25+ VMWare Interview Questions & Answers - COMPLETE GUIDE

25+ VMWare Interview Questions & Answers – COMPLETE GUIDE

Last updated on 03rd Jun 2020, Blog, Interview Questions

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VMware is a software tool for Windows operating systems that lets you install a virtual operating system within the windows operating system. Suppose you are familiar with Windows operating system and now for some reason you need to use other operating system, let’s say Fedora then you might be reluctant to remove Windows and install Fedora from your system , so in that case you can use VMware on your Windows operating system and add virtual Fedora operating system to have experience of Fedora without actually installing it on your system.

1. Explain The Physical Topology Of Virtual Infrastructure 3 Data Centre?


A typical VMware Infrastructure data center consists of basic physical building blocks such as x86 computing servers, storage networks and arrays, IP networks, a management server and desktop clients.

2. How Do You Configure Clusters, Hosts, And Resource Pools In Vi3?


A cluster is a group of servers working together closely as a single server, to provide high availability, load balancing and high performance. A host is a single x86 computing server with individual computing and memory resources. Resource pools are allocation of the available resources into pieces for the proper distribution.

3. What Are Resource Pools & What’s The Advantage Of Implementing Them?


A VMware ESX Resource pool is a pool of CPU and memory resources. Inside the pool, resources are allocated based on the CPU and memory shares that are defined. This pool can have associated access control and permissions. Clear management of resources to the virtual machines.

4. Explain Why Vmware Esx Server Is Preferred Over Virtual Server Or Workstation For Enterprise Implementation?


For better resource management as it has a virtualization layer involved in its kernel, which communicates with the hardware directly.

5. In What Different Scenarios Or Methods Can You Manage A Vi3?


Using the Virtual Infrastructure Client we can manage one esx server, using virtual center we can manage more than 1 esx server. And also we can use the service console to manage it.

6. What Are The Types Of Data Stores Supported In Esx 3.5?


ISCSI datastores, FC SAO datastores, Local VMFS, NAS and NFS.

7. How Can You Configure These Different Types Of Data Stores On Esx3.5?


If we have FC cards installed on the esx servers, by going to the storage option, we can scan for the lungs.

8. How Do You Configure Vmware Virtualcenter Management Server For Ha & Drs? What Are The Conditions To Be Satisfied For This Setup?


HA & DRS are the properties of a Cluster. A Cluster can be created only when more than one host is added, in that case we need to configure HA & DRS as well to provide High Availability and Load balancing between hosts and for the virtual machines.

9. Explain Your Work Related To Below Terms?


VM Provisioning: Virtual Machine Creation.

Alarms & Event Management:

  • Alarms are used to know the status of the resource usage for a VM.
  • Events are used to monitor the tasks that are taking place on the esx servers or in the virtual center.

Task Scheduler: Task scheduler, if you want to schedule a task it will be used, for example if you want to move one vm from one host to another host or if you want shutdown/reboot a vm etc.

Hardware Compatibility List: what is the hardware that is compatible with ESX OS.

10. What San Or Nas Boxes Have You Configured Vmware With? How Did You Do That?


Storage team will provide the LUN information, with that we will add those LUNs to ESX hosts from VM storage.

11. What Kind Of Applications Or Setups You Have On Your Virtual Machines?


Exchange server and SharePoint, but these are for DEMO purposes, Citrix presentation servers etc.

12. Have You Ever Faced Esx Server Crashing And Virtualcenter Server Crash? How Do You Know The Cause Of These Crashes In These Cases?


Happened when SAN went down. The Raid controller was bad. Had to restore VM. Also when a thin provisioned server used almost all of the vmfs volume. Had to move some old powered off VM from VMFS Volume.

13. What Are The Differences Between Esx And Esxi?


ESX is an OS with full features of virtualization; ESXi is a limited features OS with 32MB image.

14. What is Virtual Desktop Infrastructure?


Virtual Desktop Infrastructure [VDI] hosts the desktop operating system on the centralized server in a data center. It is also referred to as server-based computing as it is the variation on the client-server computing model.

The end user gets connected to their desktop by using the thin client. Moreover, the end user may get connected to the desktop by using the VMware Horizon view.

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    15. What Makes Iscsi And Fc Different?


