MOST In-DEMAND AWS Interview Questions & Answers [LATEST]

MOST In-DEMAND AWS Interview Questions & Answers [LATEST]

Last updated on 08th Jun 2020, Blog, Interview Questions

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Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a prominent and highly influential cloud computing platform offered by Amazon Web Services, Inc. It has fundamentally transformed the way organizations, developers, and individuals build, deploy, and manage their IT infrastructure and applications. Due to its extensive range of cloud services, AWS is the preferred option for companies of all kinds. AWS’s compute services are at the core of its offerings. Amazon EC2, for instance, provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud, enabling users to run a wide range of applications. AWS Lambda, on the other hand, offers serverless computing, allowing developers to execute code in response to events without the need to manage servers. These services offer flexibility, scalability, and cost-effectiveness, aligning well with the needs of modern businesses.

1. What is Amazon S3?


Amazon Simple Storage Service is a scalable object storage services can save and retrieve data utilising web interfaces, making it a popular choice for backup, archiving, content distribution, and other applications. S3 is built to last for 99.999999999% (11 9’s) and has robust security and compliance features. Objects are organised into “buckets” in S3, and each object is recognised by a unique key.

2. What is AWS Lambda?


AWS Lambda is a computing technology that enables you to run your law without creating or managing servers.Simply submit your legislation, and AWS Lambda will take care of running and accurately gauging it.

There are some crucial features realated to it:

  • Event driven
  • Scalable
  • Stateless

3. What is the significance of an AMI in EC2?


Blueprint: It’s a template containing the OS, software, and configurations needed to launch an instance.

Flexibility: Users can pick from pre-made AMIs or create their own for customized setups.

Consistency: Ensures uniform configuration across multiple instances.

Scaling: Critical for launching multiple instances quickly, especially in auto-scaling scenarios.

Backup & Recovery: Can act as a backup of the instance’s configuration, facilitating quick recovery.

4. What’s VPC in AWS?


Virtual Private Cloud ( VPC) is a logically insulated section of the AWS Cloud where you can launch AWS coffers in a defined virtual network.

  • Define your own IP address range.
  • produce subnets.
  • Configure routing and gateways.
  • Control access using security groups and network ACLs.

5. How does AWS handle security?


AWS offers a participated responsibility paradigm in which guests and AWS both control security in the pall. For safe pall computing, AWS provides a number of features and technologies.

6. Explain Elastic cargo Balancing( ELB).


ELB automatically distributes incoming operation business across multiple targets, similar as EC2 cases, to insure no single point of failure.

  • High vacuity by turning business down from unhealthy cases.
  • Scalability by conforming to incoming operation business patterns.
  • Fault forbearance by distributing business across multiple cases and zones.

7. What’s the AWS Well- Architected Framework?


The AWS Well- Architected Framework provides stylish practices across colorful pillars security, trustability, performance effectiveness, cost optimization, and functional excellence) to help guests in developing operations’ safe, effective, robust, and effective structure.

AWS Well- Architected Framework

8. Explain the crucial factors of AWS Lambda.


AWS Lambda comprises functions, event sources, and triggers. Functions are units of prosecution that are called by event sources or triggers in response to colorful events, similar as updates to DynamoDB tables or changes to data in S3 pails.

9. What’s Auto Scaling in AWS?


Auto Scaling is a feature provided by Amazon Web Services that allows you to automatically adjust the number of compute resources in your application or infrastructure to handle changes in workload. In order to maintain optimal performance and availability, AWS Auto Scaling can therefore automatically add or remove instances as demand for your application or service rises or falls.

10. Explain the difference between EC2 and S3.


  Feature Amazon EC2 Amazon S3
Service Type

Compute Service

Storage Service
Purpose Virtual Servers (Compute Resources) Object Storage (Data Storage)
Use Case Hosting Applications and Services Storing and Retrieving Data

Vertical and Horizontal Scaling

Designed for Object Storage

11. What’s DynamoDB, and how does it differ from other databases?


DynamoDB is a completely managed NoSQL database service by AWS. It’s designed for high- performance operations and offers flawless scalability. Unlike traditional relational databases, DynamoDB isschema-less, allowing for inflexibility in data modeling.

12. Explain the conception of CloudWatch in AWS.


  • Amazon CloudWatch is a monitoring and observability service.
  • It collects and track criteria , collects and monitors log lines, and sets admonitions.
  • It provides perceptivity into resource utilisation, functional performance, and overall health.

