35+ BEST Groovy Interview Questions & Answers
Groovy Interview Questions and Answers

35+ BEST Groovy Interview Questions & Answers

Last updated on 19th Feb 2024, Popular Course

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Niyati Joshi (Groovy Developer )

Niyati Joshi specializes in leveraging the Groovy programming language to develop robust and efficient software solutions. With a deep understanding of both Java and Groovy, Niyati Joshi excels in crafting applications that harness the power and flexibility of Groovy's syntax and features.

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Groovy, initiated by James Strachan in 2003, emerged as a dynamic language for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), addressing Java’s verbosity and adding dynamic capabilities. It gained traction for its concise syntax and seamless interoperability with Java libraries. Officially released in 2007, Groovy quickly found favor among developers, particularly due to its use in Gradle, a popular build automation tool. Its incorporation into the Apache Software Foundation in 2015 further cemented its status. Over the years, Groovy has evolved with new features, including static compilation for performance and enhanced metaprogramming. Its robust community and ongoing development ensure its relevance in the JVM ecosystem, offering a flexible and productive alternative to Java.

1. What is Groovy?

Ans:

Operating on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), Groovy is a dynamic object-oriented programming language. In order to maintain seamless interoperability with existing Java code and libraries, it was designed to improve and supplement Java by offering a more condensed, expressive, and productive syntax.

2. Describe in Groovy what thin documentation is.

Ans:

  • Users may find it challenging to comprehend the functionality of a particular piece of code or software when there is insufficient explanation or example provided in thin documentation. 
  • Users may have to rely on trial and error to deduce usage or behavior if it only provides minimal information.

3. In Groovy, how may scripts be executed?

Ans:

Groovy scripts can be executed through various methods:

  • Directly from the command line using the ‘groovy’ command.
  •  Using an integrated development environment (IDE) with Groovy support, such as IntelliJ   IDEA or Eclipse.
  • Embedding Groovy scripts within Java applications and executing them via the GroovyShell or GroovyScriptEngine classes.

4. List a few infrastructures that Groovy may be used with.

Ans:

Groovy is compatible with a number of infrastructures, such as

  • Jenkins servers for continuous integration (CI).
  • web application frameworks, like Ratpack and Grails.
  • Unit testing using testing frameworks such as Spock.
  • Utilize build tools such as Gradle to oversee project builds.

5. What prerequisites must Groovy meet?

Ans:

Prerequisites for Groovy include the following:

  • The system has the Java Development Kit (JDK) installed.
  • An operating system that works (Windows, macOS, Linux, etc.).
  • Enough RAM and storage space for the purposes of compilation and operation.
  • An Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is an optional tool for development ease.

6. Which features does Groovy JDK come with?

Ans:

The Groovy JDK includes features such as:

  • Advanced regular expression and string manipulation.
  • For code that is concise, use closures and anonymous functions.
  • The ability to modify classes and objects at runtime through metaprogramming.
  • High-order functions and collections are supported natively.

7. What role does Groovy’s ExpandoMeta class play?

Ans:

Groovy’s ExpandoMeta class enables dynamic property expansion, allowing developers to add properties and methods to objects at runtime. It provides a flexible way to extend the behavior of existing classes or create dynamic objects without explicitly defining their structure beforehand.

8. By Groovysh, what do you mean specifically?

Ans:

Groovysh is a command-line interactive shell for Groovy, providing an environment for testing and executing Groovy code snippets interactively. It allows developers to experiment with Groovy syntax, test small code snippets, and explore language features without the need for writing full-fledged scripts or applications.

9. What is dependence on Java Grape?

Ans:

Java Grape is a dependency management system for Groovy, allowing developers to easily include external libraries in their Groovy scripts and applications.By specifying dependencies in Grape’s GrapeConfig.xml file or using annotations in Groovy scripts, developers can automatically download and include libraries from remote repositories, simplifying the management of project dependencies.

10. What is the Java Virtual Machine, or JVM, familiar with?

Ans:

  • The JVM is familiar with executing Java bytecode, providing a runtime environment for Java applications. 
  • It abstracts hardware and operating system details, ensuring platform independence. Additionally, the JVM handles memory management, garbage collection, and bytecode verification to ensure security and performance.
Java Virtual Machine

11. What does “groovy” mean to you?

Ans:

  • To me, “groovy” refers to a dynamic programming language that runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). 
  • It combines elements of object-oriented programming with dynamic features, making it suitable for various tasks such as scripting, web development, and building domain-specific languages (DSLs).

12. What are the real causes of Groovy’s appeal?

Ans:

The appeal of Groovy lies in its simplicity, interoperability with Java, and powerful features like closures and metaprogramming. Its concise syntax, dynamic typing, and seamless integration with existing Java codebases attract developers seeking enhanced productivity and flexibility.

13. Would you kindly list the advantages of Groovy?

Ans:

Advantages of Groovy include concise syntax, dynamic typing, seamless Java integration, support for scripting and DSLs, powerful features like closures and metaprogramming, enhanced productivity, and a vibrant community and ecosystem

14. What are the Groovy language’s limitations?

Ans:

Limitations of Groovy include slower performance compared to statically-typed languages, potential compatibility issues with Java versions, a smaller ecosystem compared to more established languages, and the risk of runtime errors due to its dynamic nature.

15. What does Groovy mean when it talks about thin documentation?

Ans:

Groovy refers to thin documentation as documentation that lacks comprehensive explanations, examples, or usage instructions.Thin documentation makes it challenging for users to understand features or libraries, requiring additional effort for effective utilization.

16. How can the script be executed in Groovy?

Ans:

Scripts in Groovy can be executed by running them directly from the command line using the groovy command, within an IDE with Groovy support, or by embedding them within Java applications and executing them using GroovyShell or GroovyScriptEngine.

17. Do you honestly believe Groovy is a simpler language than others? If yes, please explain.

Ans:

Yes, Groovy is simpler in many ways due to its concise syntax, dynamic typing, and powerful features like closures. Its similarity to Java makes it accessible to Java developers, while its support for scripting reduces boilerplate code, enhancing readability and productivity.

18. Would it be feasible for you to integrate with non-Java applications?

Ans:

Yes, Groovy can integrate with non-Java applications through various means such as invoking external processes, using interoperability features provided by other languages, or utilizing libraries that facilitate integration with specific platforms or technologies.

19. What prerequisites must Groovy meet?

Ans:

Groovy requires the Java Development Kit (JDK) to be installed, compatible operating systems, sufficient memory and disk space, and optionally, an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for development.

20. Regarding Groovy applications, what do you mean?

Ans:

Groovy applications refer to software developed using the Groovy programming language.These applications can range from small scripts to large-scale web applications, leveraging Groovy’s features for enhanced productivity and flexibility.

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    21. Is it possible to compare the Groovy’s previous and current versions?

    Ans:

    Yes, it is possible to compare previous and current versions of Groovy in terms of features, performance improvements, bug fixes, and language enhancements.Each new version typically builds upon the previous one, addressing issues and introducing new capabilities.

    22. How much do you know about Groovy closures and listeners?

    Ans:

    • Groovy closures are blocks of code that can be assigned to variables, passed as arguments, or returned from methods.    
    • They provide a concise way to define behavior and are often used in functional programming and event handling. 
    • Groovy listeners are closures or objects that respond to events or changes in state, commonly used in graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and event-driven programming.

    23. What is the difference between each and collect methods in Groovy?

    Ans:

      Method Purpose Accumulates Results
    each

    Iterates over a collection, applying a closure to each element

    No
    collect Iterates over a collection, applying a closure to each element Yes

    24. Groovy- Closures: What Is It?

    Ans:

    Groovy closures are blocks of code that can be assigned to variables, passed as arguments, and invoked at a later time. They provide a powerful way to encapsulate behavior and are a key feature of Groovy’s expressive syntax.

    25. How can I use Groovy to execute a PL/SQL function?

    Ans:

    To execute a PL/SQL function using Groovy, you can establish a JDBC connection to the database, create a callable statement, set parameters if needed, execute the function, and retrieve the results.

    26. How can I use a Groovy script to use the Notifications Endpoint section of the Jenkins job configuration in a Jenkinsfile?

    Ans:

    In a Jenkinsfile, you can utilize Groovy to configure the Notifications Endpoint section by specifying the desired recipients and message content within the pipeline script using the appropriate syntax provided by Jenkins Pipeline DSL

    27. What does groovy.json accomplish in Groovy?

    Ans:

    The groovy.json package in Groovy provides classes and methods for working with JSON data. It allows you to parse JSON strings into Groovy data structures, generate JSON from Groovy objects, and manipulate JSON documents easily.

    28. How can I use Groovy to parse JSON?

    Ans:

    You can use Groovy’s JsonSlurper class to parse JSON data. JsonSlurper allows you to convert JSON strings into Groovy data structures like maps and lists, making it simple to access and manipulate JSON data within Groovy scripts.

    29. In a Jenkins Groovy multi-line shell script, how can variables be set?

    Ans:

    In a Jenkins Groovy multi-line shell script, variables can be set using standard shell syntax, such as variable=value.These variables can then be accessed and utilized within the script as needed.

    30. How can a Groovy pipeline script retrieve the value of a Shell variable? 

    Ans:

    A Groovy pipeline script can retrieve the value of a Shell variable by using the sh step to execute a shell command that echoes the value of the variable, capturing the output using the returnStdout parameter, and assigning it to a Groovy variable for further processing.

    31. In Groovy, how are exceptions handled?

    Ans:

    Similar to Java, Groovy allows for the handling of exceptions using try-catch blocks. Other features offered by Groovy include the catch method for succinct exception handling and the with method for resource management.

    32. In Groovy, what does metaprogramming mean?

    Ans:

    In Groovy, the term “metaprogramming” describes the capacity to dynamically alter or expand the behavior of classes and objects during runtime. Features like category classes, property access customization, and method injection can help achieve this.

    33. How can you use Groovy to run shell commands?

    Ans:

    The execute() method in Groovy or the ProcessBuilder class from Java’s standard library can be used to run shell commands. Furthermore, Groovy offers the sh method, which allows platform-independent shell command executio

    34. What does Groovy’s @Grab annotation serve as?

    Ans:

    In a Groovy script, dependencies on external libraries are declared using the @Grab annotation. The dependencies specified will be downloaded and included automatically at runtime by Groovy’s Grape system.

    35. Describe the Groovy concept of type inference.

    Ans:

    Groovy’s type inference feature enables the compiler to infer a variable’s data type from its usage context. Because of this, code can be written more succinctly without requiring explicit type specification.

    36. How can JSON data be worked with in Groovy?

    Ans:

    With Groovy, you can parse JSON strings into Groovy data structures and vice versa thanks to the JsonSlurper class.Groovy scripts can now handle JSON data with ease.

    37. What is the purpose of the @Category annotation in Groovy?

    Ans:

    The @Category annotation is used to apply methods from one or more categories to existing classes or objects at runtime. Categories allow you to extend classes with new methods without modifying their source code.

    38. How can you handle concurrency in Groovy?

    Ans:

    Groovy provides various mechanisms for handling concurrency, including Java’s concurrency utilities like Thread and ExecutorService, as well as higher-level constructs like GPars for parallel programming.

    39. Explain how you can use Groovy to work with databases.

    Ans:

    Groovy provides seamless integration with databases through JDBC (Java Database Connectivity).You can use JDBC to establish connections to databases, execute SQL queries, and process result sets, making it easy to work with relational databases in Groovy scripts.

    40. What is GDK in Groovy?

    Ans:

    GDK stands for Groovy Development Kit, which is a set of additional APIs and utility methods provided by Groovy to simplify common programming tasks. GDK extends the functionality of Java’s standard libraries and provides Groovy-specific features.

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    41. Describe the Groovy concept of dynamic method dispatch.

    Ans:

    Groovy’s dynamic method dispatch feature enables method calls to be resolved at runtime using the object’s actual type rather than its declared type. This makes Groovy capable of polymorphic behavior and method overriding.

    42. What is the builder pattern in Groovy?

    Ans:

    The builder pattern in Groovy is a design pattern that makes use of the language’s succinct syntax and metaprogramming capabilities to produce expressive and fluid APIs for building intricate object hierarchies. The builder pattern in Groovy facilitates the creation of XML and JSON structures natively.

    43. In Groovy, how do you define a closure that yields a value?

    Ans:

    • def myClosure = { x, y ->
    • x + y
    • }

    In Groovy, closures that return a value can be defined with the -> operator, a block of code, and the value to be returned. For

    44. How can you define a class with properties in Groovy?

    Ans:

    You can define a class with properties in Groovy using the class keyword followed by the class name and property declarations.Groovy automatically generates getters and setters for properties, allowing you to access and modify them easily.

    45. What is the ExpandoMetaClass in Groovy?

    Ans:

    The ExpandoMetaClass in Groovy is a metaclass that allows you to dynamically add or modify methods and properties of existing classes at runtime. This enables runtime metaprogramming and dynamic customization of class behavior.

    46. How can you work with regular expressions in Groovy?

    Ans:

    Groovy provides built-in support for regular expressions through the =~ operator and the find, findAll, and replaceAll methods. You can use regular expressions to match patterns in strings, extract substrings, and perform search-and-replace operations.

    47. Explain the concept of method missing in Groovy.

    Ans:

    Method missing in Groovy refers to the ability to intercept method calls on objects that do not have the specified method defined. This allows you to dynamically handle method calls and provide custom behavior at runtime, such as delegating calls to other objects or generating methods on the fly.

    48. What is the @Mixin annotation in Groovy?

    Ans:

    The @Mixin annotation in Groovy is used to mix additional methods and properties from one class (the mixin class) into another class at compile time. This allows you to compose classes from multiple sources and reuse behavior across different classes.

    49. How can you work with files and directories in Groovy?

    Ans:

    Groovy provides convenient APIs for working with files and directories through classes like File, FileInputStream, and FileOutputStream. These classes allow you to create, read, write, and manipulate files and directories in a platform-independent manner.

    50. Explain the concept of category classes in Groovy.

    Ans:

    Category classes in Groovy allow you to add new methods to existing classes without modifying their source code. You can define category classes containing static methods, and those methods will be dynamically added to the corresponding classes at runtime.

    51. How can you use Groovy to create web applications?

    Ans:

    Groovy can be used to create web applications by leveraging frameworks like Grails, Ratpack, and Groovy on Grails (GORM). These frameworks provide features for building RESTful APIs, handling web requests, and interacting with databases, allowing you to develop web applications quickly and efficiently.

    52. What is the with method in Groovy?

    Ans:

    The with method in Groovy allows you to execute a block of code within the context of an object, without having to repeatedly specify the object name. This can make code more concise and readable, especially when working with nested method calls or property access.

    53. Explain the concept of method memoization in Groovy.

    Ans:

    Method memoization in Groovy involves caching the results of method calls for specific input arguments to improve performance. This is useful for expensive computations or methods with deterministic outputs, as it allows you to avoid redundant calculations.

    54. How can you use Groovy to work with JSON APIs?

    Ans:

    Groovy provides built-in support for working with JSON data through the JsonSlurper class, allowing you to parse JSON strings into Groovy data structures and manipulate them easily. You can use this feature to interact with JSON APIs and process their responses.

    55. What is Groovy’s @Mixin transformation?

    Ans:

    Groovy’s @Mixin transformation is a compile-time transformation that injects methods and properties from one class (the mixin class) into another class at compile time. This allows you to compose classes from multiple sources and reuse behavior across different classes.

    56. How do you define a trait in Groovy?

    Ans:

    Traits in Groovy can be defined using the trait keyword followed by the trait name and trait body enclosed in curly braces. Traits can contain method definitions, properties, and default implementations, which can be mixed into classes using the ‘implements’ keyword.

    57. What is Groovy’s @CompileStatic annotation?

    Ans:

    Groovy’s @CompileStatic annotation is used to instruct the Groovy compiler to perform static type checking and compilation for a specific class or method. This can improve performance and catch type-related errors at compile time, similar to static compilation.

    58. How can you define a closure with a default parameter value in Groovy?

    Ans:

    Closures with default parameter values in Groovy can be defined by specifying default values for parameters in the closure definition. If a value is not provided for a parameter when the closure is called, the default value will be used.

    59. Explain the concept of method reference in Groovy.Ans:

    Ans:

    Method reference in Groovy allows you to create references to methods and pass them around as first-class objects. This enables functional programming paradigms and simplifies code by separating method logic from its invocation.

    60. What is Groovy’s @ImmutableBase annotation?

    Ans:

    Groovy’s @ImmutableBase annotation is used to generate base classes for immutable classes created using the @Immutable annotation. This base class provides common methods like toString, equals, hashCode, and compareTo for the immutable class.

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    61. How do you define a static property in Groovy?

    Ans:

    Static properties in Groovy can be defined using the static keyword followed by the property name and value. Static properties belong to the class itself rather than to instances of the class.

    62. Explain the concept of method memoization in Groovy.

    Ans:

    Method memoization in Groovy involves caching the results of method calls for specific input arguments to improve performance. This is useful for expensive computations or methods with deterministic outputs, as it allows you to avoid redundant calculations.

    63. How do you define a trait with default implementations in Groovy?

    Ans:

    Traits with default implementations in Groovy can be defined using the trait keyword followed by the trait name and trait body enclosed in curly braces. Default implementations for methods can be provided within the trait body.

    64. What is Groovy’s @Delegate transformation scope?

    Ans:

    Groovy’s @Delegate transformation scope determines the visibility of methods and properties injected from a delegate object into another object. The scope can be OWNER_FIRST to prioritize methods and properties of the target object, or DELEGATE_FIRST to prioritize methods and properties of the delegate object.

    65. How can you work with closures in Groovy?

    Ans:

    Closures in Groovy can be assigned to variables, passed as arguments to methods, and invoked later. They provide a powerful way to encapsulate behavior and are commonly used for tasks like event handling, callback functions, and DSLs (Domain-Specific Languages).

    66. What is Groovy’s @Mixin transformation strategy?

    Ans:

    Groovy’s @Mixin transformation strategy is a compile-time transformation that allows you to mix additional methods and properties from one class (the mixin class) into another class at compile time. This can improve code reuse and composition.

    67. What is Groovy’s @Lazy annotation?

    Ans:

    Groovy’s @Lazy annotation is a compile-time transformation that generates lazy-initialized properties for a class automatically. This allows you to defer the initialization of properties until they are accessed for the first time, improving performance and memory usage.

    68. How can you work with XML namespaces in Groovy?

    Ans:

    Groovy provides built-in support for working with XML namespaces through the XmlSlurper and XmlBuilder classes. These classes allow you to parse XML documents with namespaces and create new XML documents with namespaces easily.

    69. What is Groovy’s @Mixin transformation constructor parameter?

    Ans:

    Groovy’s @Mixin transformation constructor parameter specifies whether the constructor of the mixin class should be mixed into the target class along with its methods and properties. This provides flexibility in mixin composition and allows you to control the visibility of constructors.

    70. Explain the concept of category classes in Groovy.

    Ans:

    Category classes in Groovy allow you to add new methods and properties to existing classes at runtime. This is achieved by dynamically modifying the metaclass of the target class to include the new methods and properties, providing a flexible way to extend class behavior.

    71. What are the benefits of Groovy compared to Java?

    Ans:

    Groovy offers several advantages over Java, including concise syntax, dynamic typing, built-in support for scripting, metaprogramming capabilities, seamless integration with Java libraries, and enhanced features like closures and builders.

    72. How does Groovy support metaprogramming?

    Ans:

    Groovy supports metaprogramming through features like runtime and compile-time metaclasses, method missing, property missing, category classes, AST transformations, and dynamic runtime modification of classes and objects.

    73. What are AST transformations in Groovy, and how are they used?

    Ans:

     AST (Abstract Syntax Tree) transformations in Groovy allow you to modify the abstract syntax tree of your code at compile time. They are used to apply annotations or custom transformations to classes, methods, or fields, enabling powerful metaprogramming capabilities.

    74. Explain the concept of operator overloading in Groovy.

    Ans:

    Operator overloading in Groovy allows you to define custom behavior for operators like +, -, *, /, ==, !=, etc., for your classes. This allows you to use operators with your objects in a natural and intuitive way.

    75. How can you use Groovy closures for event handling?

    Ans:

    Groovy closures can be used for event handling by passing closures as callback functions to event listeners. When the event occurs, the closure is invoked, allowing you to handle the event with custom behavior.

