applications have one assigned feature and shall do only that.

    A typical Django project consists of these four files:

    • manage.py
    • settings.py
    • __init__.py
    • urls.py
    • wsgi.py
    • The last four files are inside a directory, which is at the same level of manage.py.
    • Here the structure is very logical, and the names of these files and their purpose should remain intact.
    • manage.py is the command line utility of your Django project and this file is used to control your Django project on the server or even to begin one.
    • When Django server is started, the manage.py file searches for settings.py file, which contains information of all the applications installed in the project, middleware used, database connections and path to the main urls config.
    • The urls.py file is like a map of your whole web-project, this file examines URL and calls the right view function or transports the URL to another application specific urls-config file. This is like the main URL linker and any app installed in the settings.py which you wish to be searched by the URL should have a link here.
    • The __init__.py file is an empty file which is there to make the python interpreter understand that the directory consisting settings.py is a module/ package.
    • The wsgi.py file is for the server format WSGI, which Django supports natively. We can customize that for other server formats.

    49) Django is an MVC based framework, how this framework implements MVC?

    Ans:

    • Django is based on MTV architecture which is a variant of MVC architecture.
    • MVC is an acronym for Model, View, and Controller. There are different parts of a website so that they can develop and execute in different machines to achieve faster and more responsive websites. Django implements MTV architecture by having 3 different components and they are all handled by Django itself.
    • Models are the part which is models.py file in a Django application, which defines the data structure of the particular application.
    • View are the mediators between models and templates, they receive the data from the Model and make it a dictionary and return the same as a response to a request to the Template.
    • The Template is the component with which user interacts, and it generates both statically and dynamically in the Django server.
    • That’s how the Django implements 3 components and work in coordination with each other.

    50) What happens when a typical Django website gets a request? Explain.

    Ans:

    When a user enters a URL in the browser the same request is received by the Django Server. The server then looks for the match of the requested URL in its URL-config and if the URL matches, it returns the corresponding view function. It will then request the data from the Model of that application, if any data is required and pass it to the corresponding template which is then rendered in the browser, otherwise, a 404 error is returned.

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    51) How to set/unset session in Django?

    Ans:

    • Setting Session in Django
    • request.session[‘key’] = ‘value’
    • Unset Session in Django
    • del request.session[‘key’]

    52)  What is a context in Django?

    Ans:

    In Django Context is a dictionary with variable names in the form of key and value like {varible1: 101, varible2: 102},when we pass this context to the template render method, {{ varible1 }} would be replaced with 101 and {{ varible2 }} with 102 in your template.

    53)Explain mixins in Django.

    Ans:

    A mixin is a special kind of multiple inheritances in Python. There are two main situations where mixins are used:

    • You want to provide a lot of optional features for a class.
    • You want to use one particular feature in a lot of different classes.

    Read More from https://stackoverflow.com/questions/533631/what-is-a-mixin-and-why-are-they-useful

    54) How to get current page URI in Django template.

    Ans:

    You can use {{ request.path }} and {{ request.get_full_path }} to get current page URI in Django template.

    55) List some popular websites built on Django framework?

    Ans:

    Following are the list of top 10 websites built on Django framework.

    1. Instagram
    2. Disqus
    3. Bitbucket
    4. Mozilla Firefox
    5. Pinterest
    6. NASA
    7. Onion
    8. The Washington Post
    9. Eventbrite
    10. Mahalo

    56)  How to create an Constant in Django.

    Ans:

    • To create a constant in Django. Open your settings.py file and add a variable like MY_CONST = “MY_VALUE”.
    • To use this constant in your views simply import setting like “Import settings in views.py” and use it as
    • settings.MY_CONST

    57)  How to Configure Database in Django.

    Ans:

    The steps to configure Database in Django are as follows:

    • Open up the settings.py file in your IDE
    • Locate the database’s setting and configure it as shown below.
    • DATABASES = {
    • ‘Default’: {
    • ‘ENGINE’: ‘django.db.backends.postgresql_psycopg2’,
    • ‘NAME’: ‘crmeasyDB’,
    • ‘USER’: ‘postgres’,
    • ‘PASSWORD’: ‘warning this is where you need to put your password’,
    • ‘HOST’: ‘/tmp’,
    • ‘PORT’: ‘5432’,
    • }

    58) List type of relationships/ asociations supported by Django.

    Ans:

    The list of relationships supported by Django are:

    • One to Many relationships
    • Many to Many relationships
    • One to One relationships
    • Reverse relationships – related_name, related_query_name and symmetrical

    59) What is the Controller in the MVC framework of Django?

