50+ AWS DevOps Interview Questions [FREQUENTLY ASK]
Last updated on 09th Nov 2021, Blog, Interview Questions
These AWS DevOps Interview Questions are originally developed to acquaint you with the types of questions you would encounter during your AWS DevOps interview. Good interviewers, in my experience, usually intend to ask any specific question throughout your interview. In most cases, lots of different with a basic notion of the issue and then develop based on more discussions and your responses. The top 100 AWS DevOps Interview questions will be answered, along with extensive answers. AWS DevOps scenario-based interview questions, AWS DevOps interview questions for newcomers, and AWS DevOps interview questions and answers for application experts will all be handled.
1. What is AWS in DevOps?
AWS is Amazon’s cloud service platform that lets users carry out DevOps practices easily. The tools provided will help immensely to automate manual tasks, thereby assisting teams to manage complex environments and engineers to work efficiently with the high velocity that DevOps provides.
2. DevOps and Cloud computing: What is the need?
Development and Operations are considered to be one single entity in the DevOps practice. This means that any form of Agile development, alongside Cloud Computing, will give it a straight-up advantage in scaling practices and creating strategies to bring about a change in business adaptability. If the cloud is considered to be a car, then DevOps would be its wheels.
3. Why AWS for DevOps?
There are numerous benefits of using AWS for DevOps. Some of them are as follows:
- AWS is a ready-to-use service, which does not require any headroom for software and setups to get started with.
- Be it one instance or scaling up to hundreds at a time, with AWS, the provision of computational resources are endless.
- The pay-as-you-go policy with AWS will keep your pricing and budgets in check to ensure that you can mobilize enough and get an equal return on investment.
- AWS brings DevOps practices closer to automation to help you build faster and achieve effective results in terms of development, deployment, and testing processes.
- AWS services can easily be used via the command-line interface or by using SDKs and APIs, which make it highly programmable and effective.
4. What does a DevOps Engineer do?
A DevOps Engineer is responsible for managing the IT infrastructure of an organization based on the direct requirement of the software code in an environment that is both hybrid and multi-faceted.
Provisioning and designing appropriate deployment models, alongside validation and performance monitoring, are the key responsibilities of a DevOps Engineer.
5. What is CodePipeline in AWS DevOps?
CodePipeline is a service offered by AWS to provide continuous integration and continuous delivery services. Alongside this, it has provisions of infrastructure updates as well. Operations such as building, testing, and deploying after every single build become very easy with the set release model protocols that are defined by a user. CodePipeline ensures that you can reliably deliver new software updates and features rapidly.
6. What is CodeBuild in AWS DevOps?
AWS provides CodeBuild, which is a fully managed in-house build service, thereby helping in the compilation of source code, testing, and the production of software packages that are ready to deploy. There is no need for management, allocation, or provision to scale the build servers as this is automatically scaled.
- Build operations occur concurrently in servers, thereby providing the biggest advantage of not having to leave any builds waiting in a queue.
7. What is CodeDeploy in AWS DevOps?
CodeDeploy is the service that automates the process of deploying code to any instances, be it local servers or Amazon’s EC2 instances. It helps mainly in handling all of the complexity that is involved in updating the applications for release.
- The direct advantage of CodeDeploy is its functionality that helps users rapidly release new builds and model features and avoid any sort of downtime during this process of deployment.
8. What is CodeStar in AWS DevOps?
CodeStar is one package that does a lot of things ranging from development to build operations to provisioning deploy methodologies for users on AWS. One single easy-to-use interface helps the users easily manage all of the activities involved in software development.
- One of the noteworthy highlights is that it helps immensely in setting up a continuous delivery pipeline, thereby allowing developers to release code into production rapidly.
9. How can you handle continuous integration and deployment in AWS DevOps?
- One must use AWS Developer tools to help get started with storing and versioning an application’s source code. This is followed by using the services to automatically build, test, and deploy the application to a local environment or to AWS instances.
- It is advantageous to begin with the CodePipeline to build the continuous integration and deployment services and later on using CodeBuild and CodeDeploy as per need.
10. How can a company like Amazon.com make use of AWS DevOps?
- Be it Amazon or any ecommerce site, they are mostly concerned with automating all of the frontend and backend activities in a seamless manner. When paired with CodeDeploy, this can be achieved easily, thereby helping developers focus on building the product and not on deployment methodologies.
- Next up on this AWS interview questions and answers for DevOps, we check out a common question that is frequently asked.
