Top 45+ JPA Interview Questions and Answers
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45+ [REAL-TIME] JPA Interview Questions and Answers

Last updated on 28th May 2024, Popular Course

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Mala (Java Developer )

Mala is a Java Developer who specializes in designing, developing, and maintaining Java applications. Her work focuses heavily on data persistence and interaction with relational databases using Java Persistence API (JPA).

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The Java Persistence API (JPA) is a standard specification in Java for managing relational data in applications. It facilitates object-relational mapping (ORM) by allowing developers to map Java objects to database tables, thus simplifying database operations and management. JPA abstracts away much of the boilerplate code involved in interacting with databases, providing a more streamlined and efficient way to perform CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) operations.

1. what is JPA?

Ans:

The Java Persistence API specification, sometimes known as JPA, is used to persist data between Java objects and relational databases. It serves as a bridge between relational database systems and object-oriented domain models. It doesn’t accomplish anything by itself, so it needs to be implemented. The Java Persistence API was initially introduced in 2006 with the release of JPA 1.0.

2. What benefits does JPA offer?

Ans:

The benefits of JPA include:

  • Database access processing and O/R Mapping make user programming simple.
  • Using annotations reduces the cost of writing the definition file.
  • JPA will cut down on database contact.
  • The apps used can also be combined with those of other JPA providers.

3. How do JPA and Hibernate vary from one another?

Ans:

The following are the ways in which JPA and Hibernate differ:

  • One of the most widely used open-source implementations of the most recent JPA specification (JPA 2.1) is Hibernate.
  • Hibernate implements the rules and APIs that JPA merely describes.
  • JPA defines the standard, and it is an API.

4. What is the different between Entity and Persistence Unit?

Ans:

Aspect Entity Persistence Unit
Definition A Java class mapped to a database table A configuration that defines the set of entities and settings
Annotation/Tag Annotated with `@Entity` Defined in `persistence.xml` file
Purpose Represents a single row in a database table as a Java object Manages a group of entities and their related settings
Scope Limited to the specific class Encompasses all entity classes and configuration properties within the persistence context

5. What characteristics does an entity have?

Ans:

An entity’s characteristics are as follows:

  • Persist Ability: An object is considered persistent if it is kept in the database and is always accessible.
  • Persistent Identity: Every Entity in Java represents an object identity and is distinct from the others. In a similar vein, an object that is kept in a database is represented as a persistent identity. This object identification is comparable to the database’s primary key.
  • Transactionality: A collection of processes that can either succeed or fail collectively; transactions are an essential component of persistence.
  • Granularity: items shouldn’t be prefabricated or one-dimensional built-in items.

6. How does the Java Persistence API’s Entity Manager function?

Ans:

The roles of the JPA Entity Manager are as follows:

Managing an object that an entity references falls under the purview of an entity manager. The entity manager is in charge of putting all of the APIs into practice and encapsulating them in a single interface. It is utilized for tasks such as writing, reading, and deleting entities.

7. Explain entity management.

Ans:

The EntityManager is responsible for implementing an API that controls the lifecycle of entity instances. A persistence unit defines the collection of entities they are accountable for managing. The EntityManager API is used to query over entities, find entities by their primary key, and create and remove persistent entity instances. 

8. What are the fundamental prerequisites for the entity class?

Ans:

An entity class must meet the following specifications:

  • A no-argument constructor is required.
  • There cannot be a final class.
  • An entity annotation has to be applied.
  • If the Value passes an empty instance as a detached object, it needs to implement a Serializable interface.

9. What is an object-relational mapping?

Ans:

Object-relational Mapping is a method for creating and preserving a relationship between an object and a relational database. It achieves this by mapping an object state onto the database column. Table columns are made from the properties of computer code through object-relational Mapping.

10. What are the main advantages of developing APIs with JPA?

Ans:

JPA increases productivity by offering a high-level abstraction over database operations and lowering the quantity of boilerplate code needed for data access. Because applications can transition between different JPA implementations without altering the codebase, it encourages portability and vendor independence. JPA also promotes best practices like object-oriented design and concern separation.

11. How does Entity Mapping go in different directions?

Ans:

  • There will be two possible mapping directions: unidirectional and bidirectional. 
  • With unidirectional Mapping, we are limited to mapping one Entity to another. Bidirectional Mapping, on the other hand, allows us to map each Entity to another or make reference to another entity.
  • Relationships can be unidirectional or bidirectional in their direction. 
  • There is an inverted side and an owning side in a bidirectional connection. A one-sided relationship only has one side, that is, the owner.

12. What kinds of annotations are applied when releasing Entity collections’ components?

Ans:

The OrderBy and OrderColumn annotations define the process for issuing elements of the entity collections. This note, this class-level annotation designates the class as a persistent entity. It is a component of the Java persistence package. It tells the JPA provider that the class ought to be handled in the database like a table. This code excerpt designates the Employee class as an entity.

