[25+] HANDS-ON Cloud Computing Interview Questions & Answers
Last updated on 03rd Jul 2020, Blog, Interview Questions
Here we have a set of the most asked Cloud Computing interview questions that can help you clear your cloud job interview. You will learn different layers of cloud architecture, APIs for cloud, main components of AWS and Azure, cloud availability and reliability, layers of PaaS architecture, cloud service models, importance of Hybrid cloud, cloud security management, and more.
1. Explain Cloud Computing?
Cloud computing is a type of technology that delivers computing services such servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligence over the Internet (cloud) to promote scale economies and speedier innovation.The cloud services help in lowering the operating costs, running infrastructure more efficiently, and scaling as business needs change.
2. Explain the benefits of cloud computing?
The main benefits of cloud computing are:
- Firstly, cloud computing removes capital expense of buying a hardware and software and setting up and running on-site data centers.
- Secondly, it provides ability to scale elastically by delivering right amount of IT resources and from a right geographic location.
- Thirdly, it removes the need for a hardware setup, software patching, and the other time-consuming IT management chores to help an IT teams spend time on achieving the business goals.
- Fourthly, it makes a data backup, disaster recovery, and business continuity simpler and less expensive.
- Lastly, it offers the broad set of policies, technologies, and controls that strengthen a security posture overall for protecting a data, apps, and infrastructure from a potential threats.
3. What does different deployment models in cloud computing?
4. What does different service models in cloud computing?
- Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
- Platform as a Service (PaaS)
- Software as a Service (SaaS)
5. Distinguish difference between public and hybrid clouds?
- A public cloud is the cloud computing service offered by third-party cloud providers like a Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, or Google Cloud Platform. These services are available to general public and are accessible over internet.
- A hybrid cloud is a combination of both the public and private cloud infrastructure. This model allows the organizations to use both public and private cloud resources based on needs. For example, a company might store sensitive data on private cloud, while using a public cloud for a less critical applications.
6. What does serverless computing?
Serverless computing is the cloud computing model where cloud provider manages the infrastructure and automatically allocates the resources as needed to execute and scale applications. In serverless computing, the term “serverless” refers to fact that the customer does not need to manage or provision any servers or infrastructure themselves.
7. What does containerization, and how does it relate to cloud computing?
Containerization is the method of packaging and deploying software applications that allows them to run consistently and reliably across the different computing environments. Containers are lightweight, portable, and self-contained environments that bundle application along with its dependencies and configuration files into the single package.
In containerization, the application is abstracted away from underlying infrastructure, which makes it simpler to deploy and manage across different environments, like development, testing, and production. This allows for much efficient resource utilization and enables the faster and more consistent deployment of applications.
8. What does DevOps, and how does it relate to cloud computing?
DevOps is the software development methodology that emphasizes the collaboration and communication between the development and operations teams to streamline software delivery process. The goal of DevOps is to deliver the high-quality software faster and more reliably through continuous delivery and deployment process.
DevOps is closely related to the cloud computing because cloud environments provide the infrastructure and tools are necessary to support the DevOps methodology. Cloud computing provides the on-demand access to resources like computing power, storage, and networking, which can be provisioned and scaled up or down as needed. This allows development and operations teams to work together much efficiently and deliver a software more quickly.
9. How does ensure data security in the cloud?
Ensuring data security in cloud is a critical concern for organizations that save sensitive or confidential data in cloud.
- Data Encryption: Encrypting data before storing it in cloud is a best practice for securing data in cloud.
- Access Controls: Limiting access to data is the another key aspect of data security in the cloud. Organizations are should implement access controls that limit who can access data in cloud and what actions they can perform on that data.
- Regular Auditing and Monitoring: Regular auditing and monitoring of a cloud resources is important for detecting and responding to security threats. Organizations should monitor cloud environments for any unusual activity and review the logs regularly to identify any potential security incidents.
- Regular Backup and Recovery: Data availability in the case of a security breach or other disruption depends on regular backup and recovery procedures.
10. What does major uses of cloud computing?
- Cloud Computing helps to creating a cloud-native applications using technologies and approaches like containers, Kubernetes, microservices architecture, API-driven communication, and DevOps.
- We, can use cloud services are machine learning and artificial intelligence for uncovering the insights for a more informed decisions.