11. Name one example instance of making use of AWS DevOps effectively?
With AWS, users are provided with a plethora of services. Based on the requirement, these services can be put to use effectively. For example, one can use a variety of services to build an environment that automatically builds and delivers artifacts. These artifacts can later be pushed to Amazon S3 using CodePipeline. At this point, options add up and give the users lots of opportunities to deploy their artifacts. These artifacts can either be deployed by using Elastic Beanstalk or to a local environment as per the requirement.
12. What is the use of Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) in AWS DevOps?
Amazon ECS is a high-performance container management service that is highly scalable and easy to use. It provides easy integration to Docker containers, thereby allowing users to run applications easily on the EC2 instances using a managed cluster.
13. What is AWS Lambda in AWS DevOps?
AWS Lambda is a computation service that lets users run their code without having to provision or manage servers explicitly. Using AWS Lambda, the users can run any piece of code for their applications or services without prior integration. It is as simple as uploading a piece of code and letting Lambda take care of everything else required to run and scale the code.
14. What is AWS CodeCommit in AWS DevOps?
- CodeCommit is a source control service provided in AWS that helps in hosting Git repositories safely and in a highly scalable manner. Using CodeCommit, one can eliminate the requirement of setting up and maintaining a source control system and scaling its infrastructure as per need. Next up on this AWS interview questions for DevOps, you need to take a quick look at Amazon EC2.
15. Explain Amazon EC2 in brief?
Amazon EC2, or Elastic Compute Cloud as it is called, is a secure web service that strives to provide scalable computation power in the cloud. It is an integral part of AWS and is one of the most used cloud computation services out there, helping developers by making the process of Cloud Computing straightforward and easy.
16. What is Amazon S3 in AWS DevOps?
Amazon S3 or Simple Storage Service is an object storage service that provides users with a simple and easy-to-use interface to store data and effectively retrieve it whenever and wherever needed.
17. What is the function of Amazon RDS in AWS DevOps?
Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS) is a service that helps users in setting up a relational database in the AWS cloud architecture. RDS makes it easy to set up, maintain, and use the database online.
18. How is CodeBuild used to automate the release process?
The release process can easily be set up and configured by first setting up CodeBuild and integrating it directly with the AWS CodePipeline. This ensures that build actions can be added continuously, and thus AWS takes care of continuous integration and continuous deployment processes.
19. Can you explain a build project in brief?
A build project is an entity with the primary function to integrate with CodeBuild to help provide it the definition needed. This can include a variety of information such as:
- The location of source code
- The appropriate build environment
- What build commands to run
- The location to store the output
20. How is a build project configured in AWS DevOps?
A build project is configured easily using Amazon CLI (Command-line Interface). Here, users can specify the above-mentioned information, along with the computation class that is required to run the build, and more. The process is made straightforward and simple in AWS.
21. Which source repositories can be used with CodeBuild in AWS DevOps?
AWS CodeBuild can easily connect with AWS CodeCommit, GitHub, and AWS S3 to pull the source code that is required for the build operation.
22. What programming frameworks can be used with AWS CodeBuild?
AWS CodeBuild provides ready-made environments for Python, Ruby, Java, Android, Docker, Node.js, and Go. A custom environment can also be set up by initializing and creating a Docker image. This is then pushed to the EC2 registry or the DockerHub registry. Later, this is used to reference the image in the users’ build project.
23. Explain the build process using CodeBuild in AWS DevOps.
- First, CodeBuild will establish a temporary container used for computing. This is done based on the defined class for the build project.
- Second, it will load the required runtime and pull the source code to the same.
- After this, the commands are executed and the project is configured.
- Next, the project is uploaded, along with the generated artifacts, and put into an S3 bucket.
- At this point, the compute container is no longer needed, so users can get rid of it.
- In the build stage, CodeBuild will publish the logs and outputs to CloudWatch Logs for the users to monitor.
24. Can AWS CodeBuild be used with Jenkins in AWS DevOps?
- Yes, AWS CodeBuild can integrate with Jenkins easily to perform and run jobs in Jenkins. Build jobs are pushed to CodeBuild and executed, thereby eliminating the entire procedure involved in creating and individually controlling the worker nodes in Jenkins.
25. How can one view the previous build results in AWS CodeBuild?
It is easy to view the previous build results in CodeBuild. It can be done either via the console or by making use of the API. The results include the following:
- Outcome (success/failure)
- Build duration
- Output artifact location
- Output log (and the corresponding location)
26. Why do we use AWS for DevOps?
Get Started Fast – Each AWS service is ready to use if you have an AWS account. There is no setup required or software to install.
- Fully Managed Services:
These services can help you take advantage of AWS resources quicker. You can worry less about setting up, installing, and operating infrastructure on your own. This lets you focus on your core product.
- Built for Scale:
- You can manage a single instance or scale to thousands using AWS services. These services help you make the most of flexible compute resources by simplifying provisioning, configuration, and scaling.