    Addressing Scheme, iSCSI relies on IP and FC not, and the type of transfer of data also. In FC the data transferred as blocks, in iSCSI the data transferred as files. The cabling also, FC uses Fibre cable and iSCSI uses RJ45.

    16. What Is a Resource Pool? What Is The Use Of It?


    A resource pool is a logical abstraction for flexible management of resources. Resource pools can be grouped into hierarchies and used to hierarchically partition.

    17. Ask About How Ha Works?


    VMware HA provides high availability for virtual machines by pooling them and the hosts they reside on into a cluster. Hosts in the cluster are monitored and in the event of a failure, the virtual machines on a failed host are restarted on alternate hosts.

    18. What Is Virtual Smp?


    When and why you should give a vm multiple vCPUs part of their answer would be that best practice is to start with a single vCPUs because you can run into performance issues due to CPU scheduling.

    19. What Are Notable Files That Represent A Vm?


    • vmx – configuration settings for VM
    • vmxf – configuration settings used to support an XMLbased VM configuration API
    • vmtx – configuration settings for a Template VM (replaces the .vmx file)
    • vmdk – virtual disk file. (Note: if a thick disk is used, a -flat. Vmdk file that represents the actual monolithic disk file will exist but will be hidden from the vSphere Client.)
    • nvram – nonvolatile memory (BIOS)

    vswp – swap file used by ESX/ESXi per VM to overcommit memory, i.e. use more memory than physically available. This is created by the host automatically when powering on a VM and deleted (default behavior) when powering off a VM. Swap files can remain and take up space if a host fails prior to shutting down a VM properly. Normally the swap file is stored in the location where the VM configuration files are kept; However the location can be optionally located elsewhere

    for example: locally for performance reasons and if using NAS/NFS, local swap..vmsssd — sfours psennadp sfhiloet ( mif apnlaacgeedm inetnot suspend power mode) should be used.

    20. What is VLAN Tagging?


    The practice of inserting VLAN ID into a packet header to identify which VLAN packet belongs to is called VLAN tagging

    21. Can Host Profiles Work With Esx/esxi 3.x Hosts?


    No. Only starting with ESX/ESXi 4.0.

    22. Can Host Profiles Be Used With A Cluster Running Both Esx And Esxi Hosts?


    • Yes, but remember to use an ESX host and not an ESXi host to create a profile for use.
    • In theory, Host Profiles should work with mixed host clusters, as it translates ESX to ESXi, but be careful as there are enough differences between ESX and ESXi that can lead you to make self-inflicted errors when applying Host Profiles. The easiest method is to create clusters that are homogeneous and maintain two different profiles for these two types of clusters.

    23. Can Host Profiles Work When Using The Cisco Nexus 1000v?


    No, because Host Profiles was designed with the generic vNetwork Distributed Switch. The Cisco Nexus 1000v switch gives administrators fine-grained control of the networking beyond what Host Profiles can apply.

    24. What is the use of VMware Workstation?


    • Facilitates the user to run more than one operating systems on a single system simultaneously
    • Saves the existing operating system’s configuration in the form of virtual machines
    • Users may work on different OS even without switching between the OSs.

    25. What Is The Use Of A Port Group?


    The port group segregates the type of communication.

    26. What Are The Type Of Communications Which Requires An Ip Address For Sure?


    Service Console and VMKernel (VMotion and iSCSI), these communications do not happen without an ip address (Whether it is a single or dedicated).

    27. In The Esx Server Licensing Features Vmotion License Is Showing As Not Used, Why?


    Even though the license box is selected, it shows as “License Not Used” until you enable the VMotion option for specific vSwitch.

    28. How The Virtual Machine Port Group Communication Works?


    All the vm’s which are configured in VM Port Group are able to connect to the physical machines on the network. So this port group enables communication between vSwitch and Physical Switch to connect vm’s to Physical Machine.

    29. Does The Vswitches Support Vlan Tagging? Why?


    Yes, then Switches support VLAN Tagging; otherwise if the virtual machines in an esx host are connected to different VLANS, we need to install a separate physical nic (vSwitch) for every VLAN. That is the reason Vmware included the VLAN tagging for vSwitches. So every vSwitch supports upto 1016 ports, and BTW they can support 1016 VLANS if needed, but an ESX server doesn’t support that many VM’s. 