- Lastly, it includes the on-demand software that is software as a service (SaaS) that offers latest software versions and updates around to the customers anytime and anywhere.
11. Distinguish difference between scalability and elasticity in cloud computing?
Scalability refers to ability to increase or decrease amount of computing resources available to meet the changing demands. In other words, scalability is ability of a system to handle increasing workload by adding more resources, such as servers or storage devices, to the system. Scalability can be achieved through the horizontal scaling, where additional resources are added to increase capacity of the system, or vertical scaling, where resources are added to increase power of individual components.
Elasticity, on other hand, is the ability to automatically provision computing resources to meet the changing demands. The term “elasticity” refers particularly to a system’s capacity to dynamically scale up or down in response to variations in demand. Elasticity is a subset of scalability. This means that system can quickly and automatically adjust amount of resources allocated to it based on a demand, without requiring a human intervention.
12. What does load balancing in cloud computing?
Load balancing is the important component of cloud computing that helps to distribute computing resources and workloads evenly across the multiple servers, networks, or other computing resources. Load balancing is used to optimize the resource utilization, increase availability and reliability, and improve the performance of cloud-based applications and services.
13. How do you ensure high availability in the cloud?
Ensuring a high availability in cloud involves implementing strategies and best practices that minimize downtime and maintain the service availability even in the event of failures or disruptions. Here are some ways to ensure the high availability in cloud:
- Implement redundancy
- Use load balancing
- Monitor systems
- Implement disaster recovery
14. What does challenges associated with cloud computing?
Cloud computing has more benefits, including flexibility, scalability, and cost savings. However, there are also several challenges associated with the cloud computing, including:
- Security and privacy
- Dependence on the provider
- Data transfer costs
15. What are the most well-known cloud providers?
16. What essential things to be considered before selecting a cloud provider?
- Firstly, provider should have a track record of stability and be in healthy financial position with the sufficient capital for operating successfully over long term. They must have established risk management policies and formal process for assessing a third-party service providers and vendors.
- Secondly, the providers should be able to promise a basic level of service that are comfortable with. They must provide performance reports and control access for tracking and monitoring services.
- Thirdly, they must have mechanisms for simply deploying, managing, and upgrading a software and applications. Also, should use standard APIs and data transforms for the building connections to the cloud.
- Lastly, there must be comprehensive security infrastructure for all the levels and types of cloud services. They must offer the policies and procedures for ensuring integrity of customer data should be in the place and operational.
17. What is virtualization in cloud computing?
Virtualization is the key technology that underlies a cloud computing. It involves creating a virtual versions of hardware, operating systems, and other computing resources. The virtual resources are abstracted from their physical counterparts and can be used to run the multiple applications and workloads on a single physical server.
18. Differentiate between Hybrid Cloud and Hybrid IT?
- Hybrid clouds refer to combination of public and private clouds bounded together by technology. However, by allowing the data and applications for moving between private and public clouds, a hybrid cloud gives the business greater flexibility, more deployment options, and helps in optimizing existing infrastructure, security, and compliance.
- And, Hybrid IT refers to an approach for enterprising computing. In this, the organization provides and manages some IT resources within but uses the cloud-based services for others. However, the hybrid approach allows enterprises to maintain a centralized approach to IT governance, while testing with cloud computing.
19. Define Distributed Cloud?
The term “distributed cloud” describes the physical spread of public cloud services. This might be for administration, upgrades, and the development of services. The location of the cloud services is a key factor in this architecture.
20. Explain Multi-cloud?
The term “multicloud” refers to the use of various cloud computing and storage services within a single heterogeneous architecture. Additionally, this also includes the deployment of cloud resources, software, and applications across various cloud hosting environments.
21. What does various layers of cloud architecture?
The layers used by a cloud architecture include:
- Storage Controller (SC)
- Node Controller (NC)
- Cloud Controller
- Cluster Controller
22. Define system integrators in Cloud Computing?
Systems integrators are used for providing strategy of the complicated process which further designs the cloud platform. The Integrator in this provides the access for creating a more ccurate hybrid and private cloud networks using knowledge of data center creation.
23. How does monitor and optimize the performance of a cloud infrastructure?
- Establish baseline metrics
- Use monitoring tools
- Set up alerts
- Optimize infrastructure
- Test and iterate
24) Define Eucalyptus in cloud computing?