13. What’s the purpose of an Amazon VPC Gateway Endpoint?


A VPC Gateway Endpoint enables communication between your VPC and compatible AWS services( similar S3) without taking a NAT device, VPN connection, or internet gateway.

14. Explain the difference between Amazon RDS and Amazon DynamoDB.


  Amazon RDS (Relational Database Service):

  • Type: Relational database service.
  • Model: SQL-based, with support for various engines like MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, MariaDB.
  • Use Cases: Structured data storage, complex queries, and transactions.

Amazon DynamoDB:

  • Type: NoSQL database service.
  • Model: Key-value and document data structures.
  • Use Cases: High-velocity, large-scale applications, where low-latency data access is critical.

15. How does AWS handle data transfer and bandwidth costs between different regions?


Data transfer between AWS regions is considered as internet data transfer, and normal data transfer charges apply. It’s essential to be aware of costs associated withcross-region data transfer.

16. What is AWS CloudFormation?


AWS CloudFormation is an AWS service that enables customers to create, deploy, and manage infrastructure as code. CloudFormation simplifies the provisioning and administration of AWS resources as a grouped “stack” by using templates written in JSON or YAML. It ensures consistent infrastructure deployment, supports version control, and offers automatic rollbacks in case of errors. Essentially, it provides a systematic way to create and manage AWS resources with repeatability and predictability.

17. How does AWS ensure data durability in Amazon S3?


Redundancy: Automatically replicating data across multiple servers and data centers within a region.

Multi-AZ Storage: Storing multiple copies of data in different Availability Zones.

Checksums: Regularly verifying data integrity using checksums.

Versioning: Optionally retaining all versions of an object, including deletions.

Infrastructure: Using resilient infrastructure and techniques to handle hardware failures.

18. Explain the concept of Amazon VPC Peering.


Amazon VPC Peering connects two VPCs and routes traffic between them using private IP addresses as if they are on the same network. In AWS, they may connect directly, sharing resources and communicating discreetly. This connection can occur between VPCs in the same or different regions and even across AWS accounts. However, the relationship is non-transitive, meaning each peering connection is a direct link between two VPCs only. Essentially, it’s a secure way to bridge two VPCs without using the public internet.

19. What is the purpose of an AWS Key Management Service (KMS)?


Secure Key Management: Centralize the management of cryptographic keys.

Data Encryption: Encrypt data stored in AWS services and applications.

Access Control: Define who can use or manage keys using IAM policies.

Audit: Log all key usage to ensure compliance and security monitoring.

20. What is AWS Elastic Beanstalk?


AWS Elastic Beanstalk is an Amazon Web Services (AWS) completely managed solution that makes it simple to install, maintain, and grow applications in the AWS cloud.Users simply upload their code, and Elastic Beanstalk handles the deployment, server provisioning, load balancing, and auto-scaling.

It’s designed for developers who want to deploy applications without managing the underlying infrastructure. In essence, it offers a streamlined platform for deploying and running web apps and services on AWS.

21. How does Amazon CloudWatch help in monitoring AWS resources?


Monitor Performance: Track resource utilization and application performance.

Set Alarms: Receive notifications based on defined thresholds.

Visualize Data: Create dashboards for real-time overview.

Analyze Logs: Aggregate and analyze log data for insights.

Detect Anomalies: Spot unusual behaviors using machine learning.

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    22. Explain the concept of AWS Lambda Layers.


    AWS Lambda Layers allow you to centrally manage and share code, libraries, and other function dependencies across multiple Lambda functions. Layers separate the shared resources from the main function code, promoting consistency, easier updates, and reduced duplication. Essentially, they streamline Lambda function deployments by modularizing and reusing shared components.

    23. What is the significance of an EC2 instance type?


    EC2 instance types determine the hardware of the host computer used for the instance and define the instance’s CPU, memory, storage, and networking capacity.

    Performance: CPU, memory, storage, and networking capabilities.

    Cost: Pricing based on the chosen instance type.

    Use Cases: Optimized for specific tasks, such as compute, memory, storage, or GPU processing.

    24. What is Amazon EBS?


    Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) provides block-level storage volumes for use withAmazon EC2 instances and is particularly suitable for database storage. AWS offers a high-performance, reliable storage solution called Amazon EBS. EBS volumes are used for data retention, backups, and as the primary storage for databases, applications, and more. They may be attached to or removed from EC2 instances. In essence, EBS offers scalable and reliable storage for AWS workloads.

