Deming vs Juran vs Crosby: Which is better?
Last updated on 16th Jul 2020, Blog, General
- Three commonly cited quality management theorists quoted on the exam are: W. Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran, and Philip Crosby.
- Deming was an American statistician, professor, author, lecturer, and consultant.
- He believed that organizations can increase quality and reduce costs by practicing continuous process improvement and by thinking of manufacturing as a system, not as bits and pieces.
- Juran was a 20th century management consultant and evangelist for quality and quality management.
- He applied the Pareto principle to quality issues (80% of the problems are caused by 20% of the causes) and also developed “Juran’s Trilogy”: quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement.
- Crosby was an American businessman and author. Crosby’s response to the quality crisis was the principle of Doing It Right the First Time (DIRFT).
He applied four major principles:
- The definition of quality is conformance to requirements
- The system of quality is prevention
- The performance standard is zero defects
- The measurement of quality is the price of non-conformance
A comparison of Deming, Juran, and Crosby
CROSBY Definition of Quality –
- It is conformance to requirements , not as goodness DEMING Meeting and exceeding the customer’s need and expectations and then continuing to improve.
- Quality improvement starts from the top.
- Quality is made in the board room.
- Senior management is 100 percent responsible for the problems with Quality and their continuance. Performance standard / Goal setting
- Performance standard must be zero defect, not that’s close enough.
- Encourage individuals to establish improvement goals for themselves and their groups. General approach The system for causing Quality is prevention , not appraisal. (The secret of prevention is to look at the process and identify opportunities for error)
- Quality mission of the company is “fitness for use” as perceived by customers.
- The mission of individual departments are to work according to specifications designed to achieve fitness for use.
- It is management’s job to set the requirements and communicate to employees.
- Degree of Senior management involvement JURAN Eliminate management by numbers, numerical goals. Substitute leadership. Majority of Quality problems are the fault of poor management rather than poor workmanship.
CROSBY DEMING Statistical process control (SPC)
- The concept of control is one of “holding the status quo” : keeping a planned process in its planned state so that it remains able to meet the operating goals.
- Quality Control (QC) Improvement basis JURAN -Quality improvement is built on getting everyone to do it right the first time (DIRFT)
- Quality improvement is a process ,not a program , and it takes a long time for it to become a normal part of the scene.
- Put everyone in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is every body’s job.
- Quality improvement is not fire fighting ,or removing a sporadic spike. More than that quality improvement raises quality performance to imprecedented or break through levels.
- Repeated use of PDSA cycle.
- All quality improvement takes place project by project. Team work Management must break down barriers between departments. Each department must see other department as internal customer , when this is practiced the barriers begin to fall. Single sourcing of supply There should be a single supplier for any one item , on a long term relationship of loyalty and trust.
CROSBY Cost of quality DEMING JURAN –
- Measurement of quality is the price of non conformance , not indexes.
- Companies should look at the total cost of product or service provided by others , and not just the purchase price.
- Cost Of Poor Quality (COPQ) is the sum of all costs that would disappear if there were no quality problems.
- Price of non conformance is by counting every thing Accepting the lowest bid does not guarantee the lowest total cost. that is spent if every thing was not done right the first time.
- Quality improvement does not come free. Training
- Orientation to the concepts and procedures of quality
- Training should be given on the job.
- Every one should be trained in basic statistical methods.
- Direct skill improvement
- Continual quality data communications. Quality awareness Recognition
- Training boosts morale because it provides workers with a greater sense of security and value and a lower stress level. Share with employees the measurement of what nonconformity is costing to the company.
- Management must eliminate slogans , exhortations and targets asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity from the work force.
- Individual recognition for those who meet their goals or perform outstanding acts. Abolish the annual merit or rating system.
- Instead leader should learn who is in need of individual help , whose work processes show extra good performance. Improve the system and shrink the difference between the people that belong to the system.
CROSBY DEMING JURAN
- Company culture Inspection / defect control The culture of the company is going to change only when all employees absorb the common language of quality and begin to understand their individual roles in making quality improvement happen.
- Leadership must be instituted. The aim of leadership should be to help peaple and machines do a better job.
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Two factors cause defects or mistakes :
- Lack of knowledge and lack of attention. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for mass inspection by building quality into the product in the first place.
- Drive out the fear so that everyone may work effectively for the company. Operator errors can be reduced by : foolproofing , keeping people attentive , training , changing technology , improving communication , establishing accountabilty , removing the error-prone person and motivation.
Quality principles of Deming, Juran and Crosby
- Deming was an experienced statistician who says that management must concentrate on the setting following by improving the systems continuously in which the human resources worked.
- Deming insisted that when working with other employees the managers are important because a better feedback will be obtained from the employees who do the work correctly. Unlike the scientific management approach which involves the managers to set job methods and standards, Deming also insisted the need for training employees in the statistical process and work analysis methods.
- He believed that it gave the ability to the workforce to denote how and where there is a change in the needs (Edwards, 1982).
The quality principle by Joseph M Juran
- Juran worked at the Hawthorne Electricity Plant in Chicago in the 1920s visiting Japan in the early 1850s and his teaching is based loosely on the Pareto principle.
- Juran suggested that typically 95% of the problems of quality at work are the result of a system where the employees work inside the environment.
- So there is a small way to resolve the results by asking to develop the motivation of an employee. His advice was for the managers to specify all major quality problems, highlighting the major problems and if it is worked out will give many advantages and starts the projects to deal with the employees.
- Juran believes that any person who is influenced by the product is specified as a customer by establishing the idea of external and internal customers (Joseph, 1988).
The quality principle by Philip P Crosby
- Crosby an engineer is known for accessing the concept of Zero Defects which was produced at a company he once worked for. Eventually, Crosby became the Corporate Vice President of the ITT Corporation and the Director of Quality. Crosby’s mantra was ‘Quality is Free’.
- Further that it is not an issue of degree. He emphasizes that the management must note the quality by tracking the non-conformance cost and cost of wrong things continually. Crosby denoted that the major point is the requirement of conformance.
Crosby (1980) championed a quality improvement process based on the following four criteria:
- Quality can be referred to as conformance to specifications of the customer.
- A quality system should focus on prevention, not appraisal and detection.
- The standard of a quality should be set at zero defects which must be assumed as total quality.
- The quality measurement is the non-conformance cost that is the incurred cost which undertakes quality management measures.