Eucalyptus refers to athe paid and open-source computer software for creating the Amazon Web Services-compatible private and hybrid cloud computing environments. This was developed by company Eucalyptus Systems.
25. How can define a cloud service?
Cloud service can be defined as a service used for creating cloud applications using server in a network through the internet overcloud. It provides the facility of having access to cloud application without any need for installing. Moreover, it helps in decreasing maintenance and support of the application which are developed using the cloud service.
26. What are components of Server Computer In Cloud Computing?
- Network connection
- Hard drives
- Power supply
27. What type of resources does an Infrastructure As A Service offer?
IaaS provides the physical and virtual resources for creating cloud. The complexity of maintaining and deploying the services offered by this layer may be handled by this.
28. Is Platform As A Service (PaaS) important?
Yes, PaaS is important layer of cloud computing architecture. This is created on infrastructure model which is used for providing the resources like computers, storage, and network. Further, this layer includes the organizing and operating the resources provided by below layer as well as providing the virtualization of the infrastructure layer for making it behave like single server.
29. Name data centers deployed in cloud computing?
- Containerized Datacenters: These refer to the traditional datacenters which provide access to high level of customization with servers, mainframe, and other resources.
- Low-Density Datacenters: These data centers are optimized for providing a high performance. However, in this, space constraint is eliminated thus, providing a high density.
30. Define API in Cloud Services?
API refers to the Application programming interface used in cloud platforms for providing easy implementation on system. It helps in eliminating need for writing full programs. Moreover, it offers instructions for making the communication between one or more applications. Using this, can easily build applications and link cloud services with the other systems. .
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31. How many modes are in Software As A Service (SaaS)?
SaaS provides the cloud application platform for creating the applications with the tools provided. The modes include:
- Simple multi-tenancy: The user has its own resources which differ from the others. This mode of SaaS defines efficiency in which the user has to add a more time and cost for more infrastructure if demand rises.
- Fine-grain multi-tenancy: There is no change in the functionality and resources can be shared between many. However, in this, there is no sharing of data and application permission which made it efficient.
32. Explain the level of security in the cloud.
Security is important when it comes to the applications and services used by users. However, there are many levels of security that the cloud offers:
- Identity management: This allows and authorizes application services or hardware components to be used by authorized users.
- Access control: This checks permissions that have to be provided to users so that they can control the access of the other users entering the cloud environment.
- Authorization and authentication: This provides a provision for allowing authorized and authenticated people only to access and change applications and data.
33. Differentiate Traditional Computing and Cloud Computing?
- The distribution of various services, including data and programs, across the internet and to various servers is provided by cloud computing. It performs operations on third-party servers hosted by a third-party hosting company. Moreover, it can be accessed from anywhere at any time. Lastly, it is more cost-effective.
- On the other hand, traditional computing provides delivery of different services on the local server. It performs the operations on physical hard drives and website servers. Users can only access data stored on the system. Lastly, it is less cost-effective as there is the requirement of equipment for operating and maintaining servers.
34. Explain some examples of top cloud provider’s database?
Cloud computing consists of more cloud providers with the supported databases. Some of them are:
- Google BigTable: This is basically a hybrid cloud with a big table divided into tables and rows. This uses MapReduce for modifying and generating the data.
- Amazon SimpleDB: This refers to the web service used for querying and indexing data. This is performed for storing, processing, and creating queries on data sets within the cloud platform.
- Cloud-based SQL: This is a SQL database that is introduced by a Microsoft. This is used for providing a data storage by the usage of the relational models in the cloud.
35. We source cloud computing platform databases?
Following are the open source cloud computing platform databases:
36. Distinguish difference between IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS?
- Infrastructure as a Service : IaaS is the cloud computing model in which cloud provider offers the virtualized computing resources, such as servers, storage, and networking, to users over internet. With IaaS, users are responsible for managing own operating systems, applications, and data.
- Platform as a Service: PaaS offers the platform, which comes with the operating system, development tools, and other resources required for the creation and deployment of applications.
- Software as a Service: SaaS is the cloud computing model in whicha cloud provider offers the software applications to users over internet.