    Ans:

    As Django implements in MTV framework, these three components communicate with each other via the controller and that controller is actually Django framework. Django framework does the controlling part itself.

    60) Is Django’s Admin Interface customizable? If yes, then How?

    Ans:

    • Django’s Admin is just one of the applications and very customizable, also you can download a different third-party application and install it for a totally different view.
    • You can make your own Admin Application if you want complete control over your Admin.
    • Although you can customize the Django Admin site like changing the properties of admin.site object. We can also make some changes in particular models and apply them in our Django Admin for particular apps like we can add a search bar for particular applications. The Django Admin Interface is fully customizable to the lowest level, but instead of customizing that much, we can rather create a new Admin Interface. So those who don’t like Django Admin Interface, prefer making a new one from scratch then editing the previous one.

    61) Why is Django called loosely coupled framework?

    Ans:

    • Django is called a loosely coupled framework because of the MTV architecture it’s based on. Django’s architecture is a variant of MVC architecture and MTV is useful because it completely separates server code from the client’s machine.
    • Django’s Models and Views are present on the client machine and only templates return to the client, which are essentially HTML, CSS code and contains the required data from the models.
    • These components are totally different from each other and therefore, front-end developers and backend developers can work simultaneously on the project as these two parts changing will have little to no effect on each other when changed.
    • Therefore, Django is called a loosely coupled framework.

    62) What is Django Rest Framework (DRF)?

    Ans:

    • Django REST is a framework which lets you create RESTful APIs rapidly.
    • This framework has got funding by many big organizations and is popular because of its features over Django frameworks like Serialisation, Authentication policies and Web-browsable API.
    • RESTful APIs are perfect for web applications since they use low bandwidth and are designed such that they work well with the communications over the Internet like GET, POST, PUT, etc.

    63) Explain the importance of settings.py file and what data/ settings it contains.

    Ans:

    • When Django server starts, it first looks for settings.py. As the name settings, it is the main settings file of your web application. Everything inside your Django project like databases, backend engines, middlewares, installed applications, main URL configurations, static file addresses, templating engines, allowed hosts and servers and security key stores in this file as a list or dictionary.
    • So, when your Django server starts it executes settings.py file and then loads particular engines and databases so that when a request is given it can serve the same quickly.

    64) Why Django uses regular expressions to define URLs? Is it necessary to use them?

    Ans:

    • Django uses a very powerful format for storing URLs, that is regular expressions. RegEx or regular expression is the format for sophisticated string searching algorithms. It makes the searching process faster. Although it’s not necessary to use RegEx when defining URLs.
    • They can be defined as normal string also, Django server should still be able to match them, but when you need to pass some data from the user via URL, then RegEx is used. The RegEx also makes much cleaner URLs then other formats.

    65) What is Django ORM?

    Ans:

    • Django ORM is one of the special feature-rich tools in Django. ORM is an acronym for Object-Relational Mapper. This ORM enables a developer to interact with a database in a pythonic way.
    • Django ORM is the abstraction between models (web application data-structure) and the database where the data is stored. It makes possible to retrieve, save, delete and perform other operations over the database without ever writing any SQL code.
    • It also covers many loopholes and takes all the field attributes and gives you more control over your code in Python rather than any database language.

    66) What is a Model in Django and what is the Model class?

    Ans:

    • A Model in Django is a python class which derives from Model class that imports from the django.db.models library. The concept of Django Models is to create objects that can store data from the user in a user-defined format. Therefore, python class is used for the process and that class is generally defined in models.py file of the particular application.
    • The model class is a pre-defined class of Django framework and every class which is a model must derive from the same. The model class has lots of benefits like you can define the field with specific attributes as you would do in SQL, but now the same can be achieved in Python. Django Model class is parsed by the Django ORM or backend engine and you won’t need to do anything related to the database, like creating tables and defining fields afterward mapping the fields with the attribute of the class.

    67)How does Django Templating Work?

    Ans:

    • Django Templates are the Django’s answer to generate dynamic web pages. Templates, in general, are the HTML or the formats which can return as an Http response.
    • Django templating engine handles templating in the Django framework. There are some template syntaxes which declares variables, control logic, filters, and comments. After putting these inside the HTML structure, when the web page is requested and called upon by the view function, the Django Template engine gets two things, the HTML structure with variables in place and the data to replace with those variables. It replaces the variables with data while also executing the control logic and generating filters. It renders the required HTML and sends it to the browser when all the work gets complete.

    68) What are View functions? Can we directly import a function in URL?