    25. Describe the primary use cases in AWS Datasync.


    Migration: Move data from on-premises to AWS.

    Disaster Recovery: Backup on-premises data to AWS.

    Data Processing: Transfer data for cloud-based processing.

    Content Distribution: Spread data across AWS regions or locations.

    Archival: Send data to AWS for long-term storage.

    Hybrid Cloud Workloads: Synchronize data between on-premises and AWS.

    26. Describe the components of AWS IAM and their roles.


    AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) has users, groups, roles, and policies.Users are individual accounts, groups bundle users, roles define a set of permissions,and policies are the rules. Together, they manage access to AWS services securely.

    27. Explain the difference between EC2 and Lambda.


    Elastic computation Cloud, or EC2, is an AWS service that offers scalable computation power in the cloud. It’s comparable to managing virtual servers on the cloud. In contrast, Lambda is a serverless computing service. It enables you to execute your code without setting up or controlling servers. Simply submit your code, and Lambda will scale and manage the computational resources automatically.

    28. How does the AWS Lambda pricing model differ from EC2 pricing?


    EC2 have different pricing models. Lambda charges per invocationand execution time, while EC2 charges for provisioned compute capacity per hour.Lambda is more event-driven and scales automatically, making it suitable for short,sporadic workloads. EC2 provides more control over the environment but requires manual scaling and incurs costs even if the instance is idle.

    29. What is the significance of Amazon SNS and SQS?


    Amazon SNS (Simple Notification Service) and SQS (Simple Queue Service) are bothAWS messaging services, but they serve different purposes. SNS is used for push notifications, enabling you to send messages or alerts to a distributed set of recipients. On the other hand, SQS is a message queue service that decouples the components ofa cloud application, allowing them to operate independently.

    In essence, SNS is about broadcasting messages to multiple subscribers, while SQS is more focused on managing queues and ensuring reliable message processing between different parts of a system. They often work together in scenarios where you need a combination of broadcast notifications and queuing for decoupling and scalability.

    30. What is CloudFormation, and why would you use it?


    CloudFormation is an AWS service that allows you to define and provision your AWSinfrastructure as code. It uses templates to declare the resources and their configurations, enabling you to automate the deployment and management of your infrastructure. It’s handy for consistency, version control, and efficient resource scaling.

    31. Explain the Shared Responsibility Model in AWS security.


    AWS (“Security of the Cloud”):

    • Manages foundational infrastructure.
    • Ensures security for core cloud services.
    • Patches infrastructure-level software.

    Customer (“Security in the Cloud”):

    • Encrypts data, manages user access.
    • Implements network protections like firewalls.
    • Maintains guest OS and application security.

    32. Describe the difference between scalability and elasticity.


    Scalability: The ability of a system to handle increased load by adding resources, typically in a planned manner.

    Elasticity: The ability of a system to automatically add or remove resources on-the-fly based on real-time demand.

    33. What are the key components of AWS?


    EC2: Virtual servers.

    S3: Object storage.

    RDS: Managed relational databases.

    VPC: Private networks.

    IAM: User and permission management.

    EBS: Block storage for EC2.

    ELB: Traffic load balancer.

    34. What is an Amazon Machine Image (AMI)?


    A virtual machine image that has already been prepared and is used to launch instances in Amazon Web Services. An AMI is a template provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS) that contains a pre-packaged environment, including the operating system and any additional software or configurations. When launching an instance in Amazon EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud), you start with an AMI.

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    35. What is the purpose of Amazon VPC?


    VPC provides a private section of AWS Cloud for users to launch resources in a virtual network they define. Its purposes include:

    • Offering network isolation and security.
    • Allowing customized network configurations with subnets.
    • Connecting to on-premises networks via VPN.
    • Controlling access with Network ACLs and Security Groups.
    • Integrating with other AWS services.

    36. What is the significance of a key pair in AWS?


    In AWS, it’s primarily used to securely connect (SSH for Linux or RDP for Windows) to EC2 instances. The public key is stored on the instance, and the private key is used to authenticate. Losing the private key means losing the ability to connect to the instance securely.

    37. Define CloudWatch in AWS.


    CloudWatch is AWS’s monitoring service. It tracks metrics, logs, and sets alarms for AWS resources and applications. Features include:

    • Monitoring AWS resources and custom metrics.
    • Setting and receiving alerts with alarms.
    • Visualizing data using dashboards.
    • Collecting and analyzing logs.
    • Responding to resource changes with events.