    30. What Is Promiscuous Mode On Vswitch? What Happens If It Sets To Accept?


    If the promiscuous mode is set to Accept, all the communication is visible to all the virtual machines, in other words all the packets are sent to all the ports on vSwitch.

    If the promiscuous mode is set to reject, the packets are sent to the intended port, so that the intended virtual machine was able to see the communication.

    31. What Is Mac Address Changes? What Happens If It Is Set To Accept?


    When we create a virtual machine the configuration wizard generates a MAC address for that machine, you can see it in the .vmx (VM Config) file. If it doesn’t match with the MAC address in the OS this setting does not allow incoming traffic to the VM. So by setting Reject Option both MAC addresses will remain the same and the incoming traffic will be allowed to the VM.

    32. What Forged Transmits? What Happens If It Is Set To Accept?


    When we create a virtual machine the configuration wizard generates a MAC address for that machine, you can see it in the .vmx (VM Config) file. If it doesn’t match with the MAC address in the OS this setting does not allow outgoing traffic from the VM. So by setting Reject Option both MAC addresses will remain the same and the outgoing traffic will be allowed from the VM.

    33. What Are The Devices That Can Be Added While The Virtual Machine Running?


    • In VI 3.5 we can add Hard Disk and NIC’s while the machine is running.
    • In vSphere 4.0 we can add Memory and Processor along with HDD and NIC’s while the machine is running.

    34. How To Set The Time Delay For Bios Screen For A Virtual Machine?


    Right Click on VM, select edit settings, choose options tab and select boot option, set the delay how much you want.

    35. What Is A Template?


    We can convert a VM into Template, and it cannot be powered on once its changed to template. This is used for quick provisioning of VMs.

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    36. What To Do To Customize The Windows Virtual Machine Clone?


    Copy the sysprep files to Virtual center directory on the server, so that the wizard will take advantage of it.

    37. What To Do To Customize The Linux/unix Virtual Machine Clone?


    VC itself includes the customization tools, as these operating systems are available as open source.

    38. Does Cloning From Template Happen Between Two Data Centers?


    Yes. It can, if the template is in one datacenter, we can deploy the vm from that template in another datacenter without any problem.

    39. What Are The Common Issues With Snapshots? What Stops From Taking A Snapshot And How To Fix It?


    • If you configure the VM with Mapped LUN, then the snapshot failed. If it is mapped as virtual then we can take a snapshot of it.
    • If you configure the VM with Mapped LUNs as physical, you need to remove it to take a snapshot.

    40. What Are The Settings That Are Taken Into Consideration When We Initiate A Snapshot?


    • Virtual Machine Configuration (What hardware is attached to it).
    • State of the Virtual Machine Hard Disk file ( To revert back if needed).
    • State of the Virtual Machine Memory (if it is powered on).

    41. What Are The Requirements For Converting A Physical Machine To Vm?


    • An agent needs to be installed on the Physical machine.
    • VI client needs to be installed with Converter Plug-in.
    • A server to import/export virtual machines.

    42. What Is Vmware Consolidated Backup?


    It is a backup framework that supports 3rd party utilities to take backups of ESX servers and Virtual Machines. It’s not a backup service.

    43. To Open The Guided Consolidation Tool, What Are The User Requirements?


    The user must be a member of administrator, the user should have “Logon as service” privileges – To give a user these privileges, open local sec policy, select Logon as service policy and add the user the user should have read access to AD to send queries.

    44. You’ve Learned Over The Years There’s More To Vsphere Than Server Hardware. What Other 2 Resources Are Just As Important As Servers And Need To Be Properly Planned Out When Designing And Building A Vsphere Cloud?


    Storage and network resources are crucial for all vSphere Clouds.

    45. Vmware Vsphere Gives You Options. What Are The 4 Typical Ways Storage Can Be Added To A Vsphere?


    Storage can be added via iSCSI, FC, NFS and local disk (including DAS).

    46. What Is The Best Plan For A Storage Failure That Impacts Multiple Data Stores?


    Always have a backup of the VMs on a separate storage environment that can be used to restore the lost virtual servers.

    47. Your Host Is A Beast, Dual Socket With 8 Core Cpus And 192 Gb Of Memory. How Many Virtual Servers Can Be Added To A 1tb Datastore?