    Ans:

    • The View is the middle component in Django that receives data from the Django models and pass the same to the Templates.
    • Every application in Django comes with views.py file, this file contains the View functions.
    • The View functions are functions which receive an argument and they return a browser-renderable format or a redirect.
    • Django Views function can import directly in the urls file. For that, we have to first import the view function in the urls.py file and then add the path/ URL which browser should request to call that View function.
    Django Interview Questions and Answers
    • Here as you can see that we imported all the functions from our View module which is in the same folder. We added the URL in the urlpatterns list (red box). When the ‘dataflair/’ gets searched in the yellow box, we have called a function named index.

    69) What is django.shortcuts.render function?

    Ans:

    • When a View function returns a webpage as HttpResponse rather than a simple string, we use render().
    • Render function is a shortcut function which lets the developer to easily pass the data dictionary with the template. This function then combines the template with data dictionary via templating engine. Finally, this render() returns an HttpResponse with the rendered text, which is the data returned by the models.
    • Thus, Django render() bypasses lots of work for the developer and lets him use different templating engines. It is because this function provides the same functionality with other templating systems.

    The basic render Syntax:

    1. render(request, template_name, context=None, content_type=None, status=None, using=None)
    • The request is the parameter which generates the response, the template_name containing the value where the template is stored. The template name and other parameters are for passing the dictionary. If you want more control, you can specify the content type, status of the data you passed and the render you are returning.
    • That is the render().

    70)  List some ways by which we can add our View functions to urls.py file?

    Ans:

    We can add our view to the main urls config in two ways:

    1. Adding a function View

    • In this method, we import our view as function.
    • We import the function itself from the particular view and then, add the particular URL to the urlpatterns list.

    2. Adding a Class-based view

    • The class-based view is a more object-oriented approach.
    • To begin, import the class from the views.py and then add the URL to the urlpatterns. This time we will need an inbuilt method to call the class as a view.
    • In the name of the function on the previous method, write
    1. class_name.as_view()
    • This will pass your view class as view function.
    • Both class-based views and function-based views have their own pros and cons and we can use them in the appropriate situations to get the right results.
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    71)  How can we extract the data from the request/ URL and pass the same to the View function?

    Ans:

    • We can very easily take some input via URL request and generate something dynamically via the same input.
    Django Interview Questions and Answers
    • Here focus on the pink box, where a regular expression as URL is present. It will perform an important task that is checking the URL which has 3 or fewer digits.
    Django Interview Questions and Answers
    • That code will call the show_time() in the Views file and here as you can see we are passing two values in the request. The other one is offset, which is a variable containing the numerical value which we entered after the URL. So when Django server gets the URL, it snips off the rest part and compares it with regex by automatically passing the numerical part or the part which is random in RegEx.
    • After that, it transfers to the function, where we are converting the same in integer type as, by default, python takes the URL requests as strings. Then we execute regular python statements and we get a rendered application.

    72)  What Does Session Framework Do In Django Framework?

    Ans:

    Session framework in django will store data on server side and interact with end-users. Session is generally used with a middle-ware. It also helps in receiving and sending cookies for authentication of a user.

    73) Mention Caching Strategies That You Know In Django?

    Ans:

    Few caching strategies that are available in Django are as follows:

    • File sytem caching
    • In-memory caching
    • Using Memcached
    • Database caching

    75)  What Do You Think Are Limitation Of Django Object Relation Mapping(orm)?

    Ans:

    • If the data is complex and consists of multiple joins using the SQL  will be clearer.
    • If Performance is a concern for your, ORM aren’t your choice. Genrally. Object-relation-mapping are considered good option to construct an optimized query, SQL has an upper hand when compared to ORM.

    76) Mention What Does The Django Field Class Types?

    Ans:

    Field class types determines:

    • The database column type
    • The default HTML widget to avail while rendering a form field
    • The minimal validation requirements used in Django admin and in automatically generated forms

    77)  List Out The Inheritance Styles In Django?

    Ans:

    In Django, there is three possible inheritance styles

    • Abstract base classes: This style is used when you only wants parent’s class to hold information that you don’t want to type out for each child model
    • Multi-table Inheritance: This style is used If you are sub-classing an existing model and need each model to have its own database table
    • Proxy models: You can use this model, If you only want to modify the Python level behavior of the model, without changing the model’s fields

    78)  Mention What Command Line Can Be Used To Load Data Into Django?

    Ans:

    To load data into Django you have to use the command line Django-admin.py loaddata. The command line will searches the data and loads the contents of the named fixtures into the database.

    79)  Explain What Does Django-admin.py Make Messages Command Is Used For?

    Ans:

    This command line executes over the entire source tree of the current directory and abstracts all the strings marked for translation.  It makes a message file in the locale directory.