    38. What are the types of AMI?


    EBS-Backed AMIs: These AMIs are backed by Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) volumes. The root volume (and any other volumes) persists independently from the running instance.

    Instance Store-Backed AMIs: These AMIs use storage from the instance itself (ephemeral storage). When the instance terminates, the data on the instance store is lost.

    39. What is AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)?


    IAM is AWS’s service for managing access to its resources. Key features include:

    • Creating users and groups for access control.
    • Assigning roles with specific permissions.
    • Setting policies that define permissions.
    • Enhancing security with Multi-Factor Authentication(MFA).
    • Providing temporary credentials for short-term access.
    • Federating identities from third-party providers.

    40. Explain the significance of Auto Scaling.


    Optimized Performance: By maintaining the necessary resources, it ensures applications run smoothly.

    Cost Efficiency: Only uses and charges for resources that are actually needed.

    High Availability: Replaces failed instances and adapts to different load levels, reducing downtime.

    Scalability: Seamlessly handles traffic peaks and lows by scaling resources in or out.

    41. What is the importance of an Elastic Load Balancer (ELB) in AWS?


    • Efficient traffic distribution across multiple targets.
    • Enhanced application availability across availability zones.
    • Automatic health checks for fault tolerance.
    • Dynamic scaling based on traffic.
    • Secure, encrypted connections with HTTPS.
    • Application-specific request routing.

    42. What is the AWS Shared Responsibility Model?


    AWS and its clients have roles and responsibilities when it comes to safeguarding infrastructure and data in the AWS cloud. These roles and responsibilities are outlined in the AWS Shared Responsibility Model, a security framework. Understanding this model is necessary to ascertain who is in charge of what in terms of security and compliance.

    43. What is the difference between horizontal and vertical scaling?


    Horizontal Scaling (Scale Out/In): Involves adding or removing servers or nodes.

    Example: Adding more instances in an AWS EC2 Auto Scaling group.

    Vertical Scaling (Scale Up/Down): Involves increasing or decreasing the resources (CPU, RAM) of an existing server or node.

    Example: Upgrading an EC2 instance from “t2.medium” to “t2.large”.

    44. What is AWS KMS?


    Purpose: A managed service that simplifies the creation and management of cryptographic keys used to encrypt data for customers.

    Integrated: Seamlessly integrated with other AWS services to encrypt data stored in services like S3, RDS, and EBS.

    Centralized Control: Provides centralized control over cryptographic keys, allowing users to create, disable, and rotate keys.

    Audit: Logs every use of keys in AWS CloudTrail, aiding in regulatory and compliance needs.

    45. How does Amazon Redshift differ from traditional databases?


    Amazon Redshift differs from traditional databases in its columnar storage, massively parallel processing (MPP) architecture, and focus on data warehousing and analytics. Its columnar storage offers superior query performance, and MPP enables parallel processing for large datasets, making it ideal for analytics. The scalability and performance of traditional databases may not be as good for analytical tasks because they are typically row-based and made for transactional workloads.

    46. Define AWS Opsworks.


    Service: A configuration management service to automate deployment, scaling, and management of applications.

    Stacks & Layers: Organizes infrastructure into stacks and layers, defining how instances and resources interact.

    Automation: Uses Chef and Puppet to automate server configurations, deployments, and more.

    Customization: Provides flexibility to define app architecture and resource configurations.

    47. Explain AWS Snowball Edge.


    AWS Snowball Edge is a specialized data transfer and edge computing device offered by Amazon Web Services (AWS). It’s designed to address the challenge of moving large volumes of data to and from the cloud in situations where using the internet may not be practical or efficient. Additionally, Snowball Edge extends its functionality to perform limited edge computing tasks, making it useful for remote or disconnected environments.

    48. Explain EC2 instances.


     Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) is a resizable compute capacity cloud computing service provided by Amazon. Users may use it to run virtual servers for a variety of applications.

    49. How does CloudWatch differ from CloudTrail in terms of functionality?



    • Monitors AWS resource performance in real-time.
    • Tracks metrics, logs, and sets alarms.
    • Focuses on system health and performance.


    • Records AWS API calls.
    • Logs account activity details, like source IP and action.
    • Focuses on auditing and compliance.

    50. What is VPC?


    Definition: A private, isolated area of the AWS Cloud where resources in a virtual network can be launched.