    It depends on the size of the VMs and the performance of the storage. Higher performing storage can be filled to capacity but space should be left for data growth and snapshots. A datastore should never be allowed to fill up 100%.

    48. This Is A Tough Vmware Interview Question Created Just For You. Name 4 Things That Happen On The Vmkernel Networking Layer?


    vMotion, IP storage (iSCSI/NFS), Fault Tolerance and Virtual SAN.

    49. You Have A Vcp So This Should Be An Easy Interview Question. What Are 2 Ways A Vsphere Admin Can Separate Traffic From Distinct Environments (ex. Production And Test) On The Same Hosts?


    Either by creating separate vSwitches using dedicated NICs or if NICs are not available by creating separate port groups using different VLAN IDs on the same vSwitch.

    50. True Or False. A Distributed Virtual Switch Is Very Much Like A Physical Switch That Detects Which Vms Are Logically Connected To Each Port And Uses That Information To Forward Network Traffic. Hint: It Is Not Used For Monitoring And Administration Across A Data Center?


    False. A Distributed Virtual Switch acts as a single switch across all hosts in a data center to provide centralized provisioning, administration, and monitoring of virtual networks.

    51. Another True Or False. Nic Teams Are “normally” Put In Active/active Mode To Allow Fail-over In The Event Of A Hardware Failure?


    False again. NIC teams are normally put in active/standby mode to allow fail-over in the event of a hardware failure. You can use active/active but this would not be standard and would require port channeling at the physical switch.

    52. What is Virtualization and what are its types?


    Virtualization is defined as the process of creating virtual versions of storage devices, network devices, servers on a  physical host.

    There are mainly four types of Virtualization.

    • Presentation Virtualization
    • Storage Virtualization
    • Application Virtualization
    • Network Virtualization

    53. What is vCenter Agent?


    An agent, which enables communication between VC and ESX server is called vCenter Agent. It is installed on the ESX Server.

    54. What are the types of Server Software provided by VMware?


    The Server Software provided by VMware are of 3 types:

    • VMware ESXi Server
    • VMware Server
    • VMware ESX Server

    55. What is meant by VMKernel?


    A virtualization interface in between ESXi host and Virtual Machine that stores VMs is called VMKernel. It allocates all the ESXi host resources to VMs such as CPU, memory, storage, etc. It can also control the special services like Fault tolerance, vMotion, traffic management, NFS, and iSCSI. While accessing these particular services, the VMKernel port should be configured on ESXi server using a standard vSwitch. The hosted VMs cannot communicate with the ESXi server without using VMKernel.

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    56. What is meant by Hypervisor and its types?


    A virtualization layer that enables different operating systems in sharing a single hardware host is known as Hypervisor. Each VM or operating system can be allocated in a physical resources CPU, memory, storage, etc.

    Mainly there are two types of Hypervisors:

    • Bare-Metal
    • Hosted Hypervisor

    57.  What is VMware Fault Tolerance?


    Fault Tolerance(FT) is referred to as one of the prominent components in VMware vSphere. When ESXi host fails, then FT provides the VMs availability. It can support 64GB memory up to 4vCPUs. It requires 10GB NIC for configuration because of its bandwidth-intensive. It can create the entire VM copy, such as compute, storage, and memory.

    58. What is Fault Tolerance logging traffic?


    Fault Tolerance logging is an option in the settings of VMKernel port, which is almost equal to Vmotion option of the VMKernel port.

    59. Explain VMware DRS?


    VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) balances resources across different hosts under the resource pool or cluster. It enables the rules and policies in deploying the funds, and those resources must be prioritized to VMs.

    60. Name the components that are used in VMware infrastructure


    The following are the components that are used in VMware infrastructure:

    • ESX Server host (In the lower layer)
    • Virtual Center Server (tracking VM associated images)
    • VMware infrastructure client (enables the communication of client with applications of the user)
    • Web-browser (Accessing Virtual Machines)
    • License Server (Preparing servers in providing applications’ license)
    • Database Servers

    61. What is meant by .vmdk file?


     The .vmdk file is known as a disk descriptor file which is used to describe the memory and size of the virtual disk file. This file contains -flat.vmdk file name in association with hard drive adapter, heads, drive sectors, cylinders etc.

