MOST In-DEMAND AWS Interview Questions & Answers [LATEST]

MOST In-DEMAND AWS Interview Questions & Answers [LATEST]

Last updated on 08th Jun 2020, Blog, Interview Questions

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Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a secure cloud services platform, offering compute power, database storage, content delivery and other functionality to help businesses scale and grow.Using managed databases like MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle or SQL Server to store information.Deliver static and dynamic files quickly around the world using a Content Delivery Network (CDN).Send bulk email to your customers.

1. What is AWS?

Ans:

AWS stands for Amazon Web Services. AWS is a platform that provides on-demand resources for hosting web services, storage, networking, databases and other resources over the internet with a pay-as-you-go pricing.

2.  What are the components of AWS?

Ans:

  • EC2 : Elastic Compute Cloud
  • S3 : Simple Storage Service Route53
  • EBS:  Elastic Block Store, Cloudwatch,
  • Key: Paris are few of the components of AWS.

3.  What are key-pairs?

Ans:

 Key-pairs are secure login information for your instances/virtual machines. To connect to the instances we use key-pairs that contain a public-key and private-key.

4. What is S3?

Ans:

 S3 stands for Simple Storage Service. It is a storage service that provides an interface that you can use to store any amount of data, at any time, from anywhere in the world. With S3 you pay only for what you use and the payment model is pay-as-you-go.

5.  What are the pricing models for EC2 instances?

Ans:

The different pricing model for EC2 instances are as below:

  • On-demand
  • Reserved
  • Spot
  • Scheduled
  • Dedicated

6. What are the types of volumes for EC2 instances?

Ans:

  • There are two types of volumes:
    • Instance store volumes
    • EBS – Elastic Block Stores

7. What are EBS volumes?

Ans:

EBS stands for Elastic Block Stores. They are persistent volumes that you can attach to the instances. With EBS volumes, your data will be preserved even when you stop your instances, unlike your instance store volumes where the data is deleted when you stop the instances.

8. What are the types of volumes in EBS?

Ans:

Following are the types of volumes in EBS:

  • General purpose
  • Provisioned IOPS
  • Magnetic
  • Cold HDD
  • Throughput optimized

9. What are the different types of instances?

Ans:

Following are the types of instances:

  • General purpose
  • Computer Optimized
  • Storage Optimized
  • Memory Optimized
  • Accelerated Computing

10. What is an auto-scaling and what are the components?

Ans:

Auto scaling allows you to automatically scale-up and scale-down the number of instances depending on the CPU utilization or memory utilization. There are 2 components in Auto scaling, they are Auto-scaling groups and Launch Configuration.

11. What are reserved instances?

Ans:

 Reserved instances are the instance that you can reserve a fixed capacity of EC2 instances. In reserved instances you will have to get into a contract of 1 year or 3 years.

12. What is an AMI?

Ans:

AMI stands for Amazon Machine Image. AMI is a template that contains the software configurations, launch permission and a block device mapping that specifies the volume to attach to the instance when it is launched.

13. What is an EIP?

Ans:

EIP stands for Elastic IP address. It is designed for dynamic cloud computing. When you want to have a static IP address for your instances when you stop and restart your instances, you will be using an EIP address.

14. What is Cloudwatch?

Ans:

 Cloudwatch is a monitoring tool that you can use to monitor your various AWS resources. Like health check, network, Application, etc.

15. What are the types in cloudwatch?

Ans:

There are 2 types in cloud watch. Basic monitoring and detailed monitoring. Basic monitoring is free and detailed monitoring is chargeable.

16. What are the cloudwatch metrics that are available for EC2 instances?

Ans:

Diskreads, Diskwrites, CPU utilization, networkpacketsIn, networkpacketsOut, networkIn, networkOut, CPUCreditUsage, CPUCreditBalance.

17. What is the minimum and maximum size of individual objects that you can store in S3

Ans:

The minimum size of individual objects that you can store in S3 is 0 bytes and the maximum bytes that you can store for individual objects is 5TB.