    Customizable: Create subnets, define your own IP address range, and set up route tables and network gateways.

    Secure: Control inbound and outbound traffic with security groups and network access control lists (NACLs).

    Connectivity Options: Connect VPC to the internet, your on-premises data center, or other VPCs.

    51. What is AWS CloudTrail?


    AWS CloudTrail is a service that analyses AWS API calls for your account and sends them to your Amazon S3 bucket.

    A service that logs and monitors account activity within AWS. Records AWS API calls, including source IP, account, action, and affected resources.

    Aids in security analysis, compliance, and governance. Integrated with Amazon S3 for log storage and querying.

    52. What is the significance of an Amazon Machine Image (AMI) in EC2?


    An AMI is essential as it contains the information required to launch an instance,including the root volume snapshot, launch permissions, and block device mapping. Consistency: Ensures that EC2 instances launch with a known configuration.

    53. How do you optimize AWS costs for a large-scale application?


    Reserved Instances: Pre-purchase for predictable workloads.

    Spot Instances: Use for non-critical, flexible tasks.

    CloudWatch: Monitor and identify underutilized resources.

    S3 Policies: Transition or delete old data.

    Clean-Up: Remove unused instances and snapshots.

    Auto Scaling: Adjust resources based on real-time demand.

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    54. Explain the differences between Spot, On-Demand, and Reserved instances.


    Spot Instances: They are the cheapest but are preemptible and can be terminated with little notice.

    On-Demand Instances: You pay for what you use without any upfront fees, suitable for unpredictable workloads.

    Reserved Instances: You commit to a specific instance type in exchange for a lower hourly rate, making them cost-effective for predictable workloads over a longer term.

    55. How do you secure data at rest and in transit in AWS?


    Data at rest can be secured using encryption mechanisms like AWS Key Management Service (KMS) for EBS volumes and S3 objects. Data in transit can be secured with SSL/TLS for services like ELB and using VPN or Direct Connect for private network connections.

    56. Describe how you’d set up a multi-region, active-active architecture in AWS.


    To set up such an architecture, you’d typically use AWS services like Route 53 for DNS-based routing, and distribute your application and data across multiple AWS regions. This involves setting up cross-region replication and failover mechanisms for high availability.

    57. What is the purpose of AWS Organizations?


    AWS Organisations is a service that allows you to manage multiple AWS accounts. It aids in the centralization of billing, the consolidation of services, and the application of policies across accounts for cost and security management.

    58. How do you monitor and troubleshoot latency issues in an AWS environment?


     CloudWatch: Monitor metrics, set alarms, and log data to identify latency anomalies.

    X-Ray: Trace requests to find bottlenecks or slow services.

    CloudTrail: Audit AWS service calls to detect operational issues.

    VPC Flow Logs: Identify network traffic patterns contributing to latency.

    59. What are the steps to setup monitoring?


    • Choose a monitoring service (e.g., Amazon CloudWatch).
    • Define what you want to monitor (e.g., EC2 instances, S3 buckets).
    • Create and configure CloudWatch Alarms.
    • Set up custom metrics and logs as needed.
    • Configure notifications and actions for alarms.

    60. Explain how AWS VPC peering works.


    VPC Peering connects two VPCs, allowing traffic to flow securely between them. Both VPCs must have non-overlapping IP address ranges. Peering is not transitive, so for three VPCs to communicate, you need to set up peering connections for each pair. You control access through route tables and security groups.

    61. Detailed note on AWS VPC limitations.


    • A VPC can have a maximum of 5 VPC peering connections by default.
    • The maximum number of Elastic IP addresses is 5 per region. Each AWS account has a soft limit on the number of VPCs and instances.

    62. What’s the distinction between AWS WAF and AWS Shield?


    AWS WAF is a service for filtering HTTP and HTTPS requests to protect against web application layer attacks.AWS Shield is a DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) protection service for safeguarding against network and transport layer attacks. While WAF focuses on application-specific threats, Shield defends against broader infrastructure-level attacks.

    63. Explain the use of AWS Step Functions in serverless architectures.


    AWS Step Functions is a service that orchestrates and coordinates multiple Amazon Web Services services in serverless workflows.

    It helps manage the flow of data between services, making it easier to design and visualize complex serverless applications.

    64. How does Amazon RDS Multi-AZ deployments differ from Read Replicas?


    • Multi-AZ deployments provide high availability by maintaining a standby database in a different Availability Zone for automatic failover.
    • Read Replicas are used to offload read traffic from the primary database, providing read scalability but not failover capabilities.