    62. What is meant by VMware VMotion and How is it useful?


    VMware VMotion is used to migrate the virtual machine running with zero downtime from one physical server to another. It can automatically allocate the resource pools for maximum utilization of hardware. Without any scheduled downtime, it can perform hardware maintenance. It can also migrate the virtual machines from underperforming or failing servers.

    63. What are the prerequisites in configuring VMotion?


    Below are the prerequisites in configuring Vmotion:

    • Every host should meet the requirements of shared storage.
    • Every host must be licensed correctly
    • Shared storage must be on the Storage Area Network (SAN), otherwise implemented by using NAS, SAN, and iSCSI.
    • Every host must meet the requirements of networking.
    • The configuration of VMsKernel should happen on every host.
    • While migrating the workloads, use 10 GigE adaptors.
    • Jumbo frames are very much necessary to get the best performance from VMotion.

    64. What is the VCloud Suite?


    VCloud Suite is used to combine the multiple components of VMware to give the capabilities of cloud infrastructure complete in a single package, including disaster recovery, virtualization, application management, data centre services, etc.

    65. What are the different storage availabilities in VCloud Suite?


     The storage availability in VCloud Suite includes:

    Storage VMotion: It employs proactive storage migration to decrease the I/O bottlenecks of virtual machine storage.

    Data Protection: It deploys recovery and back-up tools based on the EMC Avamar.

    Storage DRS: Based on the I/O latency and storage capacity, the storage DRS balances the Virtual Machines.

    Application HA: It is used to get high availability on specific applications.

    66. What is meant by VMware HA?


    VMware HA (High Availability) is used to configure on the cluster and works in host levels. A High Availability cluster will restart and migrate all the VMs that running under the host level. VMware HA detects and monitors all the hosts of the ESX server.

    67. What are the differences between VMware FT and VMware HA?


    VMware HA (High Availability) enabled per cluster while VMware FT (Fault Tolerance) enabled per VM basis. In the case of VMware FT, there is no downtime, whereas VMware HA can be powered on and restarted.

    68. What are the new features of vSphere 5?


    The following are the new features in the latest version of vSphere:

    • Virtual Machine Enhancement
    • vSphere storage Enhancement
    • ESXi Hypervisor Enhancement
    • vCenter Server Enhancement
    • vSphere Networking Enhancement

    69. What is a Snapshot?


    In Virtual Machines, the “point in time image” is referred to as a Snapshot. It contains an image of RAM and VMs disk. By using Snapshot, we can go back to the VM at a point of time as you wish. The functionality of the Snapshot can be used to perform VMs image-level backups.

    70. What is VDI?


    Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) is used to connect the end user’s desktop with the help of a thin client. The end-user also can connect the desktop using VMware Horizon view.

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    71. What are the differences between clone and template in VMware?


    Clone is defined as the copy of Virtual Machine. A Template is termed as the master copy of Virtual Machine.
    It can be made when VM is powered on. It can be converted back to the VM to update the base machine.
    We cannot convert back the cloned VM. A Template can convert back to the VM.
    Border Allows cell borders to be changed, removed, colored, etc
    With the help of parent virtual machines, a linked clone can share virtual disks. It is possible to convert clone into a template, but not possible to Virtual Machines into a template when the machine is powered on.
    A full clone doesn’t share anything with VMs and it is independent of parent VMs. A Template cannot be powered on or edited. It is very difficult to change the ordinary VM.

    72. What are the features of VMware tools?


    • Web browser Interface
    • Setting configuration in a simple wizard
    • Maintenance of Virtual Machines is very easy

    73. What are the uses of VMware Workstation?


    The following are the three main uses of VMware Workstation:

    • VMware workstation is used to save the OS configuration (existing) in Virtual Machine form.
    • It helps in running more than one operating system in a single system.
    • It allows in working in different Operating Systems without switching among them.

    74. What is meant by VDS, and what are its benefits?


    Virtual Distributed Switch (VDS) is acting as a single switch which is responsible for providing administration and central provisioning for the virtual network.

     Benefits of VDS:

    • Monitoring
    • Central Provision and
    • Central Administration

    75. Name the port groups in ESXi networking configuration


    • Service Console Port Group
    • Virtual Machine Port Group
    • VMKernel Port Group

    76. Name the types of ESX Server Partitions?


    • /opt
    • /var
    • /home
    • /-root
    • /var/core
    • /tmp

    77. Write about MAC Address changes?


    At the time of creation, the Virtual Machine nics with MAC address are stored in .VMX file. The packet doesn’t allow the incoming traffic to the Virtual Machine if it doesn’t match with the MAC address of .VMX file.