13. What kinds of entity mapping are there?

Ans:

One-to-one mapping: This type of Mapping associates an instance of one Entity with an instance of another, signifying a single-valued association. An entity is linked to a group of other entities that fall under the category of collection-valued associations via a one-to-many mapping. Manytoone mapping: A group of entities can be linked to an identical component of this Mapping.

14. In the JPA collections mapping, what kinds of objects are possible to store?

Ans:

The various object kinds that JPA supports storing are:

  • Fundamental Types
  • Organisations
  • Integrated

Simple Java data types that are all of the following are persistent:

  • Boolean, byte, short, char, int, long, float, and double are examples of primitive types.
  • The following Java.lang package has equivalent wrapper classes: Boolean, Byte, Short, Character, Integer, Long, Float, and Double.
  • java. Lang. 
  • java. uti; 
  • java. maths. BigInteger;

15. Describe JPQL.

Ans:

The abbreviation for Java Persistence is JPQL. The Java Persistence Query Language, or JPQL for short, is a component of the JPA specification that describes how to do searches against persistence entities. It is a query language that is object oriented and used to operate databases on permanent items. To run the SQL queries, JPQL employs an entity object model rather than a database. In this case, JPA’s primary function is to convert JPQL to SQL. As a result, it gives developers a simple platform to manage SQL activities.

16. What key components make up JPQL?

Ans:

The following are JPQL’s key components:

  • JPQL is sturdy and easy to use.
  • JPQL is a query language that works on all platforms.
  • JPQL queries can be dynamically written in builtin code or statically declared in metadata.
  • JPQL is compatible with all databases, including Oracle and MySQL. 

17. What kinds of Java collections are compatible with JPA?

Ans:

A collection of objects and multivalued entity associations can be stored in the following kinds of Java collections: List, Set, and Map JPA supports the following immutable types:

  • Every primitive (byte, float, int, etc.)
  • Every primitive wrapper (such as Java. lang. Byte, Java. lang. Float, and Java. lang. Integer, among others)
  • String java. Lang. math.java.BigInteger; math.java.BigDecimal.

17. What kinds of Java collections are compatible with JPA?

Ans:

  • BigDecimal and BigInteger are two examples of Java. Math. 

18. What is the main reason behind JPA’s cascade operations?

Ans:

If we use cascading operations to apply a task to one Entity to its associated entities, we can make it applicable. Java Persistence API, or JPA as it is commonly known, makes maintaining relational data in Java applications easier. One essential element is Cascading Operations, a feature of the JPA that enables state changes to be propagated from one Entity to all associated entities in the JPA application.

19. What is a class that is embedded?

Ans:

A class that can contain both individual embedded classes and collections of them—that is, classes that are only utilized as components of one or more Entity classes—is known as an embeddable class. These classes function as map values or keys. At runtime, each embedded class may only be associated with a single Entity class object. Furthermore, data cannot be transferred between Entity class objects using it.

20. What is a Superclass Mapped?

Ans:

An inherited class from which an entity may inherit JPA annotations is known as a mapped Superclass. However, this kind of class is not an entity because it only needs to meet some prerequisites for an entity. Because it should be annotated with the MappedSuperclass annotation or mentioned in the XML file, this class cannot be utilized in EntityManager or Query operations.

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    21. How many distinct kinds of caches are there in JPA?

    Ans:

    There are two types of caches:

    • Caches data from a single transaction at the first level.
    • Second-level cache: This caches data for several transactions. 
    • Hibernate caching comes in two flavors: first-level cache and second-level cache. 
    • Data is cached in the first-level cache, which is linked to a session within a single transaction or request.

    22. What unique inheritance technique does Hibernate employ that the JPA does not?

    Ans:

    Hibernate is equipped with Hibernate employs an uncommon inheritance technique known as implicit polymorphism. The InheritanceType enum defines three inheritance strategies: JOINED, TABLE_PER_CLASS, and SINGLE_TABLE. Table per class is an optional feature of the JPA spec; hence, not all providers may support it. Single table inheritance is the default.

    23. Describe the JPA metamodel.

    Ans:

    Thanks to the JPA Metamodel API, the persistent object model may be inspected, and information about managed classes, persistent fields, and persistent attributes can be retrieved. The InheritanceType enum defines three inheritance strategies: JOINED, TABLE_PER_CLASS, and SINGLE_TABLE. Table per class is an optional feature of the JPA spec; hence, not all providers may support it. Single table inheritance is the default.

    24. What’s the purpose of the Basic annotation?

    Ans:

    • Basic annotations are the most straightforward kind of data mapping to a database column. 
    • Additionally, we can indicate the fetch field access mechanism and whether or not this field is necessary for the annotation parameters.
    • An ORM tool called Hibernate is used to store a Java object’s state in a database.

    25. What’s the purpose of the Access annotation?

    Ans:

    • An entity class’s access type is specified using access annotations.
    • The parent classes of a mapped superclass cannot be entities.
    • Single Table: Entities from several classes that share an ancestor are grouped in a single table.
    • Joined Table: Every class has a table, and connecting the tables is necessary to query a subclass object.

    26. What does the term “Spring” mean?

    Ans:

    “Spring” refers to the Spring Framework, a comprehensive and widely used framework for building enterprise-level applications in Java. Developed by Rod Johnson and first released in 2003, Spring provides a robust, lightweight container for managing Java objects through dependency injection and aspect-oriented programming. The framework simplifies the development of complex applications by providing a range of tools and functionalities, such as support for data access, transaction management, web applications, security, and more.

    27. Is JPA capable of handling real-world duties like data management, persistence, and access?

    Ans:

    • No, since JPA is merely a Java specification, we are unable to carry out fundamental operations. 
    • Include the dependency for hibernation. In the pom, add the hibernate entity manager dependency.
    • Include the JDBC driver.
    • Include database configuration and JPA in META INF/persistence.
    • Establish the EntityManagerFactory.
    • Creating an Entity class map.
    • To perform CRUD operations on an entity, use EntityManager.

    28. Paging and Sorting Repository: What Is It?

    Ans:

    Paging and Sorting Repository is a specific interface in the Spring Data JPA module that extends the CrudRepository interface to provide additional functionalities for pagination and sorting of query results. This interface simplifies the process of handling large datasets by allowing developers to retrieve data in manageable chunks, or pages, and to sort the data based on specified properties. By leveraging this repository, developers can easily implement pagination in their applications without writing boilerplate code for pagination logic. 

    29. What Is a TransactionManager Platform?

    Ans:

    • The main interface that extends TransactionManager in Spring’s transaction infrastructure is called PlatformTransactionManager.
    • The PlatformTransactionManager facilitates the creation, commit, and rollback of transactions for the template. We inject the PlatformTransactionManager bean, which is automatically registered when we use Spring Boot.

    30. What does the term “Criteria API” mean?

    Ans:

    The Criteria API, a specification that uses Java programming language APIs, makes typesafe and portable criteria queries possible. API Criteria is merely a different approach to creating JPA queries. The criteria API is the most popular method for creating searches for entities and their permanent state. The criterion API defines platform-independent criterion queries written in Java. JPA 2.0 included its introduction.

    31. What distinguishes the JPA from the JDO?

    Ans:

    Java objects are stored in databases using JPA (Java Persistence API) and JDO (Java Data Objects). Because JDO covers the ObjectRelational Model for all potential bases and repositories, it is a more general specification than JPA, which focuses exclusively on relational databases.

    32. What are the two categories of fetch strategies that JPA employs?

    Ans:

    The two categories of retrieval Techniques employed in JPA include:

    • GetType. EAGER: The associated annotated field or property has to be loaded by the persistence provider.
    • GetType. LAZY: Data can be eagerly loaded, but the persistence provider should load it when it is first accessed.

    33. What are the various callback techniques used in JPA?

    Ans:

    The various callback techniques are:

    • Prior to Persisting
    • After Persist
    • Prior to Removal
    • Following Removal
    • Advance
    • AfterUpdate
    • After Loading

    34. Which six lock types are covered in the JPA specification?

    Ans:

    The following lists the six types of locks that JPA offers:

    • NOT ONE
    • OPTIMISTIC
    • ASSERTIVE_FORCE_INCREASE
    • PESSIMISTIC_READ
    • WRITE PESSIMISTIC
    • DEPRESSIVE

    35. What is the Persistence API for Java?

    Ans:

    The Java specification used to persist data between Java programs is called the Java Persistence API (JPA). JPA connects relational and object databases, relational database systems, and object-oriented domain models. JPA is merely a specification; it is not a standalone program. It needs to be put into practice. Hibernate, TopLink, and iBatis are examples of ORM systems that implement JPA requirements for data 31.

    36. What is JPA for Spring Data?

    Ans:

    The Spring framework includes Spring Data JPA, which offers an extensive programming paradigm for Java-based applications. It enables developers to run SQL (structured query language) or JPQL (java persistence query language) database queries against well-designed repositories. Using unique finder methods, developers can create repository interfaces; Spring Data JPA takes care of the implementation automatically.

    37. In Spring Data JPA, how can I establish a custom repository?

    Ans:

    • Any interface, such as a repository, CrudRepository, PagingAndSortingRepository, JPARepository, or QueryByExampleRepository, can be extended to create a custom repository. 
    • The returning DTO class must be created before a custom repository can be established. 
    • You can then write a method that takes in a list of custom DTO objects as its output. 
    • Next, add the findbySearchTerm() function to the interface that has been built.

    38. How does JPA ensure transaction management in API development?

    Ans:

    Through the EntityManager interface, JPA facilitates transaction management and enables developers to carry out atomic database operations inside of transactions. By either committing all changes or rolling them back in the event of a failure, transactions maintain the database’s ACID qualities (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) and guarantee data consistency and integrity.

    39. What distinguishes one FetchType from another?

    Ans:

    The interface loads records from the database as indicated by the FetchType attribute. Whether or not the client accesses these objects, the JPA returns them when we employ the eager property. Only the actual objects are immediately retrieved when using the slow attribute. This aids in memory preservation and processing duration.

    40. What is the Spring Data JPA’s CrudRepository save () function used for?

    Ans:

    A record in the repository is upserted using the save() method. Upserting is the process of inserting or updating a record using a single call. For instance, the system invokes persist() if the record is not present in the database. It calls merge() to update the record if it already exists.

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    41. Talk about the critical predefined classes and repository interfaces in Spring Data JPA.

    Ans:

    • Repository: Spring Data Hierarchy defines this as a top-level interface. CrudRepository The CrudRepository interface offers methods to assist in performing CRUD operations in addition to extending the Repository interface.
    • PagingAndSortingRepository: This interface adds further methods to the CrudRepository interface for retrieving items using pagination and sorting arranging.
    • QueryByExampleExecutor: Query by example is executed using this interface.
    • JpaRepository: The QueryByExampleExecutor interface and PagingAndSortingRepository are extended by the JpaRepository interface. It also aids in offering a few more batch techniques.

    42. Which CrudRepository methods are used to carry out CRUD operations?

    Ans:

    • ExistsById: this function determines whether an entity with a particular ID already exists in the database.
    • FindAll(): locates every Entity of a specific type.
    • One Entity at a time can be saved using the • save(S entity) function.
    • Use findById to retrieve an entity by its id.
    • FindAllById – yields all entities with the supplied IDs.
    • DeleteById: this function deletes an entity based on its ID.
    • The function count() yields the specified quantity of entities.
    • Delete(): remove everything

    43. How does the annotation for an entity work?

    Ans:

    In the database, a class is indicated to represent a relational table via the Entity annotation. Any class in the persistence setup that is marked with Entity is covered by the JPA specification. For example, in a web application, it is typical to create a new database connection for each HTTP request using a different EntityManager object.

    44. Describe an entity manager.

    Ans:

    A persistent context is linked to an EntityManager object. It is a collection of entity instances, with a single instance for each persistent entity identification. The entity instances and their lifecycle are controlled within the persistence context. The EntityManager API is used to query over entities, find entities by their primary key, and create and remove persistent entity instances.

    45. Describe JPQL (Java Persistence Query Language) and its importance in the creation of APIs.

    Ans:

    JPA offers a query language called JPQL that allows database queries to be executed using entity objects rather than SQL tables. Thanks to this platform-independent method, developers can create database queries based on the entity model instead of the underlying database schema. This abstraction makes the transfer of applications across several database vendors easier.

    46. Which Data Types Are Permitted in the Entity Class Attributes (Fields or Properties)?

    Ans:

    An entity’s instance variables or properties provide access to the Entity’s persistent state. The fields or properties must represent the following Java language types:

    • Primitive types in Java
    • String java. Lang.
    • Additional serializable types, such as • Java primitive type wrappers
    • Java. Math.BigDecimal and Java. Math.BigInteger
    • Java.sql.Date, Java.sql.Time, Java. Util.Date, Java. Util.Calendar, and Java.sql.TimeStamp
    • Types that can be serialised by users – byte[] – byte[] – char[] – char[]
    • Lists of types
    • Additional entities and groups of entities
    • Integrated courses

    47. Describe the JPA Embeddable Class.

    Ans:

    A class that is utilized only as a component of one or more Entity classes is known as an embeddable class. An entity class may have one embedded class as well as groups of related classes. These classes can also be used as map values or keys. Each embedded class is bound to a single entity class object at runtime and is not a shared data structure for many entities. Instead, it is unable to provide data transfers between entities.

    48. What kinds of entity mapping are there?

    Ans:

    The kinds of object-relational Mapping are as follows: 

    Mapping from one to one: An instance of one Entity is linked to an instance of another entity using a one-to-one mapping, which is a single-valued association. One instance of the source entity and a maximum of one instance of the target entity can be mapped in this kind of association. 

    Mapping from one to many: The OnetoMany When an entity is linked to a group of other entities, it is said to be in the collection valued association category, which includes Mapping. One instance of one Entity can be mapped to an unlimited number of instances of another entity in this kind of linkage.

    49. What do the JPA Cascade Types mean?

    Ans:

    Propagating a state change from a parent entity to a child is possible with JPA. For this reason, Java. Persistence is a JPA.CascadeType defines different cascade types:

    • ALL cascades all transitions between entity states.
    • Persist: this cascades the Entity’s ongoing functionality.
    • MERGE: This performs an entity merge cascade.
    • The REMOVE function cascades the entity removal process.
    • REFRESH: This initiates a cascaded entity refresh process.
    • DETACH: This action cascades the Entity’s detachment.

    Dependencies on the other Entity’s existence are common among entities that use relationships. A line item, for instance, is a component of an order; if the order is deleted, the line item ought to be eliminated as well.

    50. What characteristics does JPQL have?

    Ans:

    Among JPQL’s key characteristics are its simplicity and robustness.

    • The query language is platform-independent.
    • JPQL queries can be dynamically included in code or stated statically in metadata.
    • It works with any database, including Oracle and MySQL.

    51. Which kinds of collections are appropriate for JPA?

    Ans:

    The following kinds of Java collections are used to store collections of objects and multivalued entity associations: Hibernate makes use of its own collection implementations, which are enhanced with semantics for state change detection, caching, and slow loading. Persistent collections must, therefore, be specified as an interface type. The actual interface may be Java. Util. Collection, Java.o List, java.o Set, or Java.o Map.

    52. Describe the strategies for JPA Inheritance.

    Ans:

    The JPA specification offers multiple approaches:

    • MappedSuperclass, Only the domain model, implements inheritance; the database design does not take this into account. Refer to MappedSuperclass.
    • Single table Entities from various class types are contained in a single table that is a materialization of the domain model class hierarchy. View a single table.

    53. Which JPA interfaces are essential?

    Ans:

    • The following are the primary JPA interfaces: {EntityManager}: Interface for interacting with the context of persistence.
    • EntityManagerFactory}: An interface for managing and creating several instances of `EntityManager.`
    • {EntityTransaction}: Transaction management interface.

    54. Describe the distinction between JPA `persist()` and `merge()` functions.

    Ans:

    To make an entity instance controlled and permanent, use `persist().` Use the’ merge () ‘ function to update the supplied Entity’s state into the current persistence context. To put it simply, to add a new entity to the database, call persist(Entity). If the Entity already exists in the database, an EntityExistsException will be thrown. If an entity was detached and altered, merge(Entity) should be used to return it to the persistent context.

    55. What does the {Entity} annotation mean?

    Ans:

    • To designate a class as an entity, use `Entity`; this indicates that it shall be connected to a database record. 
    • This class-level annotation defines the class as a persistent entity. It is a component of the Java. 
    • Persistence package. It tells the JPA provider that the class ought to be handled in the database like a table. 
    • This code excerpt designates the Employee class as an entity.

    56. What does the {Id} annotation serve to accomplish?

    Ans:

    An entity’s primary key is specified using {Id}. The main key of an entity, which uniquely identifies each instance of the Entity in the database, is indicated by the ID annotation in JPA. It is used on a field or attribute that is part of the entity class. The ID annotation comes from the Javax—persistence package. Id, signifying The primary key of the current Entity, is located in the member field below.

    57. Describe the annotation {GeneratedValue}.

    Ans:

    To indicate how an entity’s primary key should be produced, use {GeneratedValue}. Various techniques, such as {AUTO`, `IDENTITY,` `SEQUENCE}, etc., can be employed. An entity’s primary fundamental values can be specified using the GeneratedValue annotation. This annotation controls the assignment of the primary key, which is often the ID field seen in JPA entities.

    58. What does the {OneToMany} annotation mean?

    Ans:

    To define a one-to-many relationship between two entities, use `OneToMany.` Type of Annotation: One to many. Describes a many-to-many multiplicity in a many-valued connection. The related target entity type should not be supplied if the collection is defined using generics to determine the element type; if not, the target entity class must be specified.

    59. Describe the JPA’s FetchType options.

    Ans:

    • {FetchType.LAZY`: Indicates that the associated entities ought to be loaded asynchronously, or on demand.
    • {FetchType.EAGER`: Indicates that the related entities ought to be loaded promptly.
    • The Java Persistence API (JPA) has an enumerated type called FetchType that indicates whether a field or property should be eagerly or slowly loaded. The Javax persistence uses it. Enum FetchType.

    60. In JPA, what is a Named Query?

    Ans:

    A statically constructed query with a name attached is called a named query. You can define queries with it in a manner that is easier to read and update. Create a named query, which is a predefined query that you associate with an entity maintained by a container (see “Using Annotations”). OC4J stores named queries on the EntityManager at deployment time. You can obtain, set up, and run a named query at runtime using the EntityManager.

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    61. In JPA, what is a Criteria API?

    Ans:

    Using Java code, Criteria API provides a typesafe alternative to write JPQL (Java Persistence Query Language) queries as strings for dynamically building queries at runtime. One of the most popular methods for creating searches for entities and their permanent state is through the Criteria API. It is merely an additional approach to defining JPA queries.

    62. Describe the distinction between one-to-one and anyone partnerships.

    Ans:

    • {ManyToOne}: “ManyToOne”: Indicates a relationship between entities that is anyone. “OneToOne”: Indicates a relationship between entities that is one-to-one. 
    • However, the main distinction is one of viewpoint. One row in the local table may be connected to numerous rows in another table in a one-to-many relationship. 
    • Alternatively, numerous rows in the local table could be connected to a single row in another table in the reverse many-to-one connection.

    63. In JPA, what is a cascade type?

    Ans:

    Cascade Type specifies the cascade actions that, in the event that the owning Entity is eliminated, merged, or persisted, should be applied to the linked entities. The persistent operation is propagated from a parent to a child entity using Cascade Type PERSIST. The address entity will be kept together with the person entity.

    64. What does the {Version} annotation serve as?

    Ans:

    An optimistic locking version property is specified using `Version}. This annotation specifies the version field or property of an entity class that acts as its optimistic lock value. The Version is utilized for optimistic concurrency control and to guarantee integrity during the merge procedure.

    65. Describe how FetchType.LAZY and FetchType.EAGER varies from one another.

    Ans:

    • “FetchType.LAZY”: Related entities load lazily, which means they are only retrieved from the database upon initial access.
    • {FetchType.EAGER}: Related entities are loaded eagerly, which means that they are simultaneously fetched from the database alongside the owning Entity.
    • Eager loading versus lazy loading. Eager loading loads or initializes a resource as soon as the code is executed, in contrast to lazy loading, which delays resource initialization. They are preloading related entities that a resource references is another aspect of eager loading.

    66. In JPA, what is an embeddable?

    Ans:

    An Embeddable is a class that is not an entity and whose instances are kept within the owning Entity. The Embeddable annotation, offered by JPA, allows a class to indicate that other entities will embed it. .. To abstract off the contact person details, let’s define a class: Public class embeddable Using standard getters and setters, ContactPerson {private String firstName; private String lastName; private String phone}

    67. Why is the {MappedSuperclass} annotation used?

    Ans:

    A class can be marked to be mapped as a superclass for mapping purposes by using the `MappedSuperclass` property. Classes specified with the MappedSuperclass annotation can be mapped in the same manner as entities, with the exception that since there isn’t a table for the mapped superclass itself, the mappings will only apply to the subclasses of the designated class. The inherited mappings will take effect in relation to the subclass tables when they are used to the subclasses.

    68. Describe the distinction between a temporary and a detached entity.

    Ans:

    • A fleeting entity is not connected to any persistent context, and a detached entity that was formerly attached to a persistent context has since been disconnected.
    • Initially, the detachable object was previously linked to a hibernate session and had a database representation; in contrast, the transient object has never been linked to a hibernate session and has no database representation.

    69. What does the annotation {JoinColumn} serve to accomplish?

    Ans:

    For a `ManyToOne` or `OneToOne` relationship, the Mapping of a foreign key column is specified using `JoinColumn.` A mapped column for a reference can be specified using the JoinColumn annotation. Example: ManyToOne JoinColumn(name=”CUST_ID”) private Customer customer; Use multiple JoinColumn annotations for the same reference if you need to create a mapping for the composite foreign keys.

    70. Describe the distinction between the JPA `persist()` and `save()` methods.

    Ans:

    • To make an entity instance controlled and permanent, use `persist().`
    • The `save()` function is not included in JPA. However, it may be helpful in certain specialized ORM implementations, such as Hibernate.
    • Persist inserts records into the database like the save method. However, its return type is void as opposed to the saving serializable object return type. 
    • Making a temporary instance durable is another distinction between saving and persistence.

    71. What does the annotation {NamedQuery} serve to accomplish?

    Ans:

    A statically specified query with a name attached to it is defined using `NamedQuery.` It enables you to write more systematically and repeatedly in JPQL queries. When we annotate a Spring Data repository method with the Query annotation, the JPQL or SQL to execute can be found in the method’s value attribute. Named queries declared in an orm.xml file or annotated with NamedQuery are superseded by the Query annotation.

    72. Describe the key components of Java.

    Ans:

    Java is a programming language independent of platforms and renowned for its resilience, portability, and security. It is among the most widely used languages for chatbots, mobile development, and cross-platform development. Java makes up for its lack of readability and succinct language with speed and performance. Among Java’s primary characteristics are its object-orientedness and platform freedom.

    73. What distinguishes JDK, JRE, and JVM from one another?

    Ans:

    • The Java Development Kit (JDK), Java Runtime Environment (JRE), and Java Virtual Machine (JVM) are three distinct components of the Java programming environment, each serving different purposes. 
    • The JDK is a comprehensive package that includes the JRE and development tools like the compiler (javac), debugger, and other utilities necessary for developing Java applications. 
    • The JRE, on the other hand, is a subset of the JDK and provides the libraries, Java Virtual Machine, and other components required to run Java applications, but it does not include development tools.

    74. In Java, what is the distinction between {==} and `.equals()}?

    Ans:

    The memory locations of two objects or primitive values are compared using {==}. A method for comparing the contents or values of two objects is `.equals()}. Usually, classes override it to give their comparison logic. With Java, A method called equals() examines the contents of the objects to check for value equality, while the == operator compares references or memory locations of objects to see whether they are the same. How does == behave in comparison to equals() with primitive types?

    75. What does a Java constructor mean?

    Ans:

    • When a class object is instantiated in Java, a particular method called a constructor is invoked. 
    • The object is initialized using it. To construct something in our programs, we use a phrase called Java constructors, or constructors in Java. 
    • In Java, a constructor is a unique method for initializing objects. When a class object is formed, the constructor is called. 
    • It is applicable to initialize the values of the object’s attributes.

    76. In Java, what is method overloading?

    Ans:

    • A Java feature called method overloading enables a class to have numerous methods with the same name but distinct parameters. 
    • In Java, method overloading refers to the existence of two or more processes (or functions) with the same name but distinct arguments (or parameters) within a class. 
    • That could be the case with a different quantity or variety of arguments.

    77. In Java, what is method overriding?

    Ans:

    A Java feature called method overriding enables a subclass to offer a unique implementation of a method that is already specified in the superclass. When a subclass (child class) in Java contains the same method as the parent class, this is known as method overriding. Put differently, method overriding happens when a subclass offers a specific implementation of a technique that one of its parent classes has declared.

    78. What does Java’s inheritance mean?

    Ans:

    Java’s inheritance mechanism allows a class (subclass) to inherit characteristics and traits from a superclass (parent class). In Java, inheritance is the process of taking traits from other courses to establish a hierarchy across classes. Since inheritance is transitive, Sedan will also inherit from the Vehicle class if it extends Car and Car extends Vehicle. The car elevates to the superclass status of both Sedan and car.

    79. What is the Java term for “final”?

    Ans:

    • In Java, the `final} keyword is used to disallow class inheritance, overriding of methods, and declaration of constants.
    • The last Classes, properties, and methods that employ the keyword nonaccess modifier become immutable (difficult to inherit or override). 
    • When you want a variable, like PI, to store the same Value permanently, you can use the final keyword.

    80. What is a Java interface?

    Ans:

    A Java interface is a reference type that solely allows for the inclusion of static variables, abstract methods, default methods, and constant variables. It gives classes a means of achieving multiple inheritance and abstraction. In Java, an interface provides an abstract type that describes how a class should behave. This technique supports abstraction, polymorphism, and multiple inheritance—three of Java’s fundamental ideas. Java uses interfaces to accomplish abstraction.

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    81. What distinguishes concrete classes from abstract ones?

    Ans:

    Interfaces can only have abstract methods (prior to Java 8), whereas abstract classes can have both abstract and concrete methods. A class can extend more than one abstract class, but it can only implement several interfaces. In addition to declaring but not implementing abstract methods, an abstract class can also have fully implemented (concrete) methods and fields for state maintenance. An interface cannot hold state or implement methods or properties; it can only define them.

    82. What does Java’s “static” keyword mean?

    Ans:

    • Java’s `static` keyword is used to define variables and methods at the class level. The class itself is linked to these variables and processes, not any particular instance.
    • Within the class. Use the static keyword for a constant variable or a method that is the same for each instance of a class. In Java, the static keyword is a non-access modifier that can be used with the following: Sections. 

    83. What is the Java term for “this”?

    Ans:

    In Java, the current instance of the class is indicated with the `this} keyword. Its primary purpose is to distinguish instance variables from parameters that share the same name. In a method or constructor, the current object is referred to via this keyword. Due to the fact that a class attribute is shadowed by a method or constructor argument, this keyword is most frequently used to clear up confusion between class attributes and parameters of the same name.

    84. What is Java method chaining?

    Ans:

    In Java, method chaining refers to the practice of calling several methods in succession within a single statement, each of which returns an object that is used by the subsequent method. This coding technique enables programmers to call several methods on an object in a single line of code, streamlining the development process overall, cutting down on redundancy, and simplifying code.

    85. What distinguishes Java’s `ArrayList` and `LinkedList`?

    Ans:

    While `LinkedList` is implemented as a doubly linked list, `ArrayList` is implemented as a resizable array. Rapid insertion and deletion are provided by `LinkedList,` whereas rapid random access is provided by `ArrayList}. A coding technique called method chaining enables programmers to call several methods on an object in just one code line.

    86. What is the purpose of the Java ‘try catch finally` block?

    Ans:

    • Java uses the `try catch finally` block to manage exceptions. The `try` block contains code that could throw an exception, and the `catch` block contains the handling logic. 
    • Whether or not an exception occurs, the code is executed in the {finally` section. 
    • A code block that has the potential to throw an exception is specified using the try block. 
    • If an exception is thrown, it is handled by the catch block. 
    • After the try-and-catch blocks have been run, the code is executed using the final block.

    87. In Java, what distinguishes checked from unchecked exceptions?

    Ans:

    When an exception is checked during compilation, the compiler compels the programmer to handle it with a `try catch` block or declare it using the `throws` keyword in the method signature. Unchecked exceptions don’t need to be handled and aren’t checked during compilation. Checked exceptions occur during the compilation process when the source code is converted to an executable. Unchecked exceptions occur when the executable program launches during runtime.

    88. What does Java’s `synchronised` keyword serve as?

    Ans:

    To minimize memory consistency issues and thread interference, synchronized methods or blocks of code can be created in Java using the `synchronised` keyword. This allows different threads to regulate access to shared resources. The synchronized keyword locks a thread’s resources, preventing any other thread from accessing them simultaneously. The keyword also prevents the reordering of the program statement. The synchronized keyword guarantees the locking and unlocking of threads both before and after they enter the synchronized block.

    89. What does the Java term “volatile” mean?

    Ans:

    • When many threads are modifying a variable’s Value, Java’s `volatile` keyword is used to express this. 
    • It guarantees that modifications made to the variable by one thread are instantly visible to other threads. 
    • A Java variable can be marked as “being stored in main memory” by using the volatile keyword. 
    • A volatile variable will always be read from the main memory by each thread that accesses it, not from the cache of the CPU. 
    • In this manner, the volatile variable’s Value is visible to all threads.

    90. What is a Java lambda expression?

    Ans:

    In Java, an anonymous function can be succinctly expressed using a lambda expression. It offers a straightforward syntax for creating valuable interfaces. In Java 8, lambda expressions were added. A lambda expression is a brief code block that accepts parameters and outputs a result. Similar to methods, lambda expressions can be used directly within the body of a technique and do not require a name.

    91. Why is the Java interface’s `default` keyword used?

    Ans:

    • The’ default’ keyword provides a default implementation for an interface in Java. This approach permits interfaces to change without interfering with already implemented versions. 
    • In a switch statement, the default block of code is specified by the default keyword.
    • If there isn’t a case match in the switch, the default keyword indicates what code should be executed. Note: A switch block does not require a break if the default keyword is used as the final statement.

    92. What do Java’s `break` and `continue` statements accomplish?

    Ans:

    The loop or switch statement can be ended using the `break` statement, which moves control outside of it. To go on to the subsequent iteration of the loop and bypass the current one, use the {continue` statement. The loop can be instantly ended by using the break command. To end the loop’s current iteration, use the continue statement. In Java programming, the break keyword is used to denote break statements. In Java programming, the continue keyword is used to signify a continue statement.

    93. In Java, what is autoboxing and unboxing?

    Ans:

    • Autoboxing is the process of automatically converting primitive data types (like `int` to `Integer`) into the appropriate wrapper classes when necessary.
    • When necessary, wrapper class objects are automatically unpacked into the respective primitive data types.
    • The automatic Mapping that the Java compiler does between primitive types and the object wrapper classes that correspond to them is known as autoboxing. 
    • For instance, changing a double to a double, an int to an integer, and so forth. In the event that the conversion fails, this is referred to as opening the package.

    94. What is the Java term for “super”?

    Ans:

    In Java, the `super` keyword refers to the current object’s superclass. Its main uses are called superclass constructors, methods, and variables. The super keyword refers to parent (superclass) objects. It is employed to access the superclass constructor and invoke superclass functions. The super keyword is most frequently used to remove ambiguity between superclasses and subclasses that share method names.

    95. What does Java’s reflection mean?

    Ans:

    • Through reflection, a Java program can inspect its classes, methods, fields, and structure during runtime. 
    • It permits object instantiation, method calling, and dynamic class loading. The process of looking into or changing a class’s runtime behavior is known as Java Reflection. 
    • The Java Reflection API accomplishes runtime manipulation of classes and their members—fields, methods, constructors, etc.

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