18. What are the different storage classes in S3?

Ans:

Following are the types of storage classes in S3:

  • Standard frequently accessed
  • Standard infrequently accessed
  • One-zone infrequently accessed.
  • Glacier
  • RRS: reduced redundancy storage

19. What is the default storage class in S3?

Ans:

The default storage class in S3 in Standard frequently accessed.

20. What is glacier?

Ans:

Glacier is the backup or archival tool that you use to back up your data in S3.

21. How can you secure the access to your S3 bucket?

Ans:

There are two ways that you can control the access to your S3 buckets:

  • ACL: Access Control List
  • Bucket policies

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    22. How can you encrypt data in S3?

    Ans:

    You can encrypt the data by using the below methods:

    • Server Side Encryption: S3 (AES 256 encryption)
    • Server Side Encryption: KMS (Key management Service)
    • Server Side Encryption: C (Client Side)

    23. What are the parameters for S3 pricing?

    Ans:

    The pricing model for S3 is as below:

    • Storage used
    • Number of requests you make
    • Storage management
    • Data transfer
    • Transfer acceleration

    24. What is the prerequisite to work with Cross region replication in S3?

    Ans:

     You need to enable versioning on both source bucket and destination to work with cross region replication. Also both the source and destination bucket should be in different regions.

    25. What are roles?

    Ans:

    Roles are used to provide permissions to entities that you trust within your AWS account. Roles are users in another account. Roles are similar to users but with roles you do not need to create any username and password to work with the resources.

    26. What are policies and what are the types of policies?

    Ans:

    Policies are permissions that you can attach to the users that you create. These policies will contain that access that you have provided to the users that you have created.

    There are 2 types of policies:

    • Managed policies
    • Inline policies

    27. What is cloudfront?

    Ans:

    Cloudfront is an AWS web service that provides businesses and application developers an easy and efficient way to distribute their content with low latency and high data transfer speeds. Cloudfront is the content delivery network of AWS.

    28. What are edge locations?

    Ans:

    Edge location is the place where the contents will be cached. When a user tries to access some content, the content will be searched in the edge location. If it is not available then the content will be made available from the origin location and a copy will be stored in the edge location.

    29. What is the maximum individual archive that you can store in glacier?

    Ans:

     You can store a maximum individual archive of upto 40 TB.

    30. What is VPC?

    Ans:

    VPC stands for Virtual Private Cloud. VPC allows you to easily customize your networking configuration. VPC is a network that is logically isolated from other networks in the cloud. It allows you to have your own IP address range, subnets, internet gateways, NAT gateways and security groups.

    31. What is VPC peering connection?

    Ans:

    VPC peering connection allows you to connect 1 VPC with another VPC. Instances in these VPC behave as if they are in the same network.

    32. What are NAT gateways?

    Ans:

    NAT stands for Network Address Translation. NAT gateways enable instances in a private subnet to connect to the internet but prevent the internet from initiating a connection with those instances.

    33. How can you control the security of your VPC?

    Ans:

    You can use security groups and NACL (Network Access Control List) to control the security to your VPC.

    34. What are the different types of storage gateway?

    Ans:

    Following are the types of storage gateway:

    • File gateway
    • Volume gateway
    • Tape gateway
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    35. What is a snowball?

    Ans:

     Snowball is a data transport solution that uses source appliances to transfer large amounts of data into and out of AWS. Using snowball, you can move huge amounts of data from one place to another which reduces your network costs, long transfer times and also provides better security.

    36. What are the database types in RDS?

    Ans:

    Following are the types of databases in RDS:

    • Aurora
    • Oracle
    • MYSQL server
    • Postgresql
    • MariaDB
    • SQL server

    37. What is a redshift?

    Ans:

    Amazon red shift is a data warehouse product. It is a fast and powerful, fully managed, petabyte scale data warehouse service in the cloud.

    38. What is SNS?

    Ans:

    SNS stands for Simple Notification Service. SNS is a web service that makes it easy to make notifications from the cloud. You can set up SNS to receive email notification or message notification.

    39. What are the types of routing policies in route53?

    Ans:

    Following are the types of routing policies in route53:

    • Simple routing
    • Latency routing
    • Failover routing
    • Geolocation routing
    • Weighted routing
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    40. What is the maximum size of messages in SQS?

    Ans:

    The maximum size of messages in SQS is 256 KB.