    78. What is a VLAN?


    Virtual LAN (VLAN) is used to break the Broadcast traffic into a lot of logic groups. VLAN separates one broadcast domain into many tiny pieces instead of using one physical switch for compromising one domain.

    79. Name VLAN tagging types?


    In vSphere, there are mainly three types of VLAN tagging.

    • Virtual Switch Tagging (VST)
    • External Switch Tagging (EST)
    • Virtual Guest Tagging (VGT)

    80. What are the Load balancing policies of vSwitch?


    There are three types of Load balancing policies are available for vSwitch

    • Route Based Source MAC hash
    • Route Based on originating virtual switch ID
    • Route Based on IP hash

    81.Write about the types of settings in Network Failover Detection?


    There are two types of settings in Network Failover Detection:

    • Link Status only
    • Beacon Probing

    Link Status only:

    It depends on the link status of the network adapter. It detects switch power failures and cable pulls, but it cannot detect the errors in a configuration such as blocking of spanning tree, wrong VLAN misconfiguration etc.

    Beacon Probing:

    It listens to beacon probes and sends Ethernet broadcast frames to detect the failure network connections of upstream. Beacon Probing also detects many other failures that were not detected by Link Status.

    82. What is meant by Cold Migration and Hot Migration?


    When the user migration gets suspended or powered off, then it is called the Cold Migration. When the user migration is running on a powered virtual machine, then it is known as Hot Migration.

    83. What are the drawbacks in the virtualization platform of VMware?


    The following are the drawbacks in VMware virtualization:

    • It requires high-end servers which leads to more expensive.
    • To buy any resources, it needs substantial investment.
    • It requires various types of technologies for implementation.

    84. What is meant by Platform Services Controller (PSC) and What are its components?


    Platform Services Controller is first introduced in VMware vSphere version 6 that handles the security functions of infrastructure.

    PSC has three main components:

    • VMware Certificate Authority
    • Single Sign-On
    • Licensing service

    85. Write about the disk types in VMware vSphere?


    Mainly there are three disk types in VMware vSphere:

    Eager Zeroes (Thick Provision): It is used in VMware Fault Tolerance. The disk space requirement is allocated at the time of creation to VMs. When compared to other disk formats, this Eager Zeroed thick provision takes a lot of time in creating a virtual disk.

    Lazy Zeroes (Thick Provision): In this disk format, every virtual disk can be created by default. There is an allocation of physical space for Virtual machines when the disk is created. This Lazy Zeroed thick provision can’t be converted into thin.

    Thin Provision: Thin provision provides the disk space allocation to Virtual Machines. The disk size will increase in proportion to the data size.

    86.  Define VVoL, RDM, and NFS?


    VVoL (Virtual Volume):

    It is a concept of new disk management of Virtual Machine in vSphere 6.0 version which enables the operations of array-based at the virtual disk level. Virtual Volume can be created automatically when the virtual disk is created.

    RDM (Raw Device Mapping):

    Raw Device Mapping is a file, which is stored in the VMFS volume acts as a proxy for the devices which are in natural physical form. RDM stores the data of virtual machines on LUN.

    NFS (Network File System):

    NFS is a file-sharing protocol which is used to communicate with NAS (Network Attached Storage) devices. It connects to a network and gives file access services to the hosts of ESXI.

    87. Define configuration options in VSAN?


    There are two configuration options in VSAN:

    • Hybrid
    • All-Flash

    Hybrid: Uses both magnetic and flash-based disks for storage. The magnetic disks are used for storage or capacity, while flash-based drives are used for cash.

    All-Flash: It uses flash for both for storage and caching.

    88. What are the steps in converting a physical machine into a virtual machine?


    The following are the three steps required to convert a physical machine into a virtual machine:

    • Initially, an Agent should be installed on the physical machine
    • Along with the Converter plug-in, a VI client must be installed
    • Needs a server to Export/Import the virtual machine

    89. Define VMware DPM and ESXi Shell


    VMware DPM:

    VMware DPM (Distributed Power Management) is a feature of VMware DRS which is used to monitor the cluster resources. VMware DPM shuts down the unused hosts and consolidates the workloads when the resources get decreased. If the resources get increased, then it automatically power-on the hosts that are not being used.