    65. Compare AWS Fargate and EC2.


    AWS Fargate:

    • Serverless container management platform.
    • No need to manage the underlying EC2 instances.


    • Traditional virtual machine service where you manage the EC2 instances.
    • You have more control over the instance type, OS, and configuration.

    66. How would you set up a Disaster Recovery strategy using AWS services?


    • Identify critical workloads and data.
    • Choose a secondary AWS region for replication.
    • Implement data replication mechanisms.
    • Automate resource deployment with Infrastructure as Code.
    • Set up monitoring and regular testing.
    • Define failover procedures.
    • Document the DR plan and provide training.
    • Keep the plan up to date as your infrastructure evolves.

    67. What is AWS EventBridge, and how does it differ from others?


    AWS EventBridge is a fully managed event bus service that simplifies event-driven application development by providing advanced event routing and integration capabilities.

    EventBridge differs from other event services in its advanced event routing, automated schema discovery, and seamless integration with AWS services and third-party applications.

    68. Describe AWS Lambda’s cold start.


    When a Lambda function is invoked, it may experience a “cold start,” where AWS initializes the execution environment for that function. Cold starts can add a slight delay to the initial function invocation but are typically minimal and vary based on factors like the function’s size and complexity. AWS has been working on reducing cold start times to improve performance.

    69. How would you set up centralized logging for applications deployed in multiple AWS accounts?


    Dedicate one AWS account as a centralized log repository.Use AWS Organizations to enable cross-account access.Create IAM roles and policies for log forwarding in each account.

    Configure log groups in each account to send data to the centralized account.Analyze logs from the central account using CloudWatch or other log analysis tools.

    70. How do you handle state management in serverless applications?


    • Use databases (e.g., DynamoDB).
    • Apply caching (e.g., ElastiCache).
    • Opt for key-value stores.
    • Use object storage (e.g., S3).
    • Implement stateful workflow services.
    • Pass state between functions.

    71. Explain the principle of “Infrastructure as Code”.


    Consistency: Ensures uniform infrastructure across environments.

    Version Control: Infrastructure changes are tracked, allowing for history and rollbacks.

    Automation: Speeds up deployments and reduces manual errors.

    Scalability: Infrastructure can be quickly adjusted based on code.

    Cost-Efficiency: Reduces waste with accurate and programmable setups.

    72. Describe how Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS) manages worker nodes.


    Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS) manages worker nodes through node groups. These are groups of EC2 instances that run container workloads. EKS automates the deployment, scaling, and handling of nodes. Users can utilize both managed node groups, which are fully managed by EKS, and self-managed node groups. With managed node groups, EKS handles updates, patching, and node provisioning, simplifying the management overhead for users.

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    73. What are the security considerations when using Amazon S3 buckets?


    Bucket Policies: Ensure restrictive access.

    Public Access: Limit and regularly check to prevent data exposure.

    Data Encryption: Use SSL/TLS in transit and Server-Side Encryption at rest.

    Access Control Lists (ACLs): Use cautiously; they grant object-level permissions.

    Logging & Monitoring: Use S3 logging and AWS CloudTrail.

    74. Explain the purpose of AWS Direct Connect and its benefits.



    Provides a private, direct link from on-premises to AWS, bypassing the public internet for consistent network performance.


    • Reduces data transfer costs.
    • Offers higher and more stable bandwidth.
    • Ensures predictable, low latency.

    75. How does Amazon Aurora differ from traditional RDS?


    Performance: Aurora is optimized to be faster than standard RDS.

    Storage: Aurora replicates data across three Availability Zones with 6-way replication.

    Replicas: Supports up to 15 read replicas, more than typical RDS.

    Backup: Continuous backups to Amazon S3.

    Fault Tolerance: Quick recovery from failures without data loss.

    76. Describe the use cases for AWS Snowball and Snowmobile.


    • Transferring large amounts of data (terabytes to petabytes) into and out of AWS.
    • Data migration, data backup, disaster recovery.
    • Extremely large-scale data transfers (exabytes).
    • Major data center migrations or shutdowns.
    • Large-scale digital media migrations or cloud-based content library build-outs.

    77. What are AWS Transit Gateways, and how do they fit into a large-scale network architecture?


    A service to connect AWS VPCs and on-premises networks in a centralized, scalable manner and it streamlines network topology and reduces the overhead of managing point-to-point connections.