27. Explain The Function Of An Amazon Ec2 Instance Like Stopping, Starting And Terminating?
Stopping and Starting an instance: When an instance is stopped, the instance performs a normal shutdown and then transitions to a stopped state. All of its Amazon EBS volumes remain attached, and you can start the instance again at a later time. You are not charged for additional instance hours while the instance is in a stopped state.
Terminating an instance: When an instance is terminated, the instance performs a normal shutdown, then the attached Amazon EBS volumes are deleted unless the volume’s delete On Termination attribute is set to false. The instance itself is also deleted, and you can’t start the instance again at a later time. Hope it would be very helpful to understand and crack the interview.
28. What is the importance of buffer in Amazon Web Services?
A buffer will synchronize different components and makes the arrangement additional elastic to a burst of load or traffic. The components are prone to work in an unstable way of receiving and processing the requests. The buffer creates the equilibrium linking various apparatus and crafts them effort at the identical rate to supply more rapid services.
29. What are the components involved in Amazon Web Services?
- Amazon S3:
With this, one can retrieve the key information which is occupied in creating cloud structural design and amount of produced information also can be stored in this component that is the consequence of the key specified. Amazon EC2: helpful to run a large distributed system on the Hadoop cluster. Automatic parallelization and job scheduling can be achieved by this component. Amazon SQS: this component acts as a mediator between different controllers. Also worn for cushioning requirements those are obtained by the manager of Amazon.Amazon SimpleDB: helps in storing the transitional position log and the errands executed by the consumers.
30. Which automation gears can help with spinup services?
The API tools can be used for spinup services and also for the written scripts. Those scripts could be coded in Perl, bash or other languages of your preference. There is one more option that is patterned administration and stipulating tools such as a dummy or improved descendant. A tool called Scalr can also be used and finally, we can go with a controlled explanation like a Rightscale.
31. How would you explain the concept of “infrastructure as code” (IaC)?
It is a good idea to talk about IaC as a concept, which is sometimes referred to as a programmable infrastructure, where infrastructure is perceived in the same way as any other code. Describe how the traditional approach to managing infrastructure is taking a back seat and how manual configurations, obsolete tools, and custom scripts are becoming less reliable. (Company) Next, accentuate the benefits of IaC and how changes to IT infrastructure can be implemented in a faster, safer and easier manner using IaC. Include the other benefits of IaC like applying regular unit testing and integration testing to infrastructure configurations, and maintaining up-to-date infrastructure documentation.
32. What are the advantages of DevOps?
For this answer, you can use your past experience and explain how DevOps helped you in your previous job. If you don’t have any such experience, then you can mention the below advantages:
Continuous software delivery
Less complex problems to fix
Faster resolution of problems
Faster delivery of features
More stable operating environments
More time available to add value (rather than fix/maintain)
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33. Which VCS tool you are comfortable with?
You can just mention the VCS tool that you have worked on like this: “I have worked on Git and one major advantage it has over other VCS tools like SVN is that it is a distributed version control system.” Distributed VCS tools do not necessarily rely on a central server to store all the versions of a project’s files. Instead, every developer “clones” a copy of a repository and has the full history of the project on their own hard drive.
34. What’s the background of your system?
Some DevOps jobs require extensive systems knowledge, including server clustering and highly concurrent systems. As a DevOps engineer, you need to analyze system capabilities and implement upgrades for efficiency, scalability, and stability, or resilience. It is recommended that you have a solid knowledge of OSes and supporting technologies, like network security, virtual private networks, and proxy server configuration.
DevOps relies on virtualization for rapid workload provisioning and allocating compute resources to new VMs to support the next rollout, so it is useful to have in-depth knowledge around popular hypervisors. This should ideally include backup, migration, and lifecycle management tactics to protect, optimize and eventually recover computing resources. Some environments may emphasize microservices software development tailored for virtual containers. Operations expertise must include extensive knowledge of systems management tools like Microsoft System Center, Puppet, Nagios and Chef. such as a card, and the other is typically something memorized, such as a security code.
35. Explain how Memcached should not be used?
Memcached common misuse is to use it as a data store, and not as a cache Never use Memcached as the only source of the information you need to run your application.