    41. What are the types of queues in SQS?

    Ans:

    There are 2 types of queues in SQS:

    • Standard queue
    • FIFO (First In First Out)

    42. What is multi-AZ RDS?

    Ans:

    Multi-AZ (Availability Zone) RDS allows you to have a replica of your production database in another availability zone. Multi-AZ (Availability Zone) database is used for disaster recovery. You will have an exact copy of your database. So when your primary database goes down, your application will automatically failover to the standby database.

    43. What are the types of backups in an RDS database?

    Ans:

    There are 2 types of backups in the RDS database:

    • Automated backups
    • Manual backups which are known as snapshots.

    44. What is the difference between security groups and network access control list?

    Ans:

    Security Groups Network Access Control List
    Can control access at the instance level Can control access at the Subnet level
    can add rules for “allow” only can add rules for both “allow” and “deny”
    Evaluates all rules before allowing the traffic Rules are processed in Order number when allowing the traffic
    can assign unlimited number of security groups can assign upto 5 security groups
    Stateful filtering stateless filtering

    45. What are the types of load balancers in EC2?

    Ans:

    There are 3 types of load balancers:

    • Application load balancer
    • Network load balancer
    • Classic load balancer

    46. What is an ELB?

    Ans:

    ELB stands for Elastic Load balancing. ELB automatically distributes the incoming application traffic or network traffic across multiple targets like EC2, containers, IP addresses.

    47. What are the two types of access that you can provide when you are creating users?

    Ans:

    Following are the two types of access that you can create:

    • Programmatic access
    • Console access

    48. What are the benefits of auto scaling?

    Ans:

     Following are the benefits of auto scaling:

    • Better fault tolerance
    • Better availability
    • Better cost management

    49. What are security groups?

    Ans:

    Security groups act as a firewall that contains the traffic for one or more instances. You can associate one or more security groups to your instances when you launch then. You can add rules to each security group that allow traffic to and from its associated instances. You can modify the rules of a security group at any time, the new rules are automatically  and immediately applied to all the instances that are associated with the security group

    50. What are shared AMI’s?

    Ans:

    Shared AMI’s are the AMI that are created by other developed and made available for other developed to use.

    51. What is the difference between the classic load balancer and application load balancer?

    Ans:

    Dynamic port mapping, multiple port multiple listeners is used in Application Load Balancer, One port one listener is achieved via Classic Load Balancer

    52. What is Cloud Computing?

    Ans:

    Cloud computing means it provides services to access programs, application, storage, network, server over the internet through browser or client side application on your PC, Laptop, Mobile by the end user without installing, updating and maintaining them.

    Cloud computing is a cloud platform service that provides you with the on-demand services that can range from compute, databases, storage, networking, applications and so on. Cloud computing follows your pay-as-you-go model where you are going to pay only for what you are using.

    53. What is meant by subnet?

    Ans:

    A large section of IP Address divided in to chunks are known as subnets

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    54. How can you convert a public subnet to a private subnet?

    Ans:

    Remove IGW & add NAT Gateway, Associate subnet in Private route table

    55. Is it possible to reduce ebs volume?

    Ans:

    No it’s not possible, we can increase it but not reduce them

    56. What is the use of elastic ip and are they charged by AWS?

    Ans:

    These are ipv4 address which are used to connect the instance from internet, they are charged if the instances are not attached to it

    57. One of my s3 buckets is deleted but i need to restore is there any possible way?

    Ans:

    If versioning is enabled we can easily restore them

    58. When I try to launch an ec2 instance I am getting Service limit exceeded, how to fix the issue?

    Ans:

     By default AWS offer service limit of 20 running instances per region, to fix the issue we need to contact AWS support to increase the limit based on the requirement

    59. I need to modify the ebs volumes in Linux and windows is it possible

    Ans:

    Yes it’s possible from console use modify volumes in section give the size u need then for windows go to disk management for Linux mount it to achieve the modification

    60. Is it possible to stop a RDS instance, how can I do that?

    Ans:

    Yes it’s possible to stop rds. Instance which are non-production and non multi AZ’s

    61. What is meant by parameter groups in rds. And what is the use of it?

    Ans:

    Since RDS is a managed service AWS offers a wide set of parameter in RDS as parameter group which is modified as per requirement

    62. What is the use of tags and how they are useful?

    Ans:

    Tags are used for identification and grouping AWS Resources

    63. I am viewing an AWS Console but unable to launch the instance, I receive an IAM Error how can I rectify it?

    Ans:

    As AWS user I don’t have access to use it, I need to have permissions to use it further

    64. I don’t want my AWS Account id to be exposed to users, how can I avoid it?

    Ans:

    In IAM console there is option as sign in url where I can rename my own account name with AWS account

    65. By default how many Elastic Ip address does AWS Offer?

    Ans:

     5 elastic ip per region

    66. You are enabled in a sticky session with ELB. What does it do with your instance?

    Ans:

    Binds the user session with a specific instance.

    67. Which type of load balancer makes routing decisions at either the transport layer or the Application layer and supports either EC2 or VPC.

    Ans:

    Classic Load Balancer.

    68. Which virtual network interface can you attach to an instance in a VPC?

    Ans:

    Elastic Network Interface.

    69. You have launched a Linux instance in AWS EC2. While configuring security group, you have selected SSH, HTTP, HTTPS protocol. Why do we need to select SSH?

    Ans:

    To verify that there is a rule that allows traffic from EC2 Instance to your computer.

    70. You have chosen a windows instance with Classic and you want to make some changes to the Security group. How will these changes be effective?

    Ans:

    Changes are automatically applied to windows instances.

    71. Load Balancer and DNS service comes under which type of cloud service?

    Ans:

    IAAS-Storage

    72. You have an EC2 instance that has an unencrypted volume. You want to create another encrypted volume from this unencrypted volume. Which of the following steps can achieve this?

    Ans:

       Create a snapshot of the unencrypted volume (applying encryption parameters), copy the. Snapshot and create a volume from the copied snapshot.

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    73. Where does the user specify the maximum number of instances with the auto scaling Commands?

    Ans:

    Auto scaling Launch Config

    74. Which are the types of AMI provided by AWS?

    Ans:

    Instance Store backed, EBS Backed

    75. After configuring ELB, you need to ensure that the user requests are always attached to a Single instance. What setting can you use?

    Ans:

    Sticky session

    76. When do I prefer to provision IOPS over the Standard RDS storage?

    Ans:

    If you have to be batch-oriented, it is workloads.

    77. If I am running on my DB Instance a Multi-AZ deployments, can I use the stand by the DB Instance for read or write operations along with the primary DB instance?

    Ans:

    Primary db instance does not work.

    78. Which AWS services will you use to collect and process e-commerce data for the nearby real-time analysis?

    Ans:

    Good of Amazon DynamoDB.

    79. A company is deploying the new two-tier and web application in AWS. The company has too limited staff and requires high availability, and the application requires complex queries and table joins. Which configuration provides the solution for company’s requirements?

    Ans:

    An web application provided on Amazon DynamoDB solution.

    80. Which statements are suitable for Amazon DynamoDB?

    Ans:

    The storing metadata for the Amazon S3 objects & The Running of relational joins and complex updates.

    81. Your application has to retrieve data from your user’s mobile every 5 minutes and then data is stored in the DynamoDB, later every day at the particular time the data is extracted into S3 on a per user basis and then your application is later on used to visualize the data to the user. You are then asked to optimize the architecture of the backend system to lower cost, what would you recommend do?

    Ans:

    Introduce Amazon Elasticache to the cache reads from the Amazon DynamoDB table and to reduce the provisioned read throughput.

    82. You are running a website on EC2 instances that can be deployed across multiple Availability Zones with an Multi-AZ RDS MySQL Extra Large DB Instance etc. The site performs a high number of the small reads and the write per second and relies on the eventual consistency model. After the comprehensive tests you discover that there is read contention on RDS MySQL. Which is the best approach to meet these requirements?

    Ans:

    The Deploy Elastic Cache in-memory cache is  running in each availability zone and Then Increase the RDS MySQL Instance size and the Implement provisioned IOPS.