    In Large-scale Network Architecture: Acts as a network hub, connecting multiple VPCs and VPNs, Simplifies peering and routing between VPCs.

    78. Describe Amazon Macie and how it aids in data security and privacy.


    A machine learning-powered security service that automatically discovers, classifies, and protects sensitive data within AWS.

    Aids in Data Security and Privacy:

    Sensitive Data Identification: Detects PII, financial data, and other sensitive content.

    Activity Monitoring: Tracks access patterns and detects suspicious activities.

    Risk Assessment: Rates data sources based on risk levels.

    Alerts: Notifies of policy violations or unusual data access.

    79. Explain AWS Global Accelerator and its benefits.


    AWS Global Accelerator is a service that optimizes the availability and performance of applications by providing a global networking layer. It directs traffic to the most suitable AWS endpoints based on factors like health, geography, and routing policies, ensuring high availability and improved performance. With a single anycast IP address, it simplifies global applications, reduces latency, and offers traffic diversification.

    80. How do you set up high availability for an application using AWS Elastic Load Balancing?


    • Create an ELB (Application Load Balancer or Network Load Balancer).
    • Distribute traffic across multiple instances or resources.
    • Configure health checks.
    • Use Auto Scaling for resource scaling.
    • Deploy resources in multiple Availability Zones.
    • Route traffic using Route 53 or DNS.
    • Test failover and monitor performance regularly.

    81. How does AWS Cognito provide user management and authentication?


    AWS Cognito simplifies user management and authentication for your applications. It offers user pools for sign-up and sign-in, supports various identity providers, and enables multi-factor authentication.

    You can customize the authentication flow, store user profile data, and enhance security. It’s a versatile solution for handling user identities and access control in different application types.

    82. Explain AWS Greengrass and its significance in edge computing.


    AWS Greengrass is a vital component of edge computing. It is an Amazon Web Services (AWS) service that extends cloud capabilities to the network’s edge, allowing devices and Internet of Things (IoT) endpoints to perform local processing and execute AWS Lambda functions.

    83. What is AWS Identity Federation?


    AWS Identity Federation is a mechanism for integrating your existing corporate identity systems with AWS services, allowing your users to access AWS resources with their existing corporate credentials.

    Extending your organization’s identity rules to AWS resources improves user experience, eliminates the need for separate AWS identities, and increases security.

    84. How would you handle data replication across multiple AWS regions?


    • Use AWS DataSync to transfer data automatically.
    • S3 Cross-Region Replication for S3 data should be enabled.
    • Implement database replication across multiple regions.
    • For data synchronisation, use AWS managed services.

    85. What is Amazon Route 53?


    AWS’s Amazon Route 53 is a scalable and highly available Domain Name System (DNS) web service. It provides features such as health checks, routing policies, and domain registration, making it an essential component of managing an application’s availability and performance.

    86. What is AWS CloudWatch Logs?


    AWS CloudWatch Logs is a service that allows you to monitor, store, and access log files generated by various AWS resources, applications, and custom sources. It enables centralized log management, real-time monitoring, and the ability to set up alarms and triggers based on log data, facilitating troubleshooting and debugging of applications and infrastructure.

    87. What is Amazon CloudFront, and how does it work?


    • A content delivery network (CDN) service called Amazon CloudFront distributes web content from several edge locations across the globe, speeding up its delivery.
    • It caches content at these edge locations, reducing the load on origin servers and improving end-user access speed.

    88. What is AWS Glue, and how does it simplify data ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) processes?


    AWS Glue is a fully managed ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) service that automates the process of preparing and loading data for analytics. It simplifies ETL by automatically generating ETL code and handling tasks like data discovery, schema evolution, and job scheduling, making data integration and transformation easier and more efficient.

    89. What is Amazon DynamoDB, and why is it used for NoSQL databases?


    AWS offers a fully managed NoSQL database service called Amazon DynamoDB. It is utilised for scalable, high-performance, flexible data storage and retrieval.

    Applications requiring seamless scalability, minimal latency, and automated data replication across several Availability Zones for high availability are intended for use with DynamoDB.

    90. What is AWS Step Functions, and how does it work?


    AWS Step Functions is a serverless orchestration tool that lets you interact with Lambda functions and other AWS services to create serverless processes. To automate complicated jobs and apps, you may establish criteria, specify the workflow processes, and build state machines.

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