Data should always be available through another source as well Memcached is just a key or value store and cannot perform query over the data or iterate over the contents to extract information. Memcached does not offer any form of security either in encryption or authentication
36. Explain which scripting language is most important for a DevOps engineer?
37. List out some popular tools for DevOps?
Some of the popular tools for DevOps are
ELK (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana)
38. Explain what you would check If a Linux-build-server suddenly starts getting slow?
|Application Level troubleshooting||RAM related issues, Disk I/O read-write issues, Disk Space related Issues, etc.|
|System Level troubleshooting||Check for Application log file OR application server log file, system performance issues, Web Server Log – check HTTP, tomcat lo, jboss, or WebLogic logs to see if the application server response/receive time is the issues for slowness, Memory Leak of any application|
|Dependent Services troubleshooting||Antivirus related issues, Firewall related issues, Network issues, SMTP server response time issues, etc.|
39. Name some important network monitoring tools?
- Icinga 2
40. Whether your video card can run Unity how would you know?
41. Explain how to enable startup sound in Ubuntu?
To enable startup sound:
Click control gear and then click on Startup Applications
- In the Startup Application Preferences window, click Add to add an entry
- Then fill the information in comment boxes like Name, Command, and Comment
- /usr/bin/canberra-gtk-play—id= “desktop-login”—description= “play login sound”
Logout and then login once you are done
You can also open it with shortcut key Ctrl+Alt+T.
42. What is Azure DevOps? What is the difference between Azure DevOps and VSTS Online?
Microsoft Visual Studio Team Services, now known as Azure DevOps having excellent application lifecycle management tool. We can plan a project with Agile tools and templates, manage and run test plans, Version control source code and manage the branches, deploy the solution across all platform using Azure Pipelines, by implementing Continuous Instigation and Continuous Deployment.
43. What are the benefits of continuous integration?
Continuous integration is an essential component of the DevOps methodology that offers numerous benefits, including:
Application issues are discovered more quickly and before they’re added to the code base.
- The application build and testing operations are automated, repeatable, fast and efficient.
- Every developer can commit often and to the same code base.
- Application updates and fixes are deployed more quickly and with fewer risks.
- All code check-ins are tracked, changes can be rolled back and everyone has access to the latest build.
44. What challenges do configuration management tools address?
Configuration management tools such as Ansible, Chef, Puppet and SaltStack can reduce costs, boost productivity and ensure the continuous delivery of IT services, which is essential to an effective DevOps operation. Although DevOps candidates don’t need to have intimate knowledge of every tool on the market, they should have basic familiarity with the more popular tools and understand what problems these tools can help address. Configuration management tools can help address the following challenges:
Inconsistencies across systems
- Configuration drift
- Manual, repetitive tasks
- Inefficient IT workflows
- Inadequate disaster recovery
- Site unreliability and long downtimes
- Difficulty scaling and maintaining availability
- Lack of visibility and change tracking
- Slow and error-prone infrastructure setups
- Infrastructure complexity and costs
45. What is a distributed version control system?
A distributed version control system (DVCS) such as Git, Bazaar and Mercurial delivers a local copy of the complete repository to everyone working on that project. Participants carry out commit, branch and merge operations locally and then push their changes to the other users. The DVCS does not require a centralized server to store the repository, as is the case with a centralized version control system such as Subversion. With a DVCS, team members experience fewer merge conflicts and can merge branches more quickly, and they can work offline when needed. The DVCS also ensures there are multiple backup copies of the repository at any one time. However, the DVCS does not provide the same locking capabilities as a centralized system and might not be as secure because more people have the code, leading to greater exposure and risks.
46. What is a Dockerfile?
A Dockerfile is a text document that contains the commands necessary for building a Docker image. By using Dockerfiles, developers don’t have to remember how to set up their images each time they create one. Docker can build images automatically by reading the Dockerfile instructions, helping to avoid a lot of manual steps. When creating Dockerfiles, developers should follow best practices such as:
Use caching effectively to avoid having to rerun build steps unnecessarily.
- Reduce image sizes to speed up deployments and reduce attack surfaces.
- Consider maintainability, such as using official images or making tags more specific.
- Ensure reproducibility by fetching dependencies in a separate step, removing build dependencies or taking other actions.
47. What are the core components of DevOps?
48. Is there any difference between DevOps and Agile? If yes, please elaborate.
It is one of the top AWS DevOps interview questions that you will surely come across during the interview session. There exist a number of overlapping elements between the two concepts. But at the same time, there are many differences that need to be taken into consideration.
49. Describe a build project?
This is used to describe the process of how to run a build in a Code Build, that includes information like how to identify the right place for source code, how to use the environment of build, which build commands used to run it, and where the output of build is stored. The build environment is nothing but the combination of the operating system, runtime of the programming language, and the tools, which is helped to run a build by CodeBuild.
50. What is the process to configure a build project ?
It may be configured by using console or through the CLI of AWS. We can modify the repository location of the source, and the environment of runtime , commands of the build, and also the role of IAM, which is created through the container, and the class of compute needed for the build to run. It is optional that we can identify the commands of build with the help of buildspec.yml file.