37. What does major requirements of virtualization platforms for implementing in cloud?
Virtualization refers to basis of cloud computing. There are various platforms are VMware that offer technology for creating private cloud and providing a path for connecting external clouds with the private clouds. there are three main features identified for creating private cloud:
- Cloud operating system.
- Manage the Service level policies.
38. Explain Utility Computing?
Utility computing helps the users to pay only for what they use. This is basically plugin that the organization manages for deciding what type of services has to be deployed fromcloud. Further, this also provides the user access for implementing services according to them.
39) Distinguish between cloud computing and mobile computing?
- Cloud computing deals with new technologies and services that allow the data to be sent over distributed networks using wireless connections. Cloud providers serve multiple clients and they also manage access between the client’s local or closed networks.
- Whereas mobile computing relates to new devices and interfaces. This is performed on mobile devices like smartphones and tablets, which enable users to access the Internet through browsers, run several software programs on top of a single operating system, and transmit and receive various kinds of data.
40. Define Memcache and Memcached.
- Memcache helps in enabling the user to work using handy object-oriented and procedural interfaces. This has the ability to reduce the database load in dynamic web applications.
- Memcached has support of libMemcached library for providing the API for communicating with the Memcached servers.
41. Name the types of virtualization in cloud computing?
The different types of virtualization in the cloud computing are:
- Memory Virtualization
- Storage Virtualization
- Data Virtualization
- Hardware Virtualization
- Software Virtualization
- Network Virtualization
- Desktop Virtualization
42. Define VPN?
Virtual Private Network, or VPN, is a connection technique that acts as a security and privacy provider for both public and private networks, including Wi-Fi hotspots and the Internet. Moreover, it helps in creating the secure dial-up connection to the remote server.
43. Explain the term data encapsulation?
Data encapsulation is used for performing the restricted set of operations in which it breaks down information into the smaller and manageable chunks before their transmission across network. This is also known as data hiding which keeps a class implementation details hidden from users.
44. Mention the major components of cloud architecture?
- Cloud Ingress
- Processor Speed
- Intra-cloud communications
- Cloud provided services
- Cloud storage services
45. Mention the characteristics of cloud computing?
Cloud computing provides:
- A Standardized interfaces
- Self-service provisioning and automatic de-provisioning
- Elasticity and Scalability
- Billing self-service-based usage model
46. What is data center? name some of the major data centers in a cloud computing?
A data center acts as house server and data storage for organization. This includes:
- Firstly, own the hardware itself
- Secondly, the space in which it is housed
- Thirdly, power systems and backup systems
- Then, environmental controls
- Lastly, is anything else required to keep servers running.
However, the data center can be a single server or a complex with hundreds of servers on racks. Some of the data centers in cloud computing include:
- Low-density datacenter
- Containerized data centers
47. What type of service Windows Azure operating system provides?
The services offered by a Window azure operating system includes:
- Data Analytics
- Virtual Machine
48. Define CaaS?
CaaS stands for the Containers as a Service ( CaaS ) which is basically cloud-based service that provides access to the software developers and IT departments for uploading, organizing, running, scaling, and managing containers by using the container-based virtualization.
49. How can you differentiate Scalability and Elasticity?
Scalability in the cloud computing defines how increasing workload can be managed by increasing amount of resource capacity.
On the other hand, elasticity is used for highlighting the concept of commissioning and decommissioning of a large amount of resource capacity.
50. What does use of a buffer in AWS?
Buffer is used for creating system more accurately against burst of traffic. This helps in aligning different components. However, these components are equivalent as they managed by the buffers in order for making them work at a same speed for providing a faster services.
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51. Define OpenStack.
OpenStack refers to the open-source cloud computing element serving IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service). This has control over the big chunks of computing, storage, and networking resources that are managed using the APIs or a dashboard.
52. How to migrate the on-premise application to the cloud?
Migrating on-premise application to cloud can be a complex process, but here are some general steps can follow to make migration smoother:
- Assess the application: Before migrating the application to the cloud, one should assess it to determine which cloud model (IaaS, PaaS, or SaaS) is best suited for it. should also assess the application’s dependencies and any potential compatibility issues.
- Choose a cloud provider: Once have assessed the application, can choose the cloud provider that meets your requirements. And should consider factors such as pricing, security, and scalability when choosing the provider.