    80) What django collectstatic command does?

    Ans:

    Django collectstatic command is used to collect all required static files from the STATIC_ROOT dir.

    81) Explain How You Can Use File Based Sessions?

    Ans:

    To use file based session you have to set the SESSION_ENGINE settings to “django.contrib.sessions.backends.file”

    82)  Explain The Migration In Django And How You Can Do In Sql?

    Ans:

    Migration in Django is to make changes to your models like deleting a model, adding a field, etc. into your database schema.  There are several commands you use to interact with migrations.

    • Migrate
    • Makemigrations
    • Sqlmigrate

    To do the migration in SQL, you have to print the SQL statement for resetting sequences for a given app name.
    django-admin.py sqlsequencreset
    Use this command to generate SQL that will fix cases where a sequence is out sync with its automatically incremented field data.

    83) List server requirement to install Django Framework.

    Ans:

    As Django is Python Framework, in order to install Django Python is required.Django comes with an inbuilt lightweight web server that you can use for the testing purpose.If you are using Django on production Apache with mod_wsgi is required.

    84) List the database backends supported by Django Framework?

    Ans:

    Django officially supports four database backends, they are

    • PostgreSQL
    • MySQL
    • SQLite
    • Oracle

    In addition to these, you can also use following 3rd parties

    • SAP SQL Anywhere
    • IBM DB2
    • Microsoft SQL Server
    • Firebird
    • ODBC

    85) What is recommended way to install Django?

    Ans:

    Installing using pip is the recommended way to install Django Framework. Below are the steps to install official release of Django with pip

    • Install pip.
    • Configure virtualenv and virtualenvwrapper
    • Once virtual environment is created and activated, enter the command pip install Django to install Django

    86)  How to install the development version of Django

    Ans:

    Follow the below steps to Install the development version of Django Framework.

    • Check out Django’s main development branch

    $ git clone https://github.com/django/django.git

    • Make sure that the Python interpreter can load Django’s code. The most convenient way to do this is to use virtualenv, virtualenvwrapper, and pip.
    • After setting up and activating the virtualenv, run the following command:

    $ pip install -e django/

    87) Where are Django migrations stored?

    Ans:

    You can think Django Migrations as version control system for your database/Model. It keeps track of changes done in your application Models/Table like adding a field, deleting a model, etc. Migrations in Django are stored as an on-disk format, referred to here as “migration files”. These files are actually just normal Python files with an agreed-upon object layout, written in a declarative style. A basic migration file looks like this:

    • from django.db import migrations, models
      class Migration(migrations.Migration):
    • dependencies = [(‘migrations’, ‘0001_initial’)]
      operations = [
    •  migrations.DeleteModel(‘Tribble’),
    •  migrations.AddField(‘Author’, ‘rating’, models.IntegerField(default=0)),
    •     ]

    88) How a request is processed in Django?

    Ans:

    In Django whenever a request is made by a user, it goes through the following steps:

    • Django determines the root URLconf module to use. Ordinarily, this is the value of the ROOT_URLCONF setting, but if the incoming HttpRequest object has a urlconf attribute (set by middleware), its value will be used in place of the ROOT_URLCONF setting.
    • Django loads that Python module and looks for the variable urlpatterns. This should be a Python list of django.urls.path() and/or django.urls.re_path() instances.
    • Django runs through each URL pattern, in order, and stops at the first one that matches the requested URL.
    • Once one of the URL patterns matches, Django imports and calls the given view, which is a simple Python function (or a class-based view). The view gets passed the following arguments:
      • An instance of HttpRequest.
      • If the matched URL pattern returned no named groups, then the matches from the regular expression are provided as positional arguments.
      • The keyword arguments are made up of any named parts matched by the path expression, overridden by any arguments specified in the optional kwargs argument to django.urls.path() or django.urls.re_path().
      • If no URL pattern matches, or if an exception is raised during any point in this process, Django invokes an appropriate error-handling view.

    89)  When to use the iterator in Django ORM?

    Ans:

    • Iterators are used for traversing an object in Python which implements iterator protocol. It consists of two methods __iter__() and next().
    • In Django, a good use of iterator is when you are processing results that take up a large amount of available memory (lots of small objects or fewer large objects).
    • For more clarification please read when to use and when to not use iterator() in the Python Django ORM

    90) When QuerySets are evaluated in Django?

    Ans:

    In Django, a QuerySet can be evaluated in Iteration, Slicing, Pickling/Caching, repr(),len(), list() and bool().

    91) How to check installed version of Django?

    Ans:

    By running below command on Terminal.You can check installed version of Django Framework.

    py -m django –version

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