51. What are the programming frameworks that CodeBuild supports in DevOps?
It offers the preconfigured environments that are helped for assisted versions, they are like Java, Python, Ruby, Go, Android,Node.js and Docker. We may also customize our environment through designing an image of Docker and then uploading it to the EC2 of Amazon Container Registry and the hub registry of Docker. Then We may then refer to that image of custom in the project of build.
52. When a build is run in CodeBuild of Devops, what happens?
It is used to design a provisional container of the compute class, that is defined in a project of built, and it is helped to load it through the use of environment of specified runtime , the source code download, which is used to the commands execution that are projects configuration, also to uploading of the artifact which is generated for an S3 bucket, and then it is also used to destroy the container of the compute. While the build, CodeBuild streams, the output of the build for the service console and also the CloudWatch Logs of Amazon.
53. Explain how to use CodeBuild of aws devops with Jenkins?
The plugin of CodeBuild for Jenkins may help with the codebuilt integration for Jenkins jobs of Jenkins. jobs of the built are delivered to the CodeBuild, and also for the provisioning need elimination and for Jenkins worker nodes management.
54. List out some kinds of applications and how we can build by using AWS CodeStar?
The CodeStar may be helpful for creating the web applications, services, etc. those web applications run on EC2 of Amazon, and Beanstalk of aws elastic or the AWS Lambda. templates of projects are available in various programming languages such as Java, Node.js, PHP, Ruby, Python etc
55. In what way the AWS CodeStar users relate to IAM users?
The users of CodeStar are IAM customers, the CodeStar managed it to offer access policies which are role based and pre-built across our environment of development. As the users of CodeStar are built on it, we may even get the advantages of the administrative IAM. When we involve an existing IAM customer to the project of a CodeStar, and the global account policies exist in IAM which are enforced.
56. Can we work on my AWS projects of CodeStar directly from an IDE?
Yes. Through downloading the AWS Toolkit, which is used by Visual Studio, it gave us the ability to simply configure the environment of our local development and work with the Projects of codestar. When we installed, developers may then choose it from the available list of projects related to CodeStar and they maintain their automatic tooling of development, within its IDE the colne is configured and source code of their projects are checked out.
57. What are the differences between DevOps and Agile?
|Agility||Present in both development & operations||Present only in Development|
|Processes||Involves processes such as CI, CD, and CT.||Involves practices such as Agile Scrum, Agile Kanban, etc.|
|Focus Area||Timeliness & quality have equal priority||Timeliness is the main priority|
|Source(s) of Feedback||Feedback provided by self-monitoring tools||Feedback from customers|
|Scope of Work||Agility & need for Automation||Agility only|
58. What the key aspects or principles behind DevOps?
To answer DevOps interview questions, you need to understand and revise its fundamental basics. Given below are the key aspects or principle behind DevOps:
infrastructure as a code
- continuous deployment
- continuous monitoring
59. How do all these tools work together?
Given below is a generic logical flow where everything gets automated for seamless delivery. This flow may vary from one organization to another.
|Stage 1||Developers create code and source code is managed via version control tools like GIT.|
|Stage 2||Transmission of code to the GIT repository.|
|Stage 3||Jenkins pulls code from the repository using the GIT plugin and builds it using tools like Ant or Maven.|
|Stage 4||Deploying of configuration management tools like Puppet and provision of the testing environment.|
|Stage 5||Jenkins releases code on the test environment. Testing is done using tools like Selenium.|
60.What are some technical challenges with Selenium?
- Given below are some technical challenges with Selenium.
It supports only web-based applications.
- It does not support the Bitmap comparison.
- No vendor support is available for Selenium compared to commercial tools like HP UFT.
- As there is no object repository concept, the maintainability of objects becomes very complex.
61. Which scripting tools are used in DevOps?
Python and Ruby are scripting tools used in DevOps.
62. What are the types of HTTP requests?
64. Explain your understanding and expertise on both the software development side and technical operations side of an organization you have worked within the past?
For this DevOps interview question, you should use your valuable experience from previous jobs. Provide input about your role as a DevOps engineer and how you were working in a twenty-four-seven environment. Hence, gaining expertise in successfully automating processes to support continuous software deployments. Besides, discuss your experience with public/private clouds, tools like Chef or Puppet, scripting and automation with tools like Python and PHP, and high-level proficiency in Agile.
64. What are your expectations from a career perspective of DevOps?
Your response to this particular DevOps interview question must showcase your keenness towards being involved in end-to-end delivery processes and your willingness to improve the process. Including aspects such as your aspiration for the development and operations teams to work together and understand each other’s point of view, will prove that you are a team player and can improve your chances in job selection.