- Plan the migration: Planning is critical to the success of the migration. should develop a detailed plan that outlines the steps involved, the timeline, and any potential risks.
- Prepare application: Prepare the application for migration by ensuring that it is up-to-date and compatible with a cloud environment. May need to make changes to the application to ensure compatibility with the cloud provider’s infrastructure.
- Set up a cloud environment: Set up a cloud environment, including the networking, storage, and computing resources.
- Migrate your application: can use different methods to migrate the application to the cloud, like rehosting, refactoring, or rebuilding. The method chosen will depend on the application and the cloud model selected.
53. What are the components of AWS?
The major components of the AWS include:
- Amazon Cluster
- Management and security
- Application services
- Implementation and management.
54. What does some of the most important considerations when planning cloud migration project?
- Application Assessment
- Cloud Provider Selection
- Security and Compliance
- Migration Strategy
- Data Transfer and Integration
- Network and Infrastructure
- Testing and Validation
- Cost Optimization.
55. Explain the types of roles in a Microsoft Azure?
- Web Role: This is used for deploying the websites by using language that supports IIS platform customized for running web apps.
- Worker Role: This is for executing a process that runs in the background by
- VM Role: This helps in scheduling Windows services and tasks.
56. What is data encapsulation?
Data encapsulation is also known as data hiding. It is performing a restricted set of operations like breaking down information into smaller, manageable chunks before their transmission across the network. It is a process of keeping the class implementation details away from the users.
57. Define VPC?
VPC is the Virtual Private Cloud that provides the access for customizing a networking configuration. This refers to the network that is isolated from the other networks in cloud. Further, it also allows to have a private IP Address range, internet gateways, subnets, and security groups.
58. Explain the Azure Active Directory (AD) service?
Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) refers to the multi-tenant cloud-based identity and directory management service which is the mixture of core directory services, application access management, and identity protection.
59. Explain various phases in cloud architecture?
The phases in a cloud architecture are:
- Launch Phase
- Monitor Phase
- Shutdown Phase
- Cleanup Phase
60. Explain the term Cloud-Native?
Cloud-native is the method used for building and running applications using advantages of the cloud computing delivery model. This incorporates concepts of DevOps, continuous delivery, microservices, and containers.
61. Explain the principles of Cloud-Native.
The principles include:
- Declare and Isolate Dependencies
- Configuration in environment
- Backup Services
- Building, releasing, running
- After that, the Application running processes
- Exporting services through the port links
- Scaling using a a process model
- Treating logs as event streams.
- Running administration tasks as a single processes
62. Define Edge Computing.
Edge computing is the physical location and latency issues. This includes the concepts that combine the centralized system’s strengths with benefits of distributed operations in physical location for helping users to the connect.
Microsoft SQL Azure has the same feature of SQL Server, i.e. high availability, scalability and security in the core.
Microsoft Azure SQL Database has a feature, it automatically creates backups of every active database. Every hour a backup is taken and geo-replicated to enable the 1-hour recovery point objective (RPO) for Geo-Restore. Additionally, transaction log backups are taken every 5 minutes to enable Point in Time Restore.
63. Define security management system of Cloud Computing.
- This includes the Identity management access (IMA) for providing an authorization of application services.
- Secondly, access control permission is given to users for having completing controlling access of the another user entering into cloud environment
- Lastly, authentication and authorization provide the access to authorized and authenticated users only for accessing data and applications
64. What does process of securing data for transport in the cloud?
While transporting data in the cloud computing environment, ensure that no one can intercept a data when it moves from point A to point B in the cloud. And check for a data leaks. However, can use the virtual private network (VPN) for securing data while it is being transported in cloud. This converts the public network to the private network instead.
65. What is basic functions of VPN?
- A VPN can use a firewall that will act as a barrier between public and any private network.
- It helps in encrypting a data for protecting it from the hackers. This data will only be accessed by a key have.
66. Define hypervisor in Cloud Computing.
Hypervisor refers to the virtual machine screen used for managing resources for a virtual machines. This performs assigning, partitioning, isolating or changing with program given as a virtualization hypervisor. Further, hardware hypervisor provides access for having the multiple guest Operating Systems running on single host system at a same time. This is also called the Virtual Machine Manager.