    83. A startup is running a pilot deployment of around 100 sensors to measure street noise and The air quality is urban areas for the 3 months. It was noted that every month to around the 4GB of sensor data are generated. The company uses a load balanced take auto scaled layer of the EC2 instances and a RDS database with a 500 GB standard storage. The pilot was successful and now they want to deploy at least 100K sensors.let which to need supported by the backend. You need to store the data for at least 2 years to analyze it. Which setup of  following would you prefer?

    Ans:

    Replace the RDS instance with a 6 node Redshift cluster with 96TB of storage.

    84. Let to Suppose you have an application where you have to render images and also do some general computing. Which service will best fit your needs?

    Ans:

    Used on Application Load Balancer.

    85. How will change the instance give type for the instances, which are running in your applications tier and Then using Auto Scaling. Where will you change it from areas?

    Ans:

    Changed to Auto Scaling launch configuration areas.

    86. You have a content management system running on the Amazon EC2 instance that is the approaching 100% CPU of utilization. Which option will reduce load on the Amazon EC2 instance?

    Ans:

     Let Create a load balancer, and Give register the Amazon EC2 instance with it.

    87. What does the Connection of draining do?

    Ans:

    The re-routes traffic from the instances which are to be updated (or) failed and health to check.

    88. When the instance is unhealthy, it is terminated and replaced with new ones, which of the services does that?

    Ans:

    The service makes a fault tolerance.

    89. What is the life cycle of hooks used for AutoScaling?

    Ans:

    They are used to the  put an additional taken wait time to the scale in or scale out events.

    90. An user has to set up an Auto Scaling group. Due to some issues the group has failed to launch a single instance for more than 24 hours. What will happen to the Auto Scaling in the condition?

    Ans:

    The auto Scaling will be suspended to the scaling process.

    91. You have an EC2 Security Group with several running to EC2 instances. You changed to the Security of Group rules to allow the inbound traffic on a new port and protocol, and then launched several new instances in the same Security Group.Such the new rules apply?

    Ans:

     The Immediately to all the instances in security groups.

    92. To create a mirror make an image of your environment in another region for the disaster recoveries, which of the following AWS resources do not need to be recreated in the second region?

    Ans:

    May be selected on Route 53 Record Sets.

    93. A customer wants to capture all client connections to get information from his load balancers at an interval of 5 minutes only, which cal select option  should he choose for his application?

    Ans:

    The condition should be Enable to AWS CloudTrail for the load balancers.

    94. Which of the services would you not use to deploy an app?

    Ans:

    Lambda app not used on deploy.

    95. How can Elastic Beanstalk apply to updates?

    Ans:

    By a duplicate ready with updates prepared before swapping.

    96. An created a key in the oregon region to encrypt my data in the North Virginia region for security purposes. I added to two users to the key and the external AWS accounts. I wanted to encrypt an object in S3, so when I tried, the key that I just created is not listed.What could be the reason?

    Ans:

    The Key should be working in the same region.

    97. As a company needs to monitor and read and write IOPS for the AWS MySQL RDS instances and then send real-time alerts to the operations team. Which AWS services can accomplish this?

    Ans:

    The monitoring on Amazon CloudWatch

    98. The organization that is currently using the consolidated billing has to recently acquired another company that already has a number of the AWS accounts. How could an Administrator ensure that all the AWS accounts, from the both existing company and then acquired company, are billed to the single account?

    Ans:

     All Invites acquired the company’s AWS account to join  existing companies by using AWS Organizations.

    99. The user has created the applications, which will be hosted on the EC2. The application makes calls to the DynamoDB to fetch on certain data. The application uses the DynamoDB SDK to connect with  the EC2 instance. Which of  respect to  best practice for security in this scenario?

    Ans:

    The user should attach an IAM role with the DynamoDB access to  EC2 instance.

    100. You have an application running on EC2 Instance, which will allow users to download the files from a private S3 bucket using the pre-assigned URL. Before generating a URL the Q101) application should verify the existence of a file in S3. How do the application use the AWS credentials to access  S3 bucket securely?

    Ans:

    An  Create an IAM role for the EC2 that allows list access to objects in  S3 buckets. Launch to instance with this role, and retrieve any role’s credentials from  EC2 Instance make metadata.

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