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65. How can a user efficiently use CodeBuild to automate release process?
The CodeBuild is one of the most helpful features and is integrated with the AWS CodePipeline. With this, the user can add a build action and set up a continuous integration and continuous delivery process that runs in the cloud.
66. Why is the AWS DevOps such a popular application software?
Software and the Internet have transformed the world and its industries, from shopping to entertainment to banking. Software no longer just supports a business, instead it has slowly evolved into an integral component of every part of a business. Companies relate with their customers through software applications such as online services or applications and on all sorts of devices.
They also use software to increase operational efficiencies by transforming every part of the value chain, such as logistics, communications, and operations. Just as physical goods companies have been transformed with respect to how they design, build, and deliver products using industrial automation throughout the 20th century, companies in today’s world also need to transform how they build and deliver software. Right here somes the application of AWS DevOps.
67. How is a user supposed to adopt a AWS DevOps Model?
Transitioning to DevOps requires a change in culture and mindset. At the naivest form, DevOps is about eliminating the barriers between two conventionally siloed teams, development and operations. In some organizations, there may not even be separate development and operations teams and engineers might have to do both. With DevOps, the two teams work together to optimize both the productivity of developers and the reliability of operations.
The users strive to communicate frequently, increase efficiencies, and improve the quality of services they provide to customers. The users take full ownership for their services, often beyond where their stated roles or titles have traditionally been scoped by thinking about the end customer’s needs and how they can contribute to solving those needs. Quality assurance and security teams may also become tightly integrated with these teams. Organizations using a DevOps model, regardless of their organizational structure, have teams that view the entire development and infrastructure lifecycle as part of their errands.
68. What are the benefits of using the Version Control System (VCS)?
The key benefits of Version Control are as follows:
With the Version Control System (VCS), all the workers are allowed to access the file freely at any time. It also allows merging all the changes that are made in a common version.
- It is designed to help multiple people by collaboratively edit text files, which makes sharing comparatively easy between multiple computers.
- It is important for documents that require a lot of redrafting and revision as they provide an audit trail for redrafting and updating final versions.
- It permits all the team members to have access to the complete history of the project so that in case of any breakdown in the central server, we can use any teammate’s storehouse.
- All the previous versions and variants are smartly packed up inside the VCS. Any version is requested at any time to get information about the previous complete projects.
69. What is git stash?
Git stash command is used to save the changes temporarily in the working directory. This gives developers a clean directory to work on. They can later merge the changes in the git workflow. If this command is used, the changes in the tracked files are merged in the working directory. Git stash command can be used many times in the git directory. It is used as git stash
70. What is a merge conflict in Git, and how can it be resolved?
Merge conflicts occur when changes are made to a single file by multiple people at the same time. Due to this, Git won’t be able to tell which of the multiple versions is the correct version. To resolve the conflicts, we should create a new Git repo, add a file, create a branch, make the edits and commit the changes. The next step is to merge the new branch into the master. Once this is done, Git clearly shows the differences in the different versions of the file and where the edits need to be made to remove the conflicts.
71. What does CAMS in DevOps stand for?
The acronym CAMS is usually used for describing the core creeds of DevOps methodology. It stands for:
72. What are post mortem meetings?
Many times there is a need to discuss what went wrong during a DevOps process. For this, post mortem meetings are arranged. These meetings yield steps that should be taken to avoid the same failure or set of failures in the future for which the meeting was arranged in the first place.
73. Can we move or copy Jenkins from one server to another?
Yes, we can move or copy the Jenkins from one server to other. For instance, by copying the Jenkins jobs directory can be moved from the older server to the new server. This way, installation can be moved from one installation to another by copying in the corresponding job directory.
74. Can we make a new copy of an existing Jenkins job?
Yes, we can make a new copy of an existing Jenkins job by creating a clone of the directory in a different name.
75. What is the difference between continuous testing and automation testing?
In continuous testing, the process of executing the automated test is part of the software delivery process. In contrast, automation testing is a process wherein the manual process of testing is applied wherein the separate testing tool helps the developers in creating test scripts that can be executed again and again without any kind of manual intervention.
76. What is the role of a Selenium Grid?
The role of a Selenium Grid is to execute the same or different test scripts and that too on different platforms and browsers so that the distributed test execution can be made. It helps in testing under various environments and offers an ability to save execution time.