67. How many types of hypervisor are there?
There are the two types of the hypervisor:
- Type 1. In this, the guest VM runs directly over a host hardware. For example, Citrix XenServer, VMware ESXi.
- Type 2. In this, guest VM runs over the hardware through a host OS. For example, oracle virtual box, Vmware Player.
68. Why did choose Cloud Computing?
Cloud computing is most Advance technological innovation nowadays. This technology has shown fastest adoption into mainstream and this has further enhanced the number of a smartphones and mobile devices which may access web. By providing solutions for running, managing, and operating applications from anywhere, Cloud computing also provides the support for storing and keeping a data safe. This has been main source for providing benefits to more top organizations.
69. What are the benefits of cloud computing in future?
- Considering the benefits and services of cloud computing provides to the organizations,. Cloud Computing helps in creating a cloud-native applications using the technologies and approaches like the containers, Kubernetes, microservices architecture, API-driven communication, and DevOps.
- Secondly, It aids in lowering application development costs and time by utilizing cloud infrastructures that can be quickly scaled up and down.
- After that, can use cloud services like machine learning and artificial intelligence to uncover insights for more informed decisions.
- Lastly, it includes on-demand software that is a software as a service (SaaS) that offers latest software versions and updates around to the customers anytime and anywhere.
70. What risks can face in cloud computing?
- There can be a loss of data. That is to say, data stored can be leaked, deleted, corrupted, or can be misused by user.
- Interface used for connecting a cloud using the internet is further connected to the cloud services using third parties. This can be attacked by hackers as these services use the public domain.
- There can data breaching in which secured data is taken illegally in unauthorized way by the hackers.
- There can be DoS attackers who attack web serves of large organizations when a system receives traffic more than threshold.
- The account can be hijacked in which hackers steal information related to cloud account which includes the bank accounted-mail account and social media account.
71. Which layer is responsible for performing the user authentication in cloud computing?
The infrastructure as a service (IaaS) layer performs the user authentication in a cloud computing. This layer is user-based layer that performs authentication operations like a accessing, managing, and watching.
72. Define Load Balancing in Cloud Computing.
Load balancing refers to distribution of workloads over the multiple computing resources. This helps in reducing prices related to management systems and increases handiness of resources. Moreover, it helps in transferring the masses to servers globally as a hostile distributing it over native servers.
73. What does process of vertically scaling an Amazon instance?
Vertically scaling is important part of AWS and cloud virtualization. In this, first, spin up a newly developed large instance. Here, have to pause that instance and remove a root EBS volume from the server and discard it. After that, stop live instance and removes its root volume connected. However, must remember the unique device ID and attach same root volume to new server, and then restart it again. This will lead to towards vertically scaling of Amazon instance.
74. What does security usage in the Amazon Web Services model.
In the AWS model, access is granted for creating the security group for a jump box with the SSH access only for port 22 open. After that, webserver group and a database group are built.
75. Define Amazon S3.
Amazon S3 is the Simple Storage Service used for storing and retrieving the any amount of data, at any time and from anywhere on a web. This works on pay-as-you-go pricing model.
76. Explain the process of sending a request to Amazon S3?
Amazon S3 refers to the REST Service in which can send a request by using the REST API or AWS SDK wrapper libraries. This library wraps underlying Amazon S3 REST API.
77. What does Amazon Machine Images (AMI) include?
- Template for a root volume for the instance.
- Launching permissions for deciding which AWS accounts can avail AMI to launch instances.
- A block device mapping for determining a volume to attach to an instance when it is launched.
78. Explain various types of Instances?
- Compute Optimized
- Accelerated Computing
- General Purpose
- Storage Optimized
79. Define Amazon EC2?
Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) refers to the web service used for providing secure, resizable compute capacity in cloud. This is planned for making a web-scale cloud computing easier for the developers. Moreover, the Amazon EC2 interface provide the access for obtaining and configuring capacity with the minimal friction.
80. Define GCP (Google Cloud Platform).
GCP (Google Cloud Platform) refers to the cloud platform managed by Google. This is the combination of services like a Compute, Storage, Virtual Machine, Networking, Big Data, Machine Learning, Databases, and Management. Using services, GCP provides ways for a faster app development, making smarter business decisions, and connecting the people anywhere.