    ESXi Shell:

    ESXi Shell is a command-line which is used to repair the ESXi hosts. It can be accessed through vCenter Server disable/enable, DCUI, and SSH.

    90. What are the prerequisites needed in running ESXTOP on an ESXi host?


    We need two prerequisites to run ESXTOP on ESXi

    • Initially, install vSphere client in which you want to configure the host
    • By using Troubleshooting options, enable SSH

    91. Define Limit, Share, and Reservation in VMware?


    Limit: It is defined as the Host cycle consumption without crossing the defined value.

    Share: It specifies the importance or relative priority of virtual machine access in a given resource.

    Reservation: It is a value that is defined in the form of memory or CPU that can be available for the virtual machine to start.

    92. What is vApp, and how is it useful?


    vApp is defined as a group or container in which more than one virtual machine can be managed in multi tired apps for specific requirements like a database server, Web server, and application server. It can also define the power-off and power-on sequences of the virtual machine. By using vApp, we can configure several settings like memory allocation and Internet Protocol allocation policy.

    93. What is meant by iSCSI storage, and what are it’s naming conventions?


    An iSCSI storage system holds in iSCSI SAN that contains more than one storage processor. The communication between storage arrays and hosts can be made possible through the TCP/IP protocol. The configuration of iSCSI initiator is done with ESXi host. The iSCSI initiator is not either independent or dependent; that’s why it is called as iSCSI software initiator.

    The names iSCSI can be formatted in two ways:

    • Extended Unique Identifier (EUI)
    • ISCSI Qualified Name (IQN)

    94. What are the types of Content Libraries?


    There are three types of Content Libraries:

    Published: Local library that consists of ISO images, and VM templates for the subscription.

    Local: Local control library.

    Subscribed: It syncs with the library of published.

    95.  What are the limitations and requirements of a Content Library?


    The following are the limitations and requirements of a Content library:

    • Every library consists of a maximum of 256 items.
    • The size of single storage is up to 64TB.
    • For every 24 hours, the sync is happening.

    96. What are the types of extensions in VMware?


    • .nvram: It is used to stock the virtual machine state BIOS of an organization.
    • .vmsd: It provisions the metadata and information of the snapshots in an organization.
    • .vmss: It supplies the virtual machine postponed state.
    • .vmx: It accumulates the primary formations in the virtual machine.
    • .log: It is used to save a log file for VMware to see glitches during the process of installation.
    • .vmdk: It is used to simulate the disk file to stock the virtual machine gratify.
    • .vmsn: It is used in storing the snap state. It can supply both occupied periods and consecutive state.
    • It provisions the team data formation.

    97.  Define the components that are used in vCenter Server architecture?


    There are three main components in the architecture of the vCenter Server:

    Web Client and vSphere Client: It is a user interface.

    vCenter Server Database: Embedded PostgreSQL or SQL server is used to store security roles, inventory, and resource pools.

    SSO: It is a security domain.

    98. What is meant by VCB, and what are its benefits?


    VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB) is referred to as the backup framework that enables third-party tools to get backups. VCB is very much helpful to back up the virtual servers of VMware ESX. VCB is also known as ‘’Backup Proxy Server” and is not considered as backup software. While using this VCB also, one must need backup software.

    The Benefits of VCB:

    • It provides VMware ESX backups, both incremental and full of file-level availability.
    • It prevents a backup loading agent on the virtual machines.
    • VCB is used to centralize VMware ESX backups.
    • It also provides the backups of image level.
    • It prevents the shut down of virtual machines.
    • VCB provides LAN-free backups because the connection of the VCB server to the SAN is made through the adapter of the fibre channel.
    • It also provides the virtual server centralized storage backups on the VCB server.
    • It reduces the VMware ESX server load without having a third party backup agent.
    • VCB utilizes the snapshots of VMware.

    99. What are the types of deployments in vCenter Server?


    There are two types of deployments in vCenter Server

    • External Deployment
    • Embedded Deployment

    100. What are the two main deploying methods of PSC


    You can install PSC in two ways:

    • Embedded
    • centralized

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