77. Can we secure Jenkins?
Yes, we can secure Jenkins in the following ways:
Ensuring that global security is on
- Checking if Jenkins is integrated
- Making sure that the project matrix is enabled
- Automating the process of setting up rights and privileges
- Limiting physical access to Jenkins data
- Applying security audits regularly
78. What are the differences between forking and branching in Git?
A source control solution is essential to DevOps processes, and one of the most popular source control tools used in DevOps is Git. Candidates should understand how Git works, as well as fundamental Git concepts, such as the differences between forking and branching:
The process of creating a copy of a repository that can be used as a starting point for another project or as a way to experiment with changes without affecting the original repository. The fork is a completely independent project whose changes may or may not be synced back into the original repository. A fork might be maintained indefinitely or used only for a short duration.
The process of creating a parallel version of the repository that’s contained in the original repository but does not affect the main branch, enabling developers to make changes without impacting that branch. Branching is used extensively in Git to support independent development. For example, developers can create a branch to work on a specific feature within the application. After they’ve made their changes, they can merge the branch back into the main branch and the new feature will be incorporated into the application.
79. How can Kubernetes benefit DevOps?
Many DevOps environments use containers to deliver their applications. Kubernetes is another popular tools for working with containers. For this reason, candidates should be well versed in how Kubernetes works and its benefits. The following list describes many of these benefits:
Kubernetes supports the “build once, deploy everywhere” model, providing consistency across development, testing, staging and application environments.
- Application development and deployment are more efficient, leading to greater productivity and faster time to market.
- DevOps teams can easily scale Kubernetes without sacrificing availability.
- Kubernetes can help save money because it can increase productivity, streamline operations, speed up application delivery and use infrastructure resources more efficiently.
- Kubernetes is portable, open source and compatible across different platforms and frameworks, making it a highly flexible solution that can support multi-cloud environments.
- Kubernetes automates container-related operations, offers seamless updates, provides no-downtime deployments and supports IaC.
80. What is SSH used for?
Secure Shell (SSH), which is also known as Secure Socket Shell, is a network protocol that provides systems administrators with a secure method for accessing a computer over an unsecured network. The protocol supports strong password authentication, public key authentication and encrypted communications over an open network such as the internet. Secure Shell can also refer to the suite of utilities that implement the SSH protocol.
81. What is component-based development or componentization?
This is an approach to development that breaks software down into identifiable components that can be developed and deployed independently. After they’re deployed, the components are connected together through the use of workflows and network connections and are presented as a single application. The components typically use standard interfaces and conform to common componentization models such as service-oriented architecture (SOA), Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), Component Object Model+ (COM+) or JavaBeans.
82. Which KPIs are important to track?
- Change lead time (from inception to production)
- Change volume (number of new user stories or code changes)
- Defect volume and escape rate
- Deployment frequency
- Failed deployments
- Feature prioritization (based on end-user usage)
- Mean time to detection
- Mean time to recovery
- Rate of security test passes
83. How to launch the Browser using WebDriver?
- WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
- WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
For Internet Explorer (IE):
- WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();
84. What is Puppet?
Puppet is an open-source configuration management tool used for deploying, configuring, and managing servers. It follows a client-server architecture, in which the client is an agent, and the server is known as the master. Puppet agent and master communicate through a secure encrypted channel with the help of SSL.
85. Explain Puppet Codedir?
Puppet Codedir is the main directory for Puppet code and data and is mostly used by Puppet master and Puppetapply. It consists of a global modules directory, Hiera data, and environments (which consists of your manifests and modules).
- Unix non-root users:
86. What is Factor in Puppet? How does it work?
The factor is Puppet’s cross-platform system profiling library. Puppet uses factors to gather information during the Puppet run.
Factor discovers and reports basic information of Puppet Agent including network settings, IP addresses, hardware details, etc., and makes available in Puppet manifests as variables.
87. How to get a list of Ansible predefined variables?
Ansible stores facts about machines under management by default and these can be accessed in playbooks and templates. To get a list of all the facts that are available about a machine, run a setup module as an ad-hoc action:
- Ansible -m setup hostname
This will present all the facts that are available under that particular host.
88. What happens when you don’t specify a Resource’s action in Chef?
- file ‘C:UsersAdministratorchef-reposettings.ini’ do
- content ‘greeting=hello world’
- file ‘C:UsersAdministratorchef-reposettings.ini’ do
- action :create
- content ‘greeting=hello world’
In case, if you don’t specify a resource’s action, then Chef applies the default action.
For example, in resource 1, the action is not specified, still, it will take a default action.
In resource 2, when you define the action with create command, it is also used to create the default action.
89. What is a Docker Container and how do you create it?
A Docker container is an open-source software development platform that stores the code and all of its dependencies and runs the application quickly and reliably from one computing environment to the other.
- Docker containers are not specified to any particular infrastructure; they can run on any infrastructure, on any computer, and in any cloud.
- A Docker container image is a standalone, lightweight, and executable package of software that has everything to run the application such as code, system tools, runtime, system libraries, and settings.
Docker Containers can be created with the Docker image using the following command:
- docker run -t -i
If you want to check the list of all running containers with status on the host, use the following command:
- docker ps -a
90. What is your expertise on the DevOps projects?
Explain your role as a DevOps Engineer and how you were working as a part of the 24*7 environment and maybe in shifts, the projects involved in automating the CI and CD pipeline and providing support to the project teams. Hence, taking complete responsibility for maintaining and extending the environments for DevOps automation to more and more projects and different technologies (Example: .NET, J2EE projects) involved within the organization.
91. What are the top 10 DevOps tools that are used in the industry today?
- Chef / Puppet /Ansible
- IBM Urbancode Deploy / CA-RA
- Nagios / Splunk
92. What Is Ebs (elastic Block Storage)?
EBS is a virtualized SAN or storage area community. Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) gives patience block stage storage volumes to be used with EC2 instances. EBS volumes are rather available and reliable storage volumes that may be attached to any jogging example that is inside the same Availability Zone.
93. What Is S3? What Is It Used For? Should Encryption Be Used In S3?
Amazon S3 is stand for Simple storage service that is garage for the Internet. It as a, “easy storage carrier that offers software builders a pretty-scalable, reliable, and coffee-latency records garage infrastructure at very low costs”.
- Amazon S3 provides a easy internet provider interface which you can use to keep and retrieve any quantity of information, at any time, from anywhere on the web. Using this net provider, builders can without problems build programs that make use of Internet storage.
- You can think of it like ftp storage, wherein you could move documents to and from there, however no longer mount it like a record gadget. AWS mechanically places your snapshots there, as well as AMIs there. Encryption must be taken into consideration for sensitive statistics, as S3 is a proprietary generation developed via Amazon themselves, and as but unproven vis-a-vis a security perspective.
- Encryption ought to be taken into consideration for sensitive statistics, as S3 is a proprietary era advanced via Amazon themselves, and yet to be verified from a security standpoint.
94. What Is An Ami?
AMI stands for Amazon Machine Image. It is effectively a image of the root filesystem. AWS AMI gives the data required to release an instance, which is a virtual server in the cloud. You specify an AMI when you launch an example, and you could release as many times from the AMI as you need. You can also launch times from as many distinctive AMIs as you want.
95. What Is The Relation Between Instance And Ami?
An Amazon Machine Image (AMI) is a template that consists of a software program configuration (as an instance, an running gadget, an software server, and programs). From an AMI, you release an example, that is a duplicate of the AMI jogging as a virtual server inside the cloud.You can launch exceptional forms of instances from a unmarried AMI. An instance kind determines the hardware of the host pc used in your example. Each example type gives extraordinary compute and memory skills.
96. What Is The Difference Between Scalability And Elasticity?
Scalability is the potential of a device to growth the workload on its present day hardware sources to deal with variability in call for.
Elasticity is the ability of a device to boom the workload on its cutting-edge and extra hardware assets, thereby permitting corporations to fulfill demand with out making an investment in infrastructure up-the front.
97. What Are The Security Laws Which Are Implemented To Secure Data In A Cloud?
- Output reconciliation
- Input Validation
- Security and Backup
- Puppet (software) Interview Questions
The security laws which can be applied to secure facts in cloud are:
98. What Is The Security For Amazon Ec2?
- Use AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) to manipulate access to your AWS assets.
- Restrict access by means of most effective permitting relied on hosts or networks to access ports to your example.
- Review the regulations to your security companies often, and make certain which you apply the principle of least
- Privilege – most effective open up permissions which you require.
- Disable password-based totally logins for instances launched from your AMI. Passwords may be located or cracked, and are a safety risk.
There are several satisfactory practices for comfortable Amazon EC2. A few of them are given beneath:
99. How Is Buffer Used In Amazon Web Services?
Buffer is used to make the machine greater resilient to burst of traffic or load by means of synchronizing exclusive components. The components continually receive and system the requests in an unbalanced manner. Buffer continues the stability between different components and makes them work on the same velocity to offer quicker offerings.
100. What Is The Function Of Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud?
It offers smooth configurable options and allow person to configure the ability.
- It provides the entire control of computing resources and let the consumer run the computing surroundings in keeping with his requirements.
- It provides a fast way to run the instances and speedy ebook the device as a result reducing the general time.
- It presents scalability to the assets and adjustments its environment in step with the requirement of the consumer.
- It provides varieties of equipment to the developers to build failure resilient applications.
Amazon Elastic compute cloud additionally referred to as Amazon EC2 is an Amazon web provider that offers scalable assets and makes the computing less complicated for builders.
The fundamental capabilities of Amazon EC2 are: