[ TOP & MOST ASKED ] SAP UI5 Interview Questions and Answers
SAP-UI5-Interview-Questions-and-Answers

[ TOP & MOST ASKED ] SAP UI5 Interview Questions and Answers

Last updated on 10th Nov 2021, Blog, Interview Questions

About author

Anuj Kumar (SAP Ui5 Fiori developer )

Anuj Kumar is an SAP Ui5 Fiori developer with 4+ years of experience. He is proficient in domains such as OData services, Annotations, ABAP, and RFC. His experience with SAP's cloud-based CRM solution, SAP gateway development, and SAP Hybris solution.

(5.0) | 19875 Ratings 7740

    If you’re looking for SAP UI5 Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced & Freshers, you are at right place. There are lot of opportunities from many reputed companies in the world. According to research SAP UI5 has a market share of about 45.8%. So, You still have opportunity to move ahead in your career in SAP UI5. ACTE offers advanced SAP UI5 Interview Questions 2021 that helps you in cracking your interview & acquire dream career as SAP UI5 Developer.

    Subscribe For Free Demo

    [custom_views_post_title]

    1. What is SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    • SAPUI5 is one client-side rendering library like any other HTML5. SAPUI5 strictly follows the RIA standards.
    • It is based on JavaScript which offers the lightweight programming model for a desktop as well as mobile applications.

    2. Why SAPUI5 instead of HTML5?

    Ans:

    As HTML5 world is new age front technology across all the aspects of internet applications SAP is kind of trailing in this age because SAP was using age old WebDynpro for building the SAP Web Applications which lacks rich and user-friendly UI. SAP identified this and came up with own custom HTML5 library i.e. SAPUI5.

    3. What is the difference between HTML5 and SAP UI5?

    Ans:

    HTML5 is a markup language and it doesn’t have the programming capabilities but SAPUI5 is the framework which is based on the MVC approach to build web applications. HTML5 is for the purpose of creating the simple webpage without formatting and logic but UI5 provides the standard style and components to build rich UIs.

    4. What is MVC?

    Ans:

    MVC stands for model view controller;Its architecture to design the UI based applications to achieve maximum reusability and extensibility of application for future changes. Model is representation of data in form of the object, View defines the UI and Controller contains all the logic to drive as well as the connected view with the model.

    5. What is needed to start UI5 development in eclipse?

    Ans:

    Need to import SAP UI5 toolkit from the HANA service marketplace. Also, I need the SAPUI5 ABAP Repository connector to deploy a project in ABAP System.

    6. Which control libraries are used in UI5 application development?

    Ans:

    • sap.ui.commons,
    • sap.ui.table sap.suite.ui libraries for desktop application development.
    • sap.m,
    • sap.ui.

    7. What is the Navigation concept in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    SAPUI5 uses two mechanisms for navigation in the applications are EventBus and Routing where a letter supersedes from SAPUI5 1.16. sap.ui.core.routing is the class used for routing.

    Routing in the components metadata in the routing key : It is mixed of route object and hash changer object. A Route object defines navigation paths and hash changer will be used at a runtime to change hash which leads to navigation.

    8. What is Responsive Web Design?

    Ans:

    Responsive Web Design (RWD) is an approach to web design that makes web pages render well on a variety of devices and window or screen sizes. The goal of responsive design is to ensure that user experience remains optimal, regardless of whether a website is viewed on a desktop computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone.

    9. What is Component in SAP UI5?

    Ans:

    Component or Component.js is a first point of our application or can say by that it serves as an index which encapsulates all applications details are view names, routing details, main view, applications type ,application service configuration etc..

    10. What are types of Components?

    Ans:

    There are the two types of components:

    • Faceless components: Mainly without the UIs, Used for a business logic and helper methods e.g. Formatters.
    • UI Component: typically component.js file which is made by an extending sap.ui.core.UIComponent class.

    11. When and How to use formatter in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    • Require to use a formatter when needed to perform some changes on the back end property data on the front end.
    • Can use the formatter while data binding to the property like as follows: Control = new sap.ui.commons.TextField({ value {path : “/path”, formatter : function(oEvent) return “Value:”+oEvent; }}});

    12. What types of data models are available in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    • JSON Model – It is Client-side model, supports the 2 way binding.
    • XML Model – It is Client-side model and intended for small data sets this is sometimes used model.
    • Resource Model – This is client side model used to maintain the resource bundles, specially texts.
    • ODATA Model – This is the most important model of the four provided. This is a server side model, supports two way binding the ODATA model currently supports the ODATA version 2.0.

    13. What types of views are available in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    • JSON view
    • XML View
    • JavaScript View(JS View)
    • HTML View

    14. What are Lifecycle/hook methods of SAPUI5 views controller?

    Ans:

    • These are the onInit(), onExit(), onAfterRendering(), onBeforeRendering(). onInit is called when a view is instantiated and its controls are already been created;
    • onExit is called when view is destroyed; used to be free resources and finalize activities;
    • onAfterRendering when view is rendered and, therefore, its HTML is part of document;
    • onBeforeRendering is before the controller view is re-rendered and not before first rendering.

    15. Can you add your own controls to UI5?

    Ans:

    Yes, you can add the custom controls by creating the definition from scratch. To define the custom control use sap.ui.control.extend and to enhance the standard SAP UI5 control use sap.ui.commons.controlname.extend.

    16. What is the difference between OData Model and JSON Model?

    Ans:

    The JSON model is client-side model and, intended for a little datasets, which are fully available on the client.The OData model is the server-side model: dataset is only available on the server and the client only knows the currently displayed rows and fields.

    17. What are SAPUI5 Fragments?

    Ans:

    Fragments are lightweight UI controls and part of the other UI. Fragments are not fully like the views but they act like a view. Fragments are explained similarly like views and their names are myFragment.fragment.xml.

    18. Does Fragment have its own controller?

    Ans:

    Fragments are created without controllers. Dont have own controllers and distribute the controller of the view which is invoking it.

    19. How many ways can bind data to controls?

    Ans:

    Can bind data to any controls using the three methods:

    • Property,
    • Element

    20. What is SAPUI5 Bootstrapping?

    Ans:

    SAPUI5 Bootstrapping is a loading and initializing of SAPUI5 in any HTML page. The very important library or resource loaded in the SAPUI5 bootstrap is “sap-ui-core.js”. Apart from this theme for the application, SAPUI5 libraries etc are declared in bootstrapping.

    21. What are Metadata Annotations?

    Ans:

    The service metadata document defines the structure of all resources in the service. This structural metadata makes it simple to understand a service. And can explore a service metadata at address “$metadata” relative to service root.

    22. What are common Metadata Annotations?

    Ans:

    • -edm:EntityContainer
    • -edm:EntitySet
    • -edm:EntityType
    • -edm:Property
    • -edm:NavigationProperty
    • -edm:AssociationSet

    23. What is SAP Fiori?

    Ans:

    SAPUI5 is a client side HTML5 rendering framework or library and SAP FIORI is the collection of and released as waves of applications which are completely based on SAPUI5 framework. It can create applications using SAPUI5 framework and SAP FIORI is a final product i.e. application.

    24. What are all types of Fiori Apps?

    Ans:

    There are 3 types : Apps Transactional, Analytical, Fact Sheets.

    25. Difference between SAP UI5 and SAP FIORI?

    Ans:

    SAP FIORI is the collection of standard applications based on the SAPUI5 library provided by SAP. SAP FIORI applications share some standard design guidelines and way in which these applications are developed.

    26. What is FIORI Launchpad ?

    Ans:

    As know there are more than 500 FIORI applications, SAP has provided the Shell or single point place from where can access the all applications. This serves as a homepage for all the FIORI applications provided to. This shows a tile based UI where every UI redirects to assigned a FIORI application. This Launchpad is a fully customizable according to the needs like theming and all.

    27. How to know if the device is a Touch Screen or not?

    Ans:

    SAPUI5 library provides the special API “sap.ui.Device“ which can be used for a device and its feature detection. This API has the flag “sap.ui.Device.touch” which returns true if the device is the touch screen otherwise false.

    28. How to know the web browser of a client which SAP Fiori application is running using SAP UI5?

    Ans:

    SAP UI5 library provides the special API “sap.ui.Device“ which can be used for a device and its feature detection. This API provides the flags like “chrome”, “firefox”, “mozilla”, “edge” etc. in “sap.ui.Device.browser” API which returns boolean values.

    29. What are Fiori Design Principles?

    Ans:

    There are 5 design principles are Need to keep in mind while designing the SAP Fiori applications.are:

    • Role-Based,
    • Delightful,
    • Simple,
    • Responsive
    • Coherent.

    30. What design patterns are available in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    • Master – Detail
    • Master-Master-Detail
    • Full Screen
    • Full Screen-Full Screen-MasterDetail (Multi Flow)

    31. What are the main features of SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    SAPUI5 is the JavaScript UI library that provides a wide range of built-in controls that can be used to build responsive and interactive user interfaces. It also includes a number of tools for development and testing, making it a complete solution for front-end development. Some of main features of SAPUI5 include:

    • A wide range of the built-in controls
    • A complete development and testing toolset
    • Support for the multiple device types
    • A responsive design library
    • An animation library
    • A theming engine

    32. How do I create an SAPUI5 application?

    Ans:

    The first step is to create the new project in Eclipse IDE for SAPUI5. Once the project is created, will need to add the SAPUI5 library to the project. After that, can begin creating the SAPUI5 application by adding the views, controllers, and models.

    33. What’s the role of XML, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, JSON in building SAPUI5 applications?

    Ans:

    XML, HTML, CSS, and JavaScript are all used in building SAPUI5 applications. XML is used for the structure of the application, HTML is used for the layout, CSS is used for styling, and JavaScript is used for functionality. JSON can also be used in the SAPUI5 applications, but it is not required.

    34. Give some examples of real-world enterprise web applications that use SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    • SAP Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
    • SAP Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
    • SAP Product Lifecycle Management (PLM)
    • SAP Supply Chain Management (SCM)
    • SAP Transportation Management (TM)

    35. Do all SAPUI5 apps have written in MVC architecture?

    Ans:

    No, SAPUI5 apps do not have to be written in the MVC architecture. And can also use Model View ViewModel (MVVM) architecture, or can even just use plain JavaScript if desired.

    36. What does the SAPUI5 library contain?

    Ans:

    The SAPUI5 library is the JavaScript library that contains all of the core components and functions that are needed to build the SAPUI5 applications. This includes things like core controls, layout engine, and data binding framework.

    37. What is the Application Cache Buster mechanism?

    Ans:

    The Application Cache Buster mechanism is the method of ensuring that users always have the most up-to-date version of SAPUI5 application. When a new version of the application is deployed, the mechanism will automatically update the cached version of the application on the user’s device. This ensures that users always have the most recent version of the application, and eliminates the need for them to manually update the caches.

    38. What is the best way to test the performance of a SAPUI5 application?

    Ans:

    The best way to test performance of SAPUI5 applications is to use the SAPUI5 Performance Test Tool. This tool will test the performance of the application in a variety of different ways, including load testing, stress testing, and so on.

    39. Is it possible to run SAPUI5 locally without deploying code on the ABAP system?

    Ans:

    Yes, it is possible to run the SAPUI5 locally without having to deploy a code on an ABAP system.And can do this by using the SAPUI5 SDK, which is the set of tools that includes the local server.

    40. What languages are used to write SAPUI5 apps?

    Ans:

    SAPUI5 apps can be written in the number of languages including :

    • JavaScript,
    • HTML,
    • CSS,
    • XML.

    41. What is data binding in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    Data binding is a process of connecting data from the source (usually an SAP system) to the target (usually an SAPUI5 application). This connection can be used to either display data in the SAPUI5 application or to send data from the SAPUI5 application back to the SAP system.

    Data binding in SAPUI5

    42. What is the purpose of UI components in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    UI components are used to build the user interface in the SAPUI5 applications. They are reusable UI elements that can be used to create complex applications.

    43. What are different types of bindings supported by SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    One-way binding : This type of binding updates a UI element when a model changes, but not vice versa.

    Two-way binding: This type of binding updates the both UI element and model when either one of them changes.

    One-time binding : This type of binding only updates a UI element once, whena model is first loaded. After that, it does not update even if the model changes.

    Property binding : This type of binding is used to bind a single property of the UI element to a model property.

    44. Which Open Standards And Tools Are Foundation Of Sapui5 Technology?

    Ans:

    • D3.js for a visualization
    • ARIA for the accessibility standards and keyboard handling
    • jQuery for managing the DOM elements and abstracting a browser differences

    45. Name Some Semantic States In Sapui5?

    Ans:

    • Positive
    • Negative
    • Critical

    46. How Can Compose Filters In Sapui5?

    Ans:

    • By creating the multiple filters and concatenating them either with the AND or OR
    • By creating single sap.ui.model.Filter object and specifying the path, an operator, and up to two values

    47. What Are Dialogs In Sapui5?

    Ans:

    • They are rendered into the specific area (the static area) in a DOM.
    • They needo be added to “dependent” aggregation of the view to get access to the models.

    48. What Is Openui5?

    Ans:

    • A subset of the SAPUI5 containing the complete core and more than a 200 UI controls
    • A free-to-use and open source UI library ready for the contributions

    49. What Is The Benefit Of Data Binding Within Sapui5?

    Ans:

    SAPUI5 uses a data binding to bind two data sources or information sources together to keep them in sync. This means: All changes in one source are also reflected in the other one.

    50. Which Responsiveness Features Realize By Setting Standard Css Classes Provided By Sapui5?

    Ans:

    • Adding the different margins to controls depending on screen size
    • Hiding the controls depending on a screen size

    51. Which Benefits Does Hash-based Navigation In Sapui5 Offer?

    Ans:

    • Hash-based navigation adjusts a current hash to the interactions with the app, so that URL can always be bookmarked.
    • It allows one-page apps where a contextual navigation is done by changing the hash, so the browser does not have to reload the page.

    52. Difference between Component.js and Manifest.json in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

      Feature Component.js manifest.json
    Purpose

    Serves as the central entry point for a SAPUI5 application.

    Defines configuration settings for the application.
    File Type JavaScript file (Component.js) JSON file (manifest.json)
    Responsibilities – Defines a JavaScript class representing the application. Configures application settings, such as models, routing, and resources.

    53. Difference between One-Way and Two-Way data binding?

    Ans:

    One-Way data binding updates UI from the model or vice versa, but not both. Two-Way data binding updates the both UI and the model automatically when either one changes.

    54. Explain OData in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    OData is the standardized protocol for building and consuming RESTful APIs. SAPUI5 often uses the OData services to connect to backend systems, allowing for simple data retrieval and manipulation.

    55. How can I optimize the performance of a SAPUI5 application?

    Ans:

    Performance optimization in SAPUI5 can involve techniques like asynchronous loading of resources, minimizing network requests, and implementing data paging. Additionally, avoiding unnecessary UI element updates and using the proper caching strategies can contribute to better performance.

    56. How does the routing concept work in SAPUI5, and why is it useful?

    Ans:

    Routing in SAPUI5 is the mechanism for managing navigation within an application. It allows us to define routes, associate them with the specific views, and navigate between them. This is useful for creating a single-page application with multiple views, enhancing user experience.

    57. What is the SAPUI5 Flexbox layout and how different from other layout options?

    Ans:

    The Flexbox layout is the flexible box layout model in SAPUI5 that allows the design of adaptive and responsive UIs. It provides a more efficient way to distribute space and align the items compared to the other layout options like Grid or HBox/VBox.

    58. Explain theming in SAPUI5.?

    Ans:

    Theming in SAPUI5 involves the customizing the visual appearance of application, including colors, fonts, and styles. It allows the developers to create a consistent look and feel that aligns with branding or design requirements.

    59. How can I handle errors in SAPUI5 applications?

    Ans:

    Errors in SAPUI5 can be handled by implementing proper error handling mechanisms, such as using try-catch blocks, utilizing the error event in OData models, and displaying the meaningful error messages to users.

    60. How do you ensure security in SAPUI5 applications?

    Ans:

    Security in SAPUI5 involves the measures such as input validation, proper authentication and authorization, secure communication (HTTPS), and implementing the best practices for preventing a common web vulnerabilities, like Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) and Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF).

    61. How can you handle asynchronous operations in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    Asynchronous operations in SAPUI5, like AJAX requests or data loading, can be handled using the promises, callbacks, or the async/await syntax in JavaScript. The Deferred object in the SAPUI5 is also commonly used for managing asynchronous tasks.

    Course Curriculum

    Get JOB Oriented SAP UI5 Fiori Training for Beginners By MNC Experts

    • Instructor-led Sessions
    • Real-life Case Studies
    • Assignments
    Explore Curriculum

    62. What is the significance of SAPUI5 Component Container?

    Ans:

    The Component Container is the UI control in SAPUI5 that hosts the entire lifecycle of a SAPUI5 application. It is used to embed the SAPUI5 components into views or applications, providing the seamless integration of components within larger applications.

    SAPUI5 architecture

    63. Explain SAPUI5 Resource Model?

    Ans:

    The Resource Model in SAPUI5 is used for the localization and handling text resources. It allows the developers to store and manage texts in different languages, making applications accessible and adaptable to the diverse audiences.

    64. How can achieve Internationalization (i18n) in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    Internationalization in SAPUI5 is achieved by using Resource Model (sap.ui.model.resource.ResourceModel). It involves the creating separate property files for each language and then loading appropriate resource bundle based on user’s locale.

    65. How can implement lazy loading of SAPUI5 components?

    Ans:

    Lazy loading in SAPUI5 involves the loading components or views only when they are needed, improving the initial loading performance. This can be achieved by using sap.ui.component function with async property set to true or by defining a routing patterns.

    66. Explain Smart Controls in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    Smart Controls are the set of SAPUI5 controls that automatically generate UI elements based on a metadata from OData services. They simplify a process of creating interactive UIs for the data handling, such as Smart Forms and Smart Tables.

    67. What is SAPUI5 Diagnostics Tools and how can be utilized?

    Ans:

    SAPUI5 Diagnostics Tools, such as UI5 Inspector, help developers analyze and debug the SAPUI5 applications. They provide insights into UI component tree, model data, and performance metrics, aiding in identification and resolution of issues.

    68. Explain SAP Fiori Elements in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    SAP Fiori Elements are the pre-designed, ready-to-use UI patterns for a common application scenarios. They allow the developers to create SAP Fiori apps with minimal coding effort by leveraging a metadata annotations and OData services.

    69. How can achieve data validation in SAPUI5 applications?

    Ans:

    Data validation in SAPUI5 can be achieved by implementing a client-side validation using the controls’ properties and events, and server-side validation by validating data on backend through OData services or the other server-side mechanisms.

    70. Difference between responsive and sap.m controls in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    sap.m controls in SAPUI5 are specifically designed for a mobile devices, offering a responsive design by default. Responsive controls, on other hand, are controls that automatically adapt to the different screen sizes, providing a flexibility for both desktop and mobile applications.

    71. How can handle routing in SAPUI5 when parameters need passed between views?

    Ans:

    Parameters can be passed between the views in SAPUI5 routing by defining a route patterns with placeholders for the parameters in manifest file and then accessing these parameters using oEvent.getParameter(“arguments”) method in a corresponding controller.

    72. What is data-sap-ui-xx-formfactor attribute in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    The data-sap-ui-xx-formfactor attribute is used to specify a form factor of a device (e.g., desktop, tablet, phone) and is commonly used for a Fiori Launchpad applications. It helps in optimizing application layout and behavior based on a device form factor.

    73. Explain Expression Binding in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    Expression Binding in the SAPUI5 allows the developers to define dynamic values for the properties using binding syntax directly in the view. It enables more complex binding expressions, making it simpler to calculate and display values based on the multiple model properties.

    74. How can integrate SAPUI5 applications with SAP Gateway services?

    Ans:

    SAPUI5 applications can be integrated with the SAP Gateway services by using OData models. And can create an instance of sap.ui.model.odata.ODataModel and configure it with the service URL to interact with SAP Gateway services.