    76. What are the differences between Groovy’s builders and traditional XML/HTML APIs?

    Ans:

    Groovy’s builders provide a DSL (Domain-Specific Language) for constructing XML, HTML, or other structured data formats in a concise and readable way. Unlike traditional APIs, Groovy builders use closures and method chaining to mimic the structure of the document being created, resulting in cleaner and more expressive code.

    77. How does Groovy support functional programming paradigms?

    Ans:

     Groovy supports functional programming paradigms through features like closures, higher-order functions, method references, currying, memoization, and immutable data structures. These features enable functional programming techniques like map-reduce, filter, and recursion.

    78. Explain how to handle exceptions in Groovy.

    Ans:

     Exceptions in Groovy can be handled using try-catch blocks, just like in Java. Additionally, Groovy provides shorthand syntax for catching exceptions, multi-catch blocks, and the withResource method for automatic resource management.

    79. What is the GDK (Groovy Development Kit) in Groovy?

    Ans:

    The GDK (Groovy Development Kit) in Groovy is a set of extension methods and classes that augment the functionality of Java’s standard libraries. It provides additional methods for working with collections, strings, files, dates, XML, JSON, and more, making common tasks easier and more expressive.

    80. How can you integrate Groovy scripts with existing Java applications?

    Ans:

    Groovy scripts can be seamlessly integrated with existing Java applications by invoking Groovy scripts from Java code using the Groovy API. Groovy scripts can access Java classes and libraries directly, and Java classes can call Groovy scripts as if they were regular Java methods.

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    81. What is Groovy’s GDK (Groovy Development Kit) and how does it enhance Java’s standard libraries?

    Ans:

    Groovy’s GDK is a set of extension methods and classes that enrich Java’s standard libraries. It provides additional methods for collections, strings, files, dates, XML, JSON, and more, making common tasks easier and more expressive.

    82. How does Groovy support scripting?

    Ans:

    Groovy supports scripting by providing a concise and expressive syntax that allows developers to write scripts for various purposes, such as automation, build scripting, and rapid prototyping. Groovy scripts can be executed directly from the command line or embedded within Java applications.

    83. Explain the concept of AST transformations in Groovy.

    Ans:

     AST (Abstract Syntax Tree) transformations in Groovy allow developers to modify the structure of their code at compile time. These transformations can be applied using annotations or custom compiler phases, enabling powerful metaprogramming and code generation capabilities.

    84. What are some common use cases for AST transformations in Groovy?

    Ans:

     Some common use cases for AST transformations include generating boilerplate code, implementing design patterns, enforcing coding conventions, optimizing code, and adding behavior to classes at compile time.

    85. How does Groovy handle type checking and type inference?

    Ans:

    Groovy is a dynamically typed language, meaning that variables are not statically typed. However, Groovy provides optional static type checking and static compilation features, allowing developers to enforce type safety and improve performance where needed.

    86. What are some best practices for writing Groovy code?

    Ans:

    Some best practices for writing Groovy code include using expressive variable names, leveraging Groovy’s collection methods, favoring immutable data structures, using AST transformations judiciously, following coding conventions, and writing unit tests to ensure code correctness.

    87. How does Groovy support parallel programming?

    Ans:

    Groovy provides support for parallel programming through frameworks like GPars (Groovy Parallel Systems), which offers constructs for parallel iteration, data processing, asynchronous programming, and concurrent execution. GPars simplifies parallel programming tasks and helps developers leverage multi-core architectures effectively.

    88. Explain the concept of memoization and how it can be used in Groovy.

    Ans:

    Memoization is a technique used to cache the results of expensive function calls to improve performance by avoiding redundant computations. In Groovy, memoization can be implemented using closures or custom memoization libraries to cache the results of function calls for specific input arguments.

    89. What are some common libraries and frameworks used in conjunction with Groovy?

    Ans:

    Some common libraries and frameworks used with Groovy include Grails (web application framework), Spock (testing framework), Ratpack (microservices framework), Gradle (build automation tool), Geb (web testing framework), and GPars (parallel programming library).

    90. What is String Interpolation?

    Ans:

    Groovy supports string interpolation, allowing variables and expressions to be embedded directly within string literals using the $'{}‘ syntax. In Java, string concatenation or the String.format() method is typically used for similar purposes.

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