    75. What is sap.ui.define function in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    The sap.ui.define function is used for a module definition in SAPUI5. It helps define modules with the dependencies and ensures that modules are loaded only when needed, improving the performance and modularization.

    76. Explain data binding modes in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    Data binding modes in SAPUI5 define how data is synchronized between a model and the UI controls. The common modes include the OneTime, OneWay, TwoWay, and OneWayToSource, each specifying a direction and frequency of data updates.

    77. How can handle different screen sizes and resolutions in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    SAPUI5 supports the responsive design through controls like a sap.m.FlexBox and media queries in CSS. Using the flexible layouts and responsive controls helps in adapting the UI to the different screen sizes and resolutions.

    78. What is crossNavigation method in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    The crossNavigation method is used for a cross-application navigation in SAPUI5. It allows the applications to navigate to the other applications or launchpads, enabling seamless and integrated user experience.

    SAP UI5 Sample Resumes! Download & Edit, Get Noticed by Top Employers! Download

    79. Difference between bindAggregation and bindElement methods in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    bindAggregation is used to bind the list or table control to collection of data, while bindElement is used to bind the form or detail view to a single entity in the model. They serve different purposes based on type of control and data structure.

    80. Explain MessageManager in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    The MessageManager in SAPUI5 is used for the handling and displaying messages related to the user input validation and server-side errors. It centralizes the management of messages and provides consistent way to handle messaging in application.

    81. How can handle errors in OData models in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    Errors in OData models can be handled by attaching event listener for a requestFailed event. This event provides an information about the failed request, allowing developers to handle errors gracefully and display the appropriate messages to users.

    82. Explain BlockLayout in SAPUI5 and when to use it?

    Ans:

    The BlockLayout in SAPUI5 is the layout control that allows the developers to structure content into blocks. It is particularly useful when designing the analytical or dashboard-style applications, providing the way to organize and present information in the visually appealing manner.

    83. What are different types of aggregation binding in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    SAPUI5 supports the various types of aggregation binding, including the template-based binding, factory function binding, and extended a syntax binding. Each type has its own use cases and allows the developers to bind UI controls to collections of data in the different ways.

    84. What is data-sap-ui-resourceroots attribute in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    The data-sap-ui-resourceroots attribute is used to specify a root URL for loading resources like controllers, views, and other assets in SAPUI5 applications. It helps define a base path for resource loading.

    84. What is data-sap-ui-resourceroots attribute in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    The RouterNavContainer is the container control in SAPUI5 that can be used to manage the navigation between different views based on routing configuration. It automatically handles creation and destruction of a views during navigation.

    86. How can use fragments for responsive design in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    Fragments can be used for a responsive design by defining different versions of fragment for different screen sizes. In controller, logic can be implemented to determine appropriate fragment to instantiate based on device’s form factor.

    87. What is support and data-sap-ui-support attributes in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    The support attribute is used to enable or disable the support features in SAPUI5, and data-sap-ui-support is HTML5 data attribute that can be set to “true” or “false” to enable or disable the support features at runtime.

    88. Explain Factory Function in aggregation binding in SAPUI5?

    Ans:

    The Factory Function is used in the aggregation binding to dynamically create and configure controls at a runtime. It allows the developers to define a function that is called for each item in aggregation, providing the flexibility in creating UI elements based on data.

    89. How can achieve Type Ahead functionality in SAPUI5 applications?

    Ans:

    Type Ahead functionality in SAPUI5 can be achieved by using suggest event of input controls and handling logic to fetch and display the suggestions as the user types. This is often implemented in the combination with OData services for a retrieving suggestions.

    90. How do handle versioning of SAPUI5 applications?

    Ans:

    Versioning of SAPUI5 applications can be managed by sa pecifying the version in data-sap-ui-version attribute in the HTML file, or by using Component Preload mechanism to bundle and cache resources, ensuring the consistency across versions.

    Are you looking training with Right Jobs?

    Contact Us

    Popular Courses

    Get